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  1. 1. Minerals By: Rabbi Goldberg
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>The lithosphere is made of one or more naturally formed materials called ROCK. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All Rocks are made up minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monominerelic – made up of one mineral </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polymineralic- a rock made up of more than one mineral </li></ul></ul></ul>One Mineral
  3. 3. Minerals <ul><li>Minerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are naturally occurring, inorganic crystalline solid materials with definite chemical composition, structure, and specific physical properties </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Scientist have discovered over 2,400 minerals in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Around 12 of them make up 90% of all the rocks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These minerals are nicknamed rockformers. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Characteristics of minerals in rocks <ul><li>Minerals can be made up of one element or more than more element </li></ul><ul><li>The most abundant ( plenty of ) element is oxygen with silicon coming in #2 </li></ul>
  6. 6. How can we tell what type of mineral were are looking at? <ul><li>Minerals are identified based upon physical and chemical properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Luster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleavage vs fracture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Streak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crystal form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc……. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Color <ul><li>The outside color of the mineral can help identify very few minerals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Such as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfur </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>This is most minerals have more than one color and very few have a distinct color </li></ul>
  8. 8. Hardness <ul><li>Hardeness- is the resitence of a mineral being scratched </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard mineral will make a mark on a softer mineral </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Hardness continued <ul><li>Moh’ Scale of Hardness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>List 10 minerals from soft to the hardest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>#1 is talc with is the softect mineral </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>#10 is diamonds which is the hardest mineral </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By using this list we can determine which minerals will scratch the other </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Hardness continued <ul><li>For example if a mineral cant scratch quartz but can scratch feldspar What number of harness is it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Answer is ______ </li></ul></ul>6.5
  11. 11. Streak <ul><li>Is the color of powder of a mineral when it is either crushed or scratched on on a streak plate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The color of the mineral might be different then the color of the streak </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Luster <ul><li>Luster </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you would look at the mineral in light what type reflection would it give off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It might shine like metal and therefore would have a metallic luster </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>it might not shine like metal and therefore would be called non metallic luster </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Cleavage vs. Fracture <ul><li>Lets say I would break a mineral </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If the mineral breaks with smooth edges or surfaces it is said to have _______________ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If the mineral has jaggered or rough surface by the break then it is said to be _______________. </li></ul></ul></ul>cleavage fractured cleavage fractured
  14. 14. Crystal formation <ul><li>This depends on the atomic structure of the mineral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the mineral formed under the amount of pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two mineral with similar properties can be distinguished by their crystal formation </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Specific gravity <ul><li>The ratio of the weight of a mineral to equal volume of water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A mineral with specific gravity 3.0 will be 3x heavier then the equal volume of water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific gravity = density </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Special Properties <ul><li>Some mineral have special properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcite will bubble carbon dioxide when dropped in hydrochloric acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Halite – tastes salty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetite – is magnetic </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Mineral Properties <ul><li>Minerals are crystalline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The atoms inside are bonded in a particular way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two mineral with the same chemical composition (make up) CAN HAVE DIFFERENT PROPERTIES </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graphite and diamonds are both chemically made up the same materials </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diamonds are under extreme pressure and therefore their crystalline composition is closer together and stronger than graphite </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>