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Unit 7 Power Point

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Transcript

  • 1. Atomic Structure
    Unit 7 – Physical Science
  • 2. Atomic Particles
    Proton
    Neutron
    Electron -
    +
    N
    Protons and Neutrons together are called Nucleons
  • 3. Atomic Number is the number of Protons
    Atomic Mass is Protons and Neutrons together
  • 4. Proton
    Positively charged particle
    Resides in the nucleus
    Weighs 1 Atomic Mass Unit (AMU)
    Repel other protons
    The number of protons determines the element number.
    +
  • 5. Proton
    Positively charged particle
    Resides in the nucleus
    Weighs 1 Atomic Mass Unit (AMU)
    Repel other protons
    The number of protons determines the element number.
    +
    Which element would this be?
    +
    +
    +
    +
    +
  • 6. Proton
    Positively charged particle
    Resides in the nucleus
    Weighs 1 Atomic Mass Unit (AMU)
    Repel other protons
    The number of protons determines the element number.
    +
    Which element would this be?
    Carbon
    +
    +
    +
    +
    +
  • 7. Too Many Protons
    Protons repel each other due to the electromagnetic force
    If an element has too many protons, it will be unstable and will break apart.
    +
    +
  • 8. Too Many Protons
    This is why all elements over #82 Lead are radioactive!
    In addition, none over #94 Plutonium exist naturally.
    +
    +
  • 9. Neutron
    N
    A Neutron has a neutral charge
    Neutrons weigh 1.001 AMU
    Resides in the nucleus
    It does not affect the elemental or chemical properties of the atom
  • 10. Neutron
    A Neutron has a neutral charge
    Neutrons weigh 1.001 AMU
    Resides in the nucleus
    It does not affect the elemental or chemical properties of the atom
    It does provide additional nuclear force to hold the nucleus together
    N
  • 11. Isotopes
    Isotopes result from different numbers of neutrons in an element
    Isotopes are chemically the same
    They only differ in their mass and their nuclear stability
    N
    +
    N
    N
    +
    N
    N
    +
    +
    N
    +
    +
    +
    +
    N
    N
    N
    N
    N
    +
    N
    +
    +
    +
    N
    N
    Carbon-12 C12
    Carbon-14 C14
  • 12. Strong Nuclear Force
    The strong nuclear force is the force that holds the nucleus together.
    All Nucleons are attracted to each other.
    Because + protons repel each other (electromagnetic force), the presence of neutrons helps bind the nucleus together.
    Electromagnetic Force
    +
    N
    N
    N
    +
    +
    Strong Nuclear Force
    Strong Nuclear Force
    Strong Nuclear Force
  • 13. Atomic Stability
    The more protons there are, the more neutrons are necessary to stabilize the nucleus.
    Note that Helium has 2p/2n ratio
    Lead has 82p/125n ratio
    2
    82
    Pb
    He
    4
    207
    Helium
    Lead
  • 14. Atomic Mass
    Atomic mass is the average of all isotopes on Earth together.
    To figure out the number of neutrons, just go AtomicMass-Atomic # = Neutrons
    He 4-2=2 neutrons Pb 207-82 = 125 neutrons
    2
    82
    Pb
    He
    4
    207
    Helium
    Lead
  • 15. Atomic Stability
    The more protons there are, the more neutrons are necessary to stabilize the nucleus.
  • 16. Electrons
    Electrons are negative particles
    Electrons weight 0.001 AMU
    They reside outside the nucleus in the electron cloud
    They usually match the number of protons to make a neutral atom
    -
  • 17. This is the relative scale
    +
    -
    Except the proton should be 10x bigger!
  • 18. This is Hydrogen
    Hydrogen
    +
    -
    1
    H
    1
  • 19. What is a Neutron Anyways?
    OK, so you’ve heard that Neutrons are neutral and weigh 1.001 AMU
    Do you notice any pattern here?
  • 20. What is a Neutron Anyways?
    Think of a Neutron as a Proton and Electron stuck together.
  • 21. What is a Neutron Anyways?
    Think of a Neutron as a Proton and Electron stuck together.
    N
  • 22. Beta Decay?
    When an isotope has too many neutrons, a neutron will emit a β-particle
    (which is basically an electron)
    This causes the neutron to change from neutral to positive (i.e. a proton).
    This actually changes the element it is!
  • 23. Beta Decay
    N
    19
    K
    40
    Potassium
  • 24. Beta Decay
    Potassuim-40 with 19 protons becomes Calcium-40 with 20 protons!
    +
    β-
    19
    20
    K
    Ca
    40
    40
    Potassium
    Calcium
  • 25. What about Electrons?
    Electrons reside outside the nucleus in the electron cloud
  • 26. Models of ElectronsRutherford Model
  • 27. Models of ElectronsBohr Model
    Energy Levels
  • 28. Energy Levels
    When energy is added, electrons can jump to higher energy shells.
    When that electron returns to its normal state, that energy is released (often as light).
    That is how a fluorescent or neon light works.
    Electricity is exciting air molecules
  • 29. Models of ElectronsClouds
  • 30. Heisenburg Uncertainty Principal
    Heinsenburg realized it is impossible to knkow both an electrons position and velocity at the same time.
    That is because the moment you detect its position, you have changed its velocity – and vice-versa.
  • 31. Why the uncertainty?
  • 32. Why the uncertainty?
    You know where it was, but now
    you have changed its direction and speed.
  • 33. Quantum Mechanics
    Probability densities
    The electrons do not appear to move in patterns, but simply seem to flash on and off in different locations.
    It is described as being almost like a instantaneous transporter
  • 34. Models of ElectronsOrbitals