The nervous system


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The nervous system

  1. 1. The Nervous System
  2. 2. Human Regulation <ul><li>In humans and animals regulation is done by the nervous and endocrine system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are some differences and some similarities between the two systems </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Similarities between the Endocrine and Nervous system <ul><li>Both secret chemical messages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nervous system secretes – neurotransmitters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endocrine – secretes hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BOTH PLAY A MAJOR ROLE IN HOMEOSTASIS </li></ul>
  4. 4. Differences between the Endocrine and Nervous system <ul><li>Nervous system response is much much faster </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve response is shorter in duration than endocrine </li></ul>
  5. 5. Human Nervous system <ul><li>What is a neuron? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A neuron is the basic cell of the nervous system </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. There are three types of neurons. <ul><li>Sensory Neurons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmit ( sends messages) from receptors to the central nervous system ( fire is hot) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are located near the sensory organs such as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eyes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ears </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tongue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skin </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Interneuron <ul><li>Another type of neurons </li></ul><ul><li>Located mainly in the central nervous system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s job is to interpret and relay the information from the sensory neurons to the motor neurons </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Motor Neurons <ul><li>Transmit impulses from the central nervous system to the effectors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effectors are glands and muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These messages cause the effectors to respond </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( fire is hot pull hand back) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. So what are nerves? <ul><li>Nerves are groups of neurons or parts of neurons specialized for high speed and long distances impulse transmission </li></ul><ul><li>They can be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>motor neurons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory neurons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or mixed </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Nerves <ul><li>Most nerves have a fatty sheath </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure not touching other nerves or tissues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>A neuron is a long cell that consists of three regions: a cell body , dendrites , and an axon. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Nerves continued <ul><li>Dendrites- receive impulses and carry them toward the cell body </li></ul><ul><li>Axon- carries impulses away from the cell body and toward other neurons, muscles, or glands. </li></ul><ul><li>Cell body - contains the nucleus </li></ul>
  12. 12. How does it work <ul><li>Resting - no impulse, cell is polarized ( + on outside & - on inside) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium/Potassium pump in axon using ATP maintains this polarity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Impulse : stimulus excites neuron </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Na+ gates open </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Na+ goes inside, therefore inside becomes more + </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depolarization occurs ~ a nerve impulse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impulse moves in one direction </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Connection between Neurons <ul><li>Synapse : gap between neurons or neurons and effectors </li></ul><ul><li>Neurotransmitter : chemical, such as acetylcholine, which, when secreted aid in the transmission of of an impulse across a synapse. </li></ul>
  14. 14. There are two parts to the Nervous System <ul><li>Central Nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral Nervous system </li></ul>
  15. 15. Central Nervous System (CNS) <ul><li>There are two main parts to the CNS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spinal Cord </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Brain <ul><li>Is a large mass of neurons located in the head </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for controlling and coordinating most activities of the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebrum: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conscious activities </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary activity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebellum: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinates motor activity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medulla Oblongata: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>involuntary activities such as breathing, & heart rate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Spinal Cord <ul><li>Lies within the vertebrae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bones of the spinal column </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spinal cord is connected to the Medulla </li></ul><ul><li>It is the center for reflex activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not require activity from the brain to give off a response </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reflex actions – are inborn reflexes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex blinking </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Peripheral Nervous system <ul><li>Is located outside the CNS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It contains nerves that extend throughout the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are two parts to the PNS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Somatic nervous system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomic nervous system </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Somatic Nervous system <ul><li>These neurons deal with voluntary actions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>run </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Play </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Swing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hit </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Autonomic nervous system <ul><li>Generally deal with involuntary acts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breathing glands </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Malfunctions of the nervous system <ul><li>Listed are some of the malfunctions of the nervous system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebral Palsy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meningitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stroke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polio </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Cerebral Palsy (CP) <ul><li>A group of diseases you are born with which disturb the motor functions </li></ul><ul><li>Person still has normal mental capacity but </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speach and motor function are distorted </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Meningitis <ul><li>Inflammation of the membrane that surrounds the spinal cord and brain </li></ul>
  24. 24. Stroke <ul><li>Caused by a cerebral Hemorrhage ( burst of blood vessels) or a blood clot in the brain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May cause brain damage or death </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Polio <ul><li>Viral disease in the CNS may cause paralysis </li></ul><ul><li>Can be prevented through immunization Shots </li></ul>