ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI like to acknowledge the following on the threshold of my achievement and successful completion of project entitled “KNITTING” I sincerely acknowledge with deep sense of gratitude and encouragement received from my project Mentor Ms. NEHA, Lecturer, TEXTILES whose guidance helped me to accomplish the objective of the project for guiding me throughout the project and providing with valuable time & information whenever needed by me.I would like to thank the members of JD FASHION INSTITUTE for their cooperation. In addition, to the entire respondent who have spared their valuable time in answering my questions & queries. Last but not the least, would like to thank my family & friends who would have been great support throughout my work.NIKITA GARG
WHAT IS KNITTING ? Knitting is a method by which thread or yarn may be turned into cloth or other fine crafts. Itis a fabrication process i.e. intermeshing series of loops of one or more yarns or from a setof yarns.Knitted fabric consists of consecutive rows of loops, called stitches. As each rowprogresses, a new loop is pulled through an existing loop. The active stitches are held on aneedle until another loop can be passed through them. This process eventually results in afinal product, a garment.Knitting may be done by hand or by machine.Different yarns and knitting needles may be used to achieve different end products bygiving the final piece a different color, texture, weight, and/or integrity. Using needles ofvarying sharpness and thickness as well as different varieties of yarn can also change theeffect.Knitted fabrics is the third major class of fabric, after woven and nonwoven fabrics.
WEAVING V/S KNITTINGLike weaving, knitting is a technique for producing a two-dimensional fabric made from a one-dimensional yarn or thread.In weaving, threads are always straight, running parallel either lengthwise (warp threads) orcrosswise (weft threads). By contrast, the yarn in knitted fabrics follows a meandering path(a course), forming symmetric loops (also called bights) symmetrically above and below the meanpath of the yarn. These meandering loops can be stretched easily in different directions, which givesknitting much more elasticity than woven fabrics; depending on the yarn and knitting pattern, knittedgarments can stretch as much as 500%.For comparison, woven garments stretch mainly along one direction (the bias) and are not veryelastic, unless they are woven from stretchable material such as spandex. Knitted garments areoften more form-fitting than woven garments, since their elasticity allows them to follow the bodyscurvature closely.Thread used in weaving is usually much finer than the yarn used in knitting, which can give theknitted fabric more bulk and less drape than a woven fabric.
CHARACTERISTICS• Knitted fabric is unique in that it possesses a high order of elasticity and recovery. It can be stretched to a considerable length and yet will gradually return to its original shape or conformation.• Design patterns can be changed quickly to meet fashion needs. Process is less expensive and faster regardless of fabric width.• The knitted structure is porous. It allows the skin to breathe freely. Its elasticity permits greater freedom of body movements.• Knitted fabrics have higher potential shrinkage than woven fabrics. The accepted standard is 5 percent for knits.• Knits are less likely to wrinkle during use, care, packing and storage.• Air permeability arising from its looped structure, imparts to it desirable and appealing properties.
DEFECTS IN KNITTED FABRICS• SKEWING• BOWING OR TWISTING• NEEDLE RUN• KNOTS• SLUB• FABRIC RUN• BARRE• PRESS OFF• SPIRALITY
FORMATION OF A KNIT STITCH(1) Start position (2) Clearing (3) Latch opening
FORMATION OF A KNIT STITCH(4) Feeding (5) Drawing (6) Knock over
STRUCTUREThere are two main industrial categories of machine knitting : warp knitting and weft knitting.Fabrics in both these categories consist essentially of a series of interlinked loops of yarn.• Warp Knit Warp knitting is the process of making a fabric in which the loops form in a vertical or warp wise direction; the yarn is prepared as warp on beams with one or more yarns for each needle. The fabric has a flatter, closer, less elastic knit than weft knit and is very often run resistant.• Weft Knit Weft knitting is the most common type of knitting, it is the process of making a fabric by forming a series of connected loops in a horizontal or filling-wise direction; produced on both flat and circular knitting machines.
WARP AND WEFT KNITTING• In the more common weft knitting, the wales are perpendicular to the course of the yarn.• In warp knitting, the wales and courses run roughly parallel.• In weft knitting, the entire fabric may be produced from a single yarn, by adding stitches to each wale in turn, moving across the fabric as in a raster scan.• Weft-knit fabrics may also be knit with multiple yarns, usually to produce interesting color patterns. The two most common approaches are intarsia and stranded color work.• In intarsia, the yarns are used in well-segregated regions, e.g., a red apple on a field of green; in that case, the yarns are kept on separate spools and only one is knitted at any time.
PRINCIPLE OF KNITTINGLOOP AND STITCH The loop is the fundamental element of all knitted fabrics. It is a basic unit consisting of a loop of yarn meshed at its base with previously formed basic units (stitches). Components of a knitting loop are the needle loop and the sinker loop.• A needle loop is one which has been drawn through a previous loop.• A sinker loop is one which connects adjacent needle loops. The stitch is the smallest dimensionally stable unit of all knitted fabrics. It consists of a yarn loop, which is held together by being intermeshed with another stitch or other loops. There are three basic knitted stitches : KNIT, TUCK and MISS (float or non-knit) which form the starting point for the entire range of weft knitted structure
KNIT STITCHES• Knit stitch (technical face) : is of V-shape appearance where the shanks are above, and the feet are below the head of the preceding stitch.• Purl stitch (technical back) : is of the semi-circle appearance where the legs are below, and the feet are above the head of the preceding stitch.• Tuck stitch : is made when a needle rises to take a new loop without casting off the old. It consists of a held loop and a tuck loop, both of which are intermeshed in the same course.• Miss stitch (Float) : A length of yarn not received by a needle and connecting two loops of the same course that are not in adjacent wales.
KNITTING METHODSKnitting was originally done by hand on straight or round needles by slipping stitches fromone needle to the other and making a new stitch with each change.While hand knitting continues, the main commercial product now is turned out by machine.A knitting machine is a device used to create knitted fabrics in a semi or fully automatedfashion.There are numerous types of knitting machines, ranging from the simple, non-mechanical, tothe highly complex and electronic. All, however, produce various types of knittedfabrics, usually either flat or tubular, and of varying degrees of complexity.Pattern stitches can be selected by hand manipulation of the needles, or with push-buttonsand dials, mechanical punch cards, or electronic pattern reading devices and computers.
KNITTING NEEDLES • SPRING – BEARD NEEDLESThis needle consists of a top hook curveddownwards with a finished tip and thedownward continuation is called beard. • LATCH NEEDLEIt consists of a hook portion at the top and alatch riveted at certain distance from theneedle head. Latch needles are given slidingmovements in individual grooves calledtricks of the cylinder. • COMPOUND NEEDLEThe speed of the bearded needle machine isrestricted by two factors. The presserrequired to close or open the beard and thelength of the beard.
FLATBED MACHINESIn flat knitting, the fabric is usually turned after every row. However, in some versions of doubleknitting with two yarns and double-pointed knitting needles, the fabric may turned after everysecond row.A flat knitting machine is very flexible, allowing complex stitch designs, shaped knitting andprecise width adjustment. It is, however relatively slow when compared to a circular machine.The two largest manufacturers of industrial flat knitting machines are Stoll of Germany, andShimla Seiki of Japan. But the pioneer of flat knitting machine is MATSUYA, Japan.
FASHION MACHINESFully fashioned knitting machines are flat knitting machines that produce custom pre-shaped pieces ofa knitted garment.Instead of knitting a whole rectangular sheet of fabric, instructions from a knit pattern on a punch cardor computer file guide a fully fashioned knitting machines needles to add or drop stitches to createcustom two-dimensional shapes appropriate to the desired finished garment structure. The piecesemerge from the machine ready to be sewn together.
CIRCULAR MACHINESCircular knitting or knitting in the round is a form of knitting that creates a seamless tube. Whenknitting circularly, the knitting is cast on and the circle of stitches is joined. Knitting is worked inrounds (the equivalent of rows in flat knitting) in a spiral.Originally, circular knitting was done using a set of four or five double-pointed needles. Later, circularneedles were invented, which can also be used to knit in the round: the circular needle looks like twoshort knitting needles connected by a cable between them. Longer circular needles can be used toproduce narrow tubes of knitting for socks, mittens, and other items using the Magic Looptechnique.
FLAT KNITTING VERSUS CIRCULAR KNITTING• Circular knitting (also called "knitting in the round") is a form of knitting that can be used to create a seamless tube. Knitting is worked in rounds (the equivalent of rows in flat knitting) in a helix.• Flat knitting, on the other hand, is used, in its most basic form, to make flat, rectangular pieces of cloth. It is done with two straight knitting needles and is worked in rows, horizontal lines of stitches.• Circular knitting is employed to create pieces that are circular or tube-shaped, such as hats, socks, mittens, and sleeves.• Flat knitting is usually used to knit flat pieces like scarves, blankets, afghans, and the backs and fronts of sweaters.
INDUSTRY TYPES 1. Knitting (Fabric Manufacturing by weft or warp knitting technique)2. Knitted Garments (Panel knitting, cutting & assembling or Fully Cut Garments made from knitted Fabrics or Integral Garments) 3. Knitted Fabric & Garments (Fabric knitting and garment manufacturing in the same factory premises)
AUXILIARY INDUSTRIES TO KNITTING • Embroidery • Label Making • Packing Materials • Laminating • Needle Making• Sewing threads, elastic tapes, buttons, appliqués etc.
KNITTED GARMENTS UNITS • Knitwear (Cut & Stitch and Fully-fashioned, such as sweaters and cardigans)• Knitted Fabric Garments (Fully Cut & Stitch Type such as T-Shirts, Lady’s Tops, Shorts, Skirts, and under wear) • Integral Garments (Knitted in circular form, require little or no cutting & seaming, such as Socks, stockings, panty hose, and now whole garments)
WHAT DO KNITTING MANUFACTURING UNITS DO ? • Procure yarns (Wool, acrylic, blended etc.) • Knit panels (front, back, arms) • Cut or Trim to shapes • Assemble panels (Stitch, overlock, link) • Add-on (buttons, appliqués, embroidery etc.) • Finish (stain remove, shrink, mill, scour, and steam press) • Sell in domestic market or export
KNITTING INDUSTRY CLUSTERS In India we have 3 distinguishable prime cluster• Knitted fabrics and garment manufacturing (KFG)• Knitwear manufacturing (KM)• Warp Knitted fabrics (WK) Some industries are located at secondary and tertiary clusters within or without prime cluster.
SHARE OF KNITTED GARMENTS IN THE WORLD 40 35Compared to worldshare of knitted 30garments productionand consumption level 25of knitted garments inIndian is low. 20 WORLD SHARELately it has picked up 15 INDIAN SHAREan upward trend. 10 5 0 KNITTED GARMENS SHARE
GROWTH OF KNITTING INDUSTRYModern Knitting Industry is quite young in our country.Indian Textile and Clothing industry which turned to be a sunrise industry in the recent past, itsimportance lies in the fact that with the market size, it is the 2nd largest industry in India, contributesroughly 20% to the total industrial output and 8% to GDP and about 31% to the country’s exportearnings, provide employment to about 40 million persons i.e. 18% of the country’s workforce.With the end of the quota regime, India and China alone are regarded as major clothiers of theWorld. Major Developed Countries, EU and USA have placed restraints on exports of garments fromChina which will be in place until end 2008.This is the opportunity for India to seize and establish herself to take away the leadership fromChina.It is under such circumstances that India needs to plan her strategy and make India an alternative toChina as a sourcing hub. Major importers of garments have already taken the initiative to sourcefrom India.Though during the last two decades, the Knitting Industry in India has grown up magnificently, yetlooking at the performance of our competitors in the International Market, we visualize that IndianKnitting Industry has not ripen to the extent so as to withstand the challenge of our competitors fully.
LUDHIANA KNIT INDUSTRY• Ludhiana is a leading industrial town of the north Indian State of Punjab and an important center of textile and allied industry. More or less it accounts for about 21 percent of all industrial units and over 28% of the industrial output of the State of Punjab.• Ludhiana is a leading producer of woolen and acrylic knitwear, although it also uses extensively cotton and other blended fibers to produce a wide range of fabrics, hosiery, knitwear and ready- made garments. Consisting of both registered and unregistered units, almost 99% of the ready- made garments, textiles and hosiery industry in Ludhiana are small scale.• Historically, the domestic market has been the main consumer of textile and garment industry’s products and it has been growing significantly in recent years as income levels among India’s middle class go up and fashion conscious young adult consumers increase.
CONCLUSION• We should all concentrate on using cotton and allied yarn in Knitting industry for value addition for the economic upliftment of our country rather than selling raw materials like cotton and cotton yarns as it is.• Initiate more reforms and extend the TUF facility for another five years if it really wishes Indian Knitting and Knit garment industry capture a major chunk in the International Market and contribute to the major economic development of the country.• Government should reform its Labor Policy and make it industry friendly This would further encourage the setting up of new units.• Government should reduce the transaction costs from the present 11% to 4% which is still higher than the international 2%.• Government should refund taxes, duties and subsidies on export production in time.• Government should strive for a uniform Taxation Policy for all States. This will help all round uniform development of all the States of India and add considerably to the economic growth of India.
TOP FIVE KNIT FABRIC SUPPLIERS IN INDIA • ARADHANA FABRICS ( LUDHIANA ) • 7X INTERNATIONAL ( LUDHIANA ) • SHRI RAM INDUSTRIES ( LUDHIANA ) • GAIKAN EXPORTS ( MUMBAI ) • YASH POLYTEX ( MUMBAI )
THANKYOU !SUBMITTED TO : MS. NEHASUBMITTED BY : NIKITA GARG Vth SEMESTER