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“ In its broadest sense, environmental health comprises those aspects of human health, disease, and injury that are determined or influenced by factors in the environment. This includes not only the study of the direct pathological effects of various chemical, physical, and biological agents, but also the effects on health of the broad physical and social environment, which includes housing, urban development, land-use and transportation, industry, and agriculture.”
The built environment encompasses all of the buildings, spaces, and products created, or at least significantly modified, by people.
Health Canada, Health and Environment, 1997.
Land Use (industrial or residential)
Buildings (housing, schools, workplaces)
Public Resources (parks, museums)
How might the built environment influence human health?
Access to medical and other health care
Quality of and access to schools
Healthy food outlets
Ease of social interaction and resulting social capital
Air and water quality
Opportunities for physical activity
The Burden of Physical Inactivity Rich Bell, Project Officer, Active Living by Design*, UNC School of Public Health *A National Program of The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Email: [email_address] Web: www.activelivingbydesign.org
Emergence of a Sedentary Society Rich Bell, Project Officer, Active Living by Design*, UNC School of Public Health *A National Program of The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Email: [email_address] Web: www.activelivingbydesign.org
According to the Center for Disease Controls' Healthy People 2010 Report, the definition of Environmental Health may include housing, urban development, land-use, and transportation. Submit Clear A) True B) False
Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity Among US Adults, Age 20-74 Years* Obese BMI ≥30.0 Percent BMI = body mass index. *Age-adjusted by the direct method to the year 2000 U.S. Bureau of the Census estimates using the age groups 20-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65-74 years. NHANES II 1976-80 (n=11207) NHANES III 1988-94 (n=14468) NHANES 1999 (n=1446) NHANES III 1999-2000 (n=4115) Projected 2008 Overweight or obese BMI > 25.0 Overweight BMI 25.0-29.9
Quotes “ It is the occupation of a child to immerse herself in her environment". “ Lowly, unpurposeful and mundane as they appear, sidewalk contacts are the small change from which a city’s wealth of public life may grow.” Jane Jacobs, The Death & Life of Great American Cities “ There is much more to walking than walking.” Jan Gehl, New City Spaces
Unkempt properties, pollution cited in west Ocala survey By SUSAN LATHAM CARR, STAFF WRITER, Star Banner Residents of west Ocala complain that unkempt lots lower the value of their property. ERICA BROUGH/STAR-BANNER
Indian River County PACE EH Project http://www.myfloridaeh.com/programs/PACE-EH/PACE-EH.htm
What is PACE EH? Submit Clear A) The Packers and Cubs Exchange B) Principles of Community Eating C) Protocols for Assessing Community Excellence in Environmental Health
Studies show association between deteriorated physical environment and higher rates of crime. Safety influences activity.
Transportation Research Board/Institute of Medicine, January 2005
Does the Built Environment Influence Physical Activity?
“ Universities should develop interdisciplinary education programs to train professionals in conducting the recommended research and prepare practitioners with appropriate skills at the intersection of physical activity, public health, transportation, and urban planning.” http://trb.org/publications/sr/sr282.pdf
Florida ranked 38 th in the U.S. in highest rate of adult obesity at 20.7%.
64.5% of adult Americans overweight or obese.
“… .Decisions about where we build new houses and highways or schools and sidewalks can mean the difference between giving people more or less opportunity to participate in physical activity.” – Parris Glendening, former Governor of Maryland, president of Smart Growth Leadership Institute.
Need smarter design, including evaluation of health impacts of new building efforts, updating existing development, and encouraging design that promotes and integrates space, sidewalks, public transportation…in new development.
An Ounce of Prevention… http://healthyamericans.org/
Cost to reinforce the walls vs. Cost to rebuild New Orleans
Cost to promote smart growth vs. cost of obesity (Obesity cost estimate is $100 billion) 29 Colditz, GA. Economic costs of obesity and inactivity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 1999; S664-5.
Pick the Smart Growth Principles in this List Submit Clear A) Mix Land Use B) Put assets in New Communities C) Create New Roads for Faster Access to Destinations D) Provide a Variety of Transportation Choices E) Encourage Community & Stakeholder Collaboration
One study examined environmental variables, such as the presence or absence of sidewalks, heavy traffic, hills, street lights, unattended dogs, enjoyable scenery, frequent observations of others exercising, and high levels of crime.
Positive environmental determinants of physical activity included enjoyable scenery (presence associated with more activity), whereas the greatest perceived barrier was the lack of a safe place to exercise.
Research indicates that two of the main reasons given for not exercising are lack of structures or facilities (such as sidewalks and parks) and fears about safety.
Overall, higher levels of perceived neighborhood safety are associated with higher levels of physical activity.
King AC, et al. Personal and environmental factors associated with physical inactivity among different racial-ethnic groups of U.S. middle-aged and older-aged women; Health Psych 2000:19(4):354-64. CDC.
Neighborhood safety and the prevalence of physical inactivity-selected sates, 1996. Mor Mortal Wkly Rep 1999:48(7):143-6.
Pate RR, et al. Physical Activity and Public Health: A recommendation from the CDC and the American College of Sports Medicine. JAMA 1995;273(5):402-7.
“ The freedom and adventure of walking to school has been replaced with overscheduled and oversupervised kids. As Royce Yeater of the National Trust for Historic Preservation puts it, consumers demand free-range chickens for their table but won’t let their kids out of the house.” – USA Today, 1/25/2005, Trek to school not like it used to be, by Martha Moore
“ Our sense of happiness is created by many things that are not easily measured in purely economic terms, including a sense of community and purpose, the amount and content of our leisure and even our sense of the environmental and ecological stability of the world around us …A clearer understanding of what makes humans happy-not merely more eager consumers or more productive workers-might help begin to reshape those assumptions in a way that has a measurable and meliorating outcome on the lives we lead and the world we live in.”