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Theory intro Theory intro Presentation Transcript

  • THE THEORIES & THEORETICAL UNDERPINNINGS OF CLINICAL MENTAL HEALTH COUNSELING
  • THEORETICAL UNDERPINNINGS?
    • un·der·pin·ning / ˈə nd ə r ˌ pining/
    • • a solid foundation laid below to support or strengthen.
    • a set of ideas, motives, or devices that justify or form the basis for something:
    • the theoretical underpinnings of clinical mental health counseling.
  • MY DEFENITION OF THE STANDARD
    • The Theories & Theoretical Underpinnings of Counseling Include:
      • Systems of Foundational Beliefs, Techniques, & Goals
      • Aimed at Supporting the Growth, the Health, & the Well Being of Clients
  • ELEVEN MAIN THEORIES
            • Psychoanalytic
            • Adlerian
            • Person-Centered
            • Existential
            • Gestalt
            • Behavior
            • Cognitive Behavior (CBT)
            • Reality
            • Feminist
            • Postmodern
            • Family Systems
  •  PSYCHOANALYTIC 
    • Founded by Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson
    • Irrational Forces and Unconscious Motivation
          • Resolution of Psychosexual & Psychosocial Issues
    • The Division of Personality
          • Id, Ego, Superego
    • Make the Unconscious Conscious
          • Free Association, Interpretation, Dream Analysis, Transference
    • Classical VS Modern Relationship
          • Classical: remains anonymous
          • Modern: here-and-now interactions
    • Lengthy and Expensive Process
  •  ADLERIAN 
    • Founded by Alfred Adler and Rudolf Dreikurs
    • Humans Influenced More by Social Forces
          • Creation of Lifestyle in Early Childhood
          • Social Interests, Sense of Belonging, Place in Society
    • Focus on Reeducation and Reshaping Society
          • Helping Clients Reach their Full Potential
          • Inferiority Leads to Creativity, and Striving for Mastery, Superiority, and Perfection
    • Clients Viewed as Active Participants
          • Family Constellation, Early Recollections
          • No Specific Set of Techniques
  •  EXISTENTIAL 
    • Founded by Viktor Frankl, Rollo May, Irvin Yalom, & James Bugental
    • Universal Themes - Six Key Propositions:
        • We have the capacity for self-awareness
        • Because we are free beings, we must accept responsibility
        • Concern to preserve uniqueness, identity and relation to others
        • Meaning of life is not fixed - re-create ourselves through projects
        • Anxiety is part of the human condition
        • Death is a basic human condition, awareness gives life significance
    • An Invitation to Make Choices & Live Authentically
    • Collaborative Relationship & Journey of Self-Discovery
    • Understanding the Client’s World & their Perspective
    • No Set Techniques
  • PERSON  CENTERED
    • Founded by Carl Rogers
    • Client has Capacity for Resolving Life Problems
          • Stresses an active role and responsibility of the client
    • Use of Therapeutic Relationship for Self-Exploration
    • Emphasis on Attitude & Characteristics of Therapist
          • Genuineness, Accurate Empathy, Warmth, & Respect
          • Full participation of therapist, understand world of the client
          • Active listening, clarification, reflection of feelings, presence
    • Expressive Arts Therapy
          • Movement, Drawing, Painting, Sculpting, Music, Writing
          • Integrates mind, body, emotions, and spiritual resources
  •  GESTALT 
    • Founded by Fritz & Laura Perls
    • Stresses Here-&-Now Awareness
          • Help people experience the present moment more fully
          • Gain awareness of what they are doing
    • “ What” & “How” of Behavior
          • Knowing the environment, accepting oneself, making contact
    • Unfinished Business Preventing Present Functioning
    • Blocks to Energy, Attention to Body & Nonverbal
    • Who the Therapist is & What They Do
          • Presence, Authentic Dialogue, Gentleness, Self-Expression
    • Use of Experiments
          • Role Playing, Empty-Chair Technique
  •  BEHAVIOR 
    • Key Figures: B.F. Skinner, Marsha Linehan
    • Four Phases & Many Additions
      • Linehan Developed Dialect Behavior Therapy
          • Aspects of Zen & Contemplative Practice, Mindfulness Instruction
    • Central Characteristics Uniting Behavior Therapies:
            • Focus on observable behavior
            • Current determinants of behavior
            • Learning experiences to promote change
            • Rigorous assessment and evaluation
    • Identification of Specific Goals at the Outset
    • Widely Applicable, Many Varied Techniques
    • Directive Therapists, Active Clients
  •  COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR 
    • Aaron Beck (CBT) & Albert Ellis (REBT)
    • CBT: Approach and Set Procedures to Change Feelings and Behavior by Modifying Faulty Thinking & Believing
    • REBT: Cognitions, Emotions, & Behaviors Interact Significantly with Reciprocal Cause-&-Effect
    • Eliminate Self-Defeating Outlook & Introduce Schema Restructuring
    • Variety of Techniques Tailored to the Client
      • Disputing Irrational Beliefs, Homework, Role-Playing, Shame-Attacking, Self-Management, & Modeling
    • Treatment of Anxieties, Phobias, Depression
    • Teacher & Student Relationship (REBT)
    • Collaborative Effort in Therapy (CBT)
  •  REALITY 
    • Founder: William Glasser
    • Behavior is Our Attempt to Control Our Perceptions of the External World so they Fit Our Internal Need-Satisfying World
    • Behavior is Purposeful
      • Designed to Close the Gap Between what we Want & what we Perceive we are Getting
    • Teaches Ways to Satisfy Wants & Needs Effectively
        • Counseling Environment & Procedures Leading to Change
        • Assumption that Humans are Motivated to Change
    • Involvement with & Concern for Client from Therapist
        • Warm, Supportive, & Challenging Relationship
    • Good Action Plan = SAMIC
    3
  •  FEMINIST 
    • No Single Founder - Many Female Contributors
    • Psychological Oppression & Socialization that Affects Identity Development
    • Eight Basic Philosophies:
      • Liberal, Cultural, Radical, Socialist, Postmodern, Women of Color, Lesbian, & Global/International
    • Six Goals from a Sociocultural Perspective
        • Equality, Balancing Inter/Independence, Self-Nurturance, Empowerment, Social Change, & Valuing Diversity
    • How Clients Define Themselves & Relate to Others are Inevitably Influenced by Gender-Role Expectations
    • Techniques from Many Traditional Approaches
  •  POSTMODERN 
    • Insoo Kim Berg, Steve de Shazer, & Others
    • Approaches Include:
        • Social Constructionism, Solution-Focused Brief, Narrative
    • Collaborative Relationship, Consultative Counselor
    • Many Stories About Creation of Meaning
        • There is No Absolute Reality
    • Client’s Ability to Construct Solutions & Alternate Stories
    • Range of Techniques
        • Externalize Problem & Focus on Strengths & Resources
  •  FAMILY SYSTEMS 
    • Various Founders & Systems:
      • Adlerian, Bowenian, Human Validation, Experiential, Structural-Strategic
    • How Interaction of the Parts Influences the Whole
      • Assessment of Self & Family Interaction
    • Interventions to Modify Underlying Structure
    • Understand & Modify Coping Strategies & Patterns
    • Techniques Include:
            • Family Interaction
            • Reframing
            • Multigenerational Genogram
            • Detriangulation
    • Resolve Anxiety Without Projecting Feels on Others
            • Establish Clear Boundaries Between Family Members
    • Avoid the Target or Scapegoat
  • ? WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT ?
    •  A Thorough Understanding of Techniques Increases Effectiveness
    •  An Inexperienced or Negligent Therapist can Cause Harm to a Client
    • Examples:
          • Case of Gary Ramona - Implanting False Memories
          • Bogust v. Iverson - “Mere Teacher” Not Liable for Client Suicide
          • CBT Therapist who is Overly Confrontive or Persuasive
          • Powerful and Manipulative Methods of Gestalt
          • Fostering of Client Dependency