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  • Notes to lecturers: This is the main idea of inculcating Islamic teachings and values into architecture. Respecting these ties means we are observing all teachings and values in Islam.
  • Week architecture updated

    1. 1. AED1313 Introduction to Built Environment Compiled by Department Of Architecture And Environmental Design Centre For Foundation Studies International Islamic University Malaysia
    2. 2. Contents  What is architecture?  Overview of the architect’s profession  Architectural Styles  Vernacular VS Indigenous architecture  Islamic architecture  Sustainable and ecological design
    3. 3. ARCHITECTURE?  The art and science of designing and constructing  buildings or open area, commune areas and other artificial constructions or environment  usually with some regard to aesthetic  Its basic function is to provide shelter for various human activities by enclosing space.
    4. 4. Architect’s Act  The architect of Malaysia are bound under the Architects Act 1967 (Revise 1973) that provides statutory authority to architects in implementing their responsibilities under the supervision of the Board of Architects, Malaysia.
    5. 5. The Profession  Science + Art  To produce a structure as well as creating forms  To visualize the interior as well as the exterior of a building  To ensure the accommodation related to requirements of inhabitants  To ensure form and construction of the building are appropriate to function of the building and its setting
    6. 6. Architect’s Scope of Work  Building and designing  Master planning  Interior designing  Project managing  Building graphics – Computer Graphics, Presentation  Drawings and model making
    7. 7. (1) Designing the building (2) Preparation of drawing (3) Supervision of Construction Work Architect’s Work Stages
    8. 8. Stage 1: Designing the building  Advice client on suitability/feasibility of project  Forming project brief according to client’s requirements  Helping client in the estimation of project’s cost  Suggest to client possible parties for design consultant team  Designing in collaboration with other consultants  Compliance of design with government requirements:  drawing submission to authorities e.g. DBKL, Bomba, JKR  Prepare Developed design/detailed design  preparation of contract  Arrange meetings at regular intervals with client, consultant and other during design stage  Act as the middle party between the client and consultants/contractor
    9. 9. 1. Identify the Problem 2. Prepare The Design Brief 3. Investigation & Research 4. Identify Possible Solutions 5. Choose Best Solution 6. Develop Solution 7. Implement Solution 8. Test Solution 9. Evaluate & Report Findings
    10. 10.  Presentation of design drawing for early discussion with client.  Design drawing for early cost estimation  Detail and comprehensive working drawings for project tendering and construction Stage 2: Preparation of drawings
    11. 11. Stage 3: Supervision of Construction Works  Briefing to all consultants and contractors on the building design  Arrange meetings for construction progress at regular intervals  Arrange visit to construction site at regular intervals  Organize appropriate payment/process to contractor  Ensure contractor to:  Work according to design  Follow authority regulation and contract agreement  Coordinate with consultants regarding other disciplines’ drawing  Control the work to not exceeding the cost of building
    12. 12. Architectural Practice  Single  small scale company  owned by an individual  handle small scale projects ○ housing and renovation  Partnership  consists of few partners/principle and associates  Advantages ○ easy to get projects ○ easy to delegate jobs/projects ○ segregation of office management/ control  most practices commonly found in Malaysia
    13. 13. Architectural Practice  Group Practice/ Consortia  Recent trends especially in large government projects ○ Putrajaya, KLIA, KLCC and Bukit Jalil  Group of architectural practices/firms form a group to work on one major project for a common client  Normally a project management firm will be coordinating or organizing project
    14. 14. Architectural Practice  Personnel normally found in an architectural firm :  Principle / Director  Architect – Design Architect, Project Architect  Residence Architect  Assistant Architect  Technical Assistant  Draughtsman – Senior, Intermediate and junior  General Worker – Clerk of Work  Administration Staff
    15. 15. Professional Bodies  PAM – Pertubuhan Arkitek Malaysia  Provides council, Committee members, Malaysian architectural policies, by Laws, Constitution and news  LAM – Lembaga Arkitek Malaysia  Provide Acts, regulations, registrations, accreditation,publications and practices informations
    16. 16. How to register as an ARCHITECT?  Those who have obtained qualifications recognized by LAM and PAM are exempted from the Part I & II examination. The Part 3 Examination is mandatory for every would-be architect. Upon passing the Part 3 Examination, one may become a member of PAM and register with LAM as an Architect. ○ Excerpt from http://www.pam.org.my/career_guidance.asp
    17. 17. Career Opportunities  Government or Public Architect  Corporate/Professional Architect  Project Manager  Specialist in CADD  Researcher  Consultant or Advisor  Graphic Illustrator  Academician  Developer, Entrepreneur, Contractor, Manufacturer, Software programmer
    18. 18. TOPIC 2
    19. 19. Definition  An architectural style is a specific method of construction, characterized by the features that make it notable. A style may include such elements as form, method of construction, materials, and regional character. Most architecture can be classified as a chronology of styles which changes over time. These may reflect changing fashions, changing beliefs and religions, or the emergence of new ideas and new technology which make new styles possible.
    20. 20.  Pre-Historic  Islamic  Classical Greece and Rome  Mediavel Europe  Reinassance  Neo Classicism  Revivalism and orientalism  Industrial Revolution  Modernism Architecture Style
    21. 21. Architecture Style Pre-historic Islamic Classical Mediavel Reinassence Neo-Classicism
    22. 22. Architecture Style Revivalism Orientalism Industrial Revolution Modernism Post-Modern Deconstructivism
    23. 23.  Architecture style in Malaysia have been influenced by various source since the earliest period of maritime and navigation and exploration in this part of this world (Asian).  The invasion of European colonial power (Portuguese, Dutch and British) gave big impact on the Architectural typologies in Malaysia.  Religion, economic and cultural activities influenced the pattern of architectural typologies especially on domestic usage.  Usage of appropriate materials, consideration of climate possesses as a design principle that are still relevant for Contemporary Architecture. Architecture Style in Malaysia
    24. 24.  Pre-Historic-tomb, altars  Islamic – Mosque, Sultanate of Malacca Period, Traders from India and Arab.  Malay house  Mediavel Europe- Church, fortification (Portuegese)  Reinassance/Clasisicism – Governor’s House (Dutch)  Colonial Architecture- British Invasion.  Shop houses, temples- Chinese/Indian.  Modern- After Independence- public buildings. Architecture Style in Malaysia
    25. 25. Architecture Style in Malaysia Pre-Historic Islamic Malay House Mediavel Reinassance Colonial Temple Shop houses
    26. 26. Architecture Style in Malaysia Modern/Post Modern – 1960-1980 Modern- 1990-2000
    27. 27. TOPIC 3
    28. 28. Definition  A term used to categorize methods of construction which use locally available resources and traditions to address local needs.  Vernacular architecture tends to evolve over time (accepted civilization) to reflect the environmental, cultural and historical context in which it exists.  Vernacular IS NOT Indigenous  All indigenous architecture IS vernacular architecture
    29. 29. Influences in Vernacular Architecture  Local climate & site condition  Culture & the way of life  Local materials & construction methods  Energy & resource efficient
    30. 30. Case Study: Traditional Malay House  Built without architect  Display of a good fit to the culture, lifestyle and socio-economic needs of the user  The honest and efficient use of materials and appropriate climatic design  High degree of user and community participation  A sense of belonging and responsibility to the built environment  Creates a well-designed and healthy living environment which it self maintained
    31. 31. Case Study: Traditional Malay House  Low-cost, affordable and self-reliant  Efficiently designed to suit the local climatic requirements using various ventilation and solar-control devices and low thermal capacity building  Built with natural materials like wood, attap & other forest products  Raised on stilts  A prefabricated building system which is flexible and varied to suit the needs of the users
    32. 32. Kelantan House
    33. 33. TOPIC 4
    34. 34. Islamic Architecture  Definition  History  Principles  Renown buildings
    35. 35. Definition  Encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Islam to the present day, influencing the design and construction of buildings and structures in Islamic culture.
    36. 36. Principles  Relying both on the technical-scientific and on the artistic-creative principles of architecture.  The relationship between architecture and the Islamic creed found its expression in the monotheist spirit as a religious foundation, and in the very Islamic precepts, principles, and traditions.
    37. 37. Ties with Allah Ties with the environment Ties with fellow man Basic Principles of Islamic Architecture
    38. 38. Principles  Adapted and responded to different cultures and existing traditions of buildings without weakening the spiritual essence which was its source of inspiration. ▪ (Sources: Jones, D: Architecture of the Islamic World; Islamic Arts and Architecture Organisation)
    39. 39. Characteristics  Based on Islamic values  Common character:  Worshipping ○ Encourage Muslim to abide His Laws ○ Decoration is to represent the beauty of Jannatulfirdaus  Human Scale ○ designed for human (privacy, natural ventilation, water elements, etc) ○ Internal space is richly ornamented  Unity ○ Authentic identity
    40. 40. Notable buildings in Islamic Architecture history  Mosque  Madrasa  Souq/ Market  Caravanserai  Hammam
    41. 41. Mosque components 1. Prayer Hall 2. Mihrab 3. Mimbar 4. Dikka 5. Kursi 6. Kolah 7. Minaret 8. The Archway ( Eyvan/Iwan)
    42. 42. The main components of a mosque – contd.
    43. 43. The main components of a mosque - contd. The Mihrab, minbar, DikkaThe prayer hall The iwan ( Eyvan): Jama’ Masjid, Delhi
    44. 44. Main components of a mosque- contd. The Kursi The kursi is basically a bookstand on which the Muslim holy book, the Qur'an, is placed. The Kolah/pool The minaret Minaret of the Muhammed Ali Mosque, Cairo Fountain in the Courtyard of the Mohammed Ali Mosque, Cairo
    45. 45. Mosque decoration/ornamentation 1. Khat writing 2. Muqarnas 3. Water element 4. Light 5. Geometry
    46. 46. Variety of Khat writing : 1. Deewani 2. Khufi 3. Naskh 4. Riqa 5. Taliq 6. Thuluth Khat writing
    47. 47. 1. Deewani 3. Naskh 2. Khufi 4. Riqa
    48. 48. 5. Taliq 6. Thuluth
    49. 49. Muqarnas The shape of this three dimensional geometry is unique in islamic architecture. The earliest was found in the 11th century. Muqarnas
    50. 50. Water element as decoration
    51. 51. Light as element in mosque Muqarnas inside the dome Colourful window in Suleymaniye Mosque, Istanbul. Highly intricate screen in Fatehpur Sikri, India.
    52. 52. Geometric patterns make up one of the three non-figural types of decoration in Islamic art, which also include calligraphy and vegetal patterns. Geometry The door The wall screen The dome
    53. 53. Caravanserai in Karaj, Iran from the Safavid era Caravanserais provided water for drinking (for animals and people), and for washing and ritual ablutions. Sometimes they even had elaborate baths. They also kept fodder for animals and had shops for travellers where they could acquire new supplies. Caravanserai
    54. 54. Bazaar A bazaar (Persian: ‫,بازار‬ Hindi: बज़ार) is a marketplace, often covered, typically found in areas of Persian, Indian and some Islamic culture. The word derives from the Persian word bāzār, whose etymology goes back to the Pahlavi word baha-char (‫)بهاچار‬ meaning "the place of prices". ( WIKIPEDIA)
    55. 55. Market
    56. 56. TOPIC 5
    57. 57. Sustainable Design?  Also called environmental design, environmentally sustainable design, environmentally-conscious design, etc.)  Def.: The philosophy of designing physical objects, the built environment, and services to comply with the principles of economic, social, and ecological sustainability.  Its application range from the microcosm — small objects for everyday use, through to the macrocosm — buildings, cities, and the earth's physical surface.
    58. 58. Sustainable Design?  Can be applied in the fields of architecture, landscape architecture, urban design, urban planning, engineering, graphic design, industrial design, interior design, and fashion design.  The intention: To "eliminate negative environmental impact completely through skillful, sensitive design".  A general reaction to global environmental crises, the rapid growth of economic activity and human population, depletion of natural resources, damage to ecosystems, and loss of biodiversity.
    59. 59. Common Principles of SD  Use Low-impact materials  choose non-toxic, sustainably-produced or recycled materials which require little energy to process  Energy efficiency  use manufacturing processes and produce products which require less energy  Quality and durability  longer-lasting and better-functioning products will have to be replaced less frequently, reducing the impacts of producing replacements.
    60. 60. Common Principles of SD  Design for reuse and recycling  Products, processes, and systems should be designed for performance in a commercial 'afterlife'.  Apply Design Impact Measures for total carbon footprint and life-cycle assessment for any resource used ○ It is increasingly required and available. ○ Healthy Buildings - sustainable building design aims to create buildings that are not harmful to their occupants nor to the larger environment. An important emphasis is on indoor environmental quality, especially indoor air quality.
    61. 61. Common Principles of SD  Renewability  materials should come from nearby (local or bioregional), sustainably- managed renewable sources that can be composted when their usefulness has been exhausted.

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