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  • 1. Digestive System
  • 2. Vocabulary
    • __________ - life function by which humans use for energy, growth, and repair
    • ___________- mouth
    • ___________- wave of muscular contractions
    • __________- microscopic parts that help with absorption in the small intestine
    • ____________- bile movements (semi solid stored in rectum)
    • _____________ - splitting by adding water (break down od big pieces into smaller ones)
    Nutrition Oral Cavity villi Peristalsis feces Hydrolysis
  • 3. Let’s Review
    • One of the Life Process that are similar in ALL Living things is nutrition.
      • Nutrition is needed for growth, repair, and energy.
      • In order for us to us nutrition we need to break down the nutrients into small enough pieces that they can reach each cell.
      • Our bodies need a healthy diet this includes the right amount of protein, carbs, fats, and minerals
  • 4. So how do we get these nutrients in our bodies? I Don’t know!!! Let me sleep! OOOOHHHH. I know…. Digestive System
  • 5. Digestive System Overview
    • There are four parts to digestion
    • __________- taking in food
    • ___________- mechanical and chemical breakdown of food so that it can be absorbed by the cells
    • ______________ : cells lining the digestive tract take up (absorb) small nutrient molecules
    • ________________ : undigested material passes out of the digestive tract
    Ingestion Digestion Absorption Elimination
  • 6. There are two ways digestion breaks up the food
    • 1. Mechanical digestion – physical breakdown of large pieces of food into smaller ones
    • 2. Chemical digestion – hydrolysis – the splitting of large molecules into small, molecules with the use of water and enzymes ( in other words; breaking complex molecules into simple ones)
    • The process of chemical digestion ( hydrolysis ) is controlled by enzymes
  • 7. Examples of Chemical Digestion :
    • 1. Carbohydrates+ water -> simple sugars (glucose for instance)
    • 2. Proteins+ water -> amino acids
    • 3. Lipids+ water -> 3 fatty acids +gylcerol
  • 8. How Does Our Digestive system work?
  • 9. HUMAN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
    • The digestive system is a one way food tube that goes from the Oral Cavity to the rectum.
    • This one way track is called the GI track ( gastrointestinal )
  • 10. Oral Cavity
    • Oral Cavity is a fancy name for a mouth
      • Used to ingest (take in food)
    • Teeth - function in mechanical breakdown of food, increases surface area of food for enzyme action
    • Tongue -
  • 11. Teeth &Tongue
    • Teeth - function in mechanical breakdown of food, increases surface area of food for enzyme action
    • Tongue acts as a plunger to push food back into the throat ( pharynx ) taste buds are located on the surface of the tongue
    • The enzyme reaction is caused by saliva
        • Saliva is secreted (let out) by the salivary glands
        • The saliva’s job is to begin the Chemical digestion of carbohydrates etc..
  • 12. Pharynx
    • Pharynx is another name for the throat
      • The tongue pushes the food to the back of the throat
        • This starts the swallowing
        • food is now in the form of a bolus
      • Epiglottis : flap that prevents choking
  • 13. Esophagus
    • Esophagus : muscular tube that moves food from mouth to the stomach by process of peristalsis : wave of muscular contractions that moves chewed food to stomach
  • 14. Stomach
    • Stomach : J-shaped, sac-like , muscular organ
    • mechanically churns food into a liquid and begins chemical digestion
    • lining secretes gastric juice,
    • stomach empties in about 2-6hrs.,
    • food now liquid called chyme
  • 15. Gastric Juice
    • Components of gastric juice:
      • 1. water-solvent
      • 2. mucus-lubrication
      • 3 . enzyme that begins chemical digestion of protein
      • 4. hydrochloric acid (HCl)
  • 16. Small Intestine
    • the major organ of chemical digestion and nutrient absorption,
    • long twisted tube with small diameter,
    • enzymes and fluids needed to complete chemical digestion come 3 separate sources:
      • 1. intestine itself
      • 2. pancreas-. Small intestine
      • 3. liver-> gallbladder->small intestine
    • Main organ for absorption
    • Villi : fingerlike projections that increase surface area of small intestine contain a network of capillaries for absorption of amino acids and simple sugars into blood, center contains lymph vessel called lacteal which absorbs fatty acids
  • 17. Large Intestine
    • The food now goes into the large intestine
      • It gets the food that has not been digested
      • Usually in a liquid state
      • NO digestion occurs here
      • Reabsorbs the water and solidifies the waste – known as feces
        • the feces are stored at the lower end of the Long Intestine called the rectum
          • Leaves the body through the anus
  • 18. Accessory Organs to the digestive system
    • Even though not part of the food tube there are important organs for digestion
    • This includes
      • Liver
      • Gallbladder
      • Pancreas
  • 19. Liver
    • largest internal organ ( has many functions outside digestion)
      • Makes bile ~ bile NOT an enzyme,)
        • Bile breaks down lipids- breaks them into smaller droplets to increase the surface area for enzymes (lipases) to act on fats
  • 20. Gallbladder
    • small storage sac for bile, carries bile to small intestine
  • 21. Pancreas
    • Pancreas : located near small intestine
      • Produces juices, enzymes, and fluids
        • These enzymes are important to break down complex molecules into soluble end products
          • Such as
            • Glucose
            • Amino acids
            • Fatty acids
            • Glycerol
  • 22. Digestive Homeostasis Disorders
    • 1.Constipation – person has uncomfortable or infrequent bowel movements results from sluggish peristalsis that allows excess water to be removed from feces (fecal matter hardens)- may result from insufficient fiber in diet
    • 2 . Diarrhea – opposite of constipation– associated with intestinal disturbances caused by infections or stress– prolonged diarrhea may result in severe dehydration
    • 3. Gall stones – small hard particles made of cholesterol which form & collect in gall bladder- may block the bile duct and cause pain
    • 4. acid reflux -backflow of stomach contents upward into esophagus
    • 5. appendicitis - inflammation of appendix