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  2. 2. /ACKNOWELDGEMENT/I owe my special thanks to all the great persons whose continuous cooperation lead this project to be successful one.First of all we would like to grant our special thanks to our computer sir Mr. Biswa Ranjan Mishra who helped us a lot in the completion of this project.We would also like to grant our special thanks to our principal sir Mr. Duryodhan Das and our class teacher whose benign effort made this project successful one. We also thanks all teachers who inspired us to achieve this aim.Nigamesh Prasad
  3. 3. Project on :india and space research This project has been designed by:- NIGAMESH PRASAD CLASS-VIII D.A.V. PUBLIC SCHOOL
  4. 4. INDIA MARCH TOWARDS SPACE RESEARCHIndia is one of the developing country in the world. It has achieved many things not only in the field of art and craft but also in the field of space research. Now- a- days the name of india has spreaded to nook and corner of the world. Even if the most developed country like USA have come forward to make deal on nuclear power and exchange ideas in aeronautics field. Space tech. has allowed the nation of India to move into the world of high tech. The contribution of India in the field of science and space research is endless. In recent years India has concentrated much of its space development work on complex application satellites and more useful rockets. The nations two main interests are satellites for remote sensing and communications which are used for weather pictures disaster warning and many other things.
  5. 5. If India is rapidly developing in space programs, all the credit goes to the father of the Indian space program. DR. VIKRAM SARABAI
  6. 6. SATELLITE LAUNCH LAUNCH TYPE OF DATE VECHILE SATELLITE Experimental / Small Aryabhata 19.04.1975 C-1 Intercosmos Satellite C-1 Intercosmos Earth Observation Bhaskara-I 07.06.1979 LIST OF SATELLITES SatelliteRohini Technology SLV-3 Experimental / Small 10.08.1979 Satellite Payload (RTP) Rohini (RS-1)LAUNCHED 18.07.1980 SLV-3 Experimental / Small Satellite BY SLV-3 Earth Observation Rohini (RS-D1) 31.05.1981 Satellite Geo-Stationary ISRO Ariane PassengerPayload Experiment 19.06.1981 Ariane-1(V-3) Satellite (APPLE) Earth Observation Bhaskara-II 20.11.1981 Delta 3910 PAM-D Satellite C-1 Intercosmos Earth Observation INSAT-1A 10.04.1982 Satellite SLV-3 Earth Observation Rohini (RS-D2) 17.04.1983 Satellite
  7. 7. Geo-Stationary INSAT-1B 30.08.1983 Shuttle [PAM-D] SatelliteStretched RohiniSatellite Series 24.03.1987 ASLV Space Mission (SROSS-1) Earth Observation IRS-1A 17.03.1988 Vostok SatelliteStretched Rohini Earth Observation Satellite Series 13.07.1988 ASLV Satellite (SROSS-2) Geo-Stationary INSAT-1C 21.07.1988 Ariane-3 Satellite Geo-Stationary INSAT-1D 12.06.1990 Delta 4925 Satellite Earth Observation IRS-1B 29.08.1991 Vostok SatelliteStretched Rohini Satellite Series 20.05.1992 ASLV Space Mission (SROSS-C) Geo-Stationary INSAT-2A 10.07.1992 Ariane-44L H10 Satellite
  8. 8. Geo-Stationary INSAT-2B 23.07.1993 Ariane-44L H10+ Satellite Earth Observation IRS-1E 20.09.1993 PSLV-D1 SatelliteStretched Rohini Satellite Series 04.05.1994 ASLV Space Mission (SROSS-C2) Earth Observation IRS-P2 15.10.1994 PSLV-D2 Satellite Geo-Stationary INSAT-2C 07.12.1995 Ariane-44L H10-3 Satellite Earth Observation IRS-1C 28.12.1995 Molniya Satellite Earth Observation IRS-P3 21.03.1996 PSLV-D3 Satellite Geo-Stationary INSAT-2D 04.06.1997 Ariane-44L H10-3 Satellite Earth Observation IRS-1D 29.09.1997 PSLV-C1 Satellite Geo-Stationary INSAT-2DT January 1998 Ariane-44L H10
  9. 9. Geo-Stationary INSAT-2E 03.04.1999 Ariane-42P H10-3 Satellite Earth Observation Oceansat(IRS-P4) 26.05.1999 PSLV-C2 Satellite Geo-Stationary INSAT-3B 22.03.2000 Ariane-5G Satellite Geo-Stationary GSAT-1 18.04.2001 GSLV-D1 Satellite Technology Earth ObservationExperiment Satellite 22.10.2001 PSLV-C3 Satellite (TES) Geo-Stationary INSAT-3C 24.01.2002 Ariane-42L H10-3 Satellite KALPANA- Geo-Stationary 12.09.2002 PSLV-C4 1(METSAT) Satellite Geo-Stationary GSAT-2 08.05.2003 GSLV-D2 Satellite Geo-Stationary INSAT-3E 28.09.2003 Ariane-5G Satellite Geo-Stationary INSAT-3A 10.04.2003 Ariane-5G
  10. 10. Resourcesat-1(IRS- Earth Observation 17.10.2003 PSLV-C5 P6) Satellite Geo-StationaryEDUSAT (GSAT-3) 20.09.2004 GSLV-F01 Satellite Earth Observation CARTOSAT-1 05.05.2005 PSLV-C6 Satellite Experimental / Small HAMSAT 05.05.2005 PSLV-C6 Satellite Geo-Stationary INSAT-4A 22.12.2005 Ariane-5GS Satellite Geo-Stationary INSAT-4C 10.07.2006 GSLV-F02 Satellite Geo-Stationary INSAT-4CR 02.09.2007 GSLV-F04 Satellite Experimental / Small SRE - 1 10.01.2007 PSLV-C7 Satellite Earth Observation CARTOSAT - 2 10.01.2007 PSLV-C7 Satellite Geo-Stationary INSAT-4B 12.03.2007 Ariane-5ECA Satellite
  11. 11. Earth ObservationIMS-1 28.04.2008 PSLV-C9 Satellite Earth ObservationCARTOSAT - 2A 28.04.2008 PSLV-C9 SatelliteChandrayaan-1 22.10.2008 PSLV-C11 Space Mission Earth Observation RISAT-2 20.04.2009 PSLV-C12 Satellite Experimental / Small ANUSAT 20.04.2009 PSLV-C12 Satellite Earth Observation Oceansat-2 23.09.2009 PSLV-C14 Satellite Geo-Stationary GSAT-4 15.04.2010 GSLV-D3 Satellite Earth ObservationCARTOSAT-2B 12.07.2010 PSLV-C15 Satellite Experimental / Small STUDSAT 12.07.2010 PSLV-C15 Satellite Geo-Stationary GSAT-5P 25.12.2010 GSLV-F06 Satellite
  12. 12. Experimental / Small YOUTHSAT 20.04.2011 PSLV-C16 Satellite Earth ObservationRESOURCESAT-2 20.04.2011 PSLV-C16 Satellite Ariane-5 Geo-Stationary GSAT-8 21.05.2011 VA-202 Satellite Geo-Stationary GSAT-12 15.07.2011 PSLV-C17 Satellite Earth ObservationMegha-Tropiques 12.10.2011 PSLV-C18 Satellite Experimental / Small SRMSat 12.10.2011 PSLV-C18 Satellite Experimental / Small Jugnu 12.10.2011 PSLV-C18 Satellite Earth Observation RISAT-1 26.04.2012 PSLV-C19 Satellite Ariane-5 Geo-Stationary GSAT-10 29.09.2012 VA-209 Satellite__________________ __________________ __________________ __________________
  13. 13. Some notablescientists of India
  14. 14. Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose (1858-1937) Born 30 November 1858 Bikrampur, Bengal Presidency, British India Died 23 November 1937 (aged 78) Girded, Bengal Presidency, British India Residence Kolkata, Bengal Presidency, British India Nationality British Indian Fields Physics, Biophysics, Biology, Botany, Archaeology, BengaliKnown Literature, Bengali Science Fiction Millimetre waves Institutionsfor University of Calcutta Radio University of Cambridge Cresco graph Plant science University of LondonNotable Companion of the Order of the Alma St. Xaviers College, Calcuttaawards Indian Empire (CIE) (1903) mater University of Cambridge Companion of the Order of the Star of India (CSI) (1911) Notable Satyendra Nath Bose, Meghnad Knight Bachelor (1917) students Saha
  15. 15. Prafulla Chandra Ray(1861-1944) Prafulla Chandra RayBorn August 2 , 1861 Raruli, Khulna,Bengal Presidency(Present day Bangladesh) British RajDied June 16, 1944 CalcuttaNationality British IndianAlmamater Metropolitan Institution Presidency College Edinburgh University
  16. 16. Srinivasa Ramanujan (1887-1920) Born 22 December 1888 Erode, Madras Presidency Died 26 April 1920 (aged 32) Chetput, Madras, Madras Presidency Residence Kumbakonam Nationality Indian Fields Mathematics Alma mater Government Arts College Pachaiyappas College Academic G. H. HardyInfluence advisors J. E. Littlewoods Known for Landau–Ramanujan constant G. H. Hardy Mock theta functions Ramanujan conjecture Ramanujan prime Ramanujan–Soldner constant Ramanujan theta function Signature Ramanujans sum Rogers–Ramanujan identities Ramanujans master theorem
  17. 17. Sir C. V. Raman (1888-1970) Born 7 November 1888 Thiruvanaikoil, Tiruchirappalli, Madras Province, British India Died 21 November 1970 (aged 82) Bangalore, Karnataka, India Nationalit Indian y Fields Physics Institutio Indian Finance Department[1] ns University of Calcutta Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science Indian Institute of Science Central College, Bangalore University Raman Research InstituteNotable awards Alma Knight Bachelor (1929) University of Madras mater Nobel Prize in Physics (1930) Doctoral G. N. Ramachandran Bharat Ratna (1954) students Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai Lenin Peace Prize (1957) Known for Raman effect
  18. 18. Meghnad Saha(1893-1956)Born 6 October 1893 Shaoratoli, Dhaka, Bengal, Bri tish IndiaDied 16 February 1956 (aged 62)Residence IndiaNationality IndianFields Physics and MathematicsInstitutions Allahabad University University of Calcutta Imperial College London Indian Association for the Cultivation of ScinceAlma mater Dhaka College University of CalcuttaKnown for Thermal ionisation Saha ionization equation
  19. 19. Satyendra Nath Bose(1894-1974)Born 1 January 1894 Calcutta, India (now Kolka ta)Died 4 February 1974 (aged 80) Calcutta, IndiaResidence IndiaNationality IndianFields Physics and MathematicsInstitutions University of CalcuttaAlma mater University of CalcuttaKnown for Bose–Einstein condensate Bose–Einstein statistics Bose gasNotable Padma Vibhushanawards Fellow of the Royal Society[1]
  20. 20. Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar (1894-1955) Born 21 February 1894 Shahpur, British India Died 1 January 1955 (aged 60) New Delhi, India Residence India Citizenship India NationalityDoctoral Indianadvisor Frederick G. Donnan Fields ChemistryKnown for Institutions Council of Scientific and CSIR India Industrial Research Banaras Hindu UniversityNotable Padma Bhushan (1954)awards Knighthood (1941) Alma mater University of the Punjab OBE (1936 University College London
  21. 21. Homi Jehangir Bhabha (1909-1966) Born 30 October 1909 Bombay, British India, Present-day India Died 24 January 1966(aged 56) Mont Blanc, France Residence New Delhi, India Citizenship IndiaAlma Elphinstone Collegemater Royal Institute of Science Nationality Indian University of Cambridge Fields Nuclear PhysicsDoctoral Institutions Atomic Energy Commission Ralph H. Fowleradvisor of IndiaOther Tata Institute ofacademic Paul Dirac Fundamental Researchadvisors Cavendish Laboratory Indian Institute of ScienceKnown for Indian nuclear programme Trombay Atomic Energy Cosmic Rays Establishment point particles Alma mater Elphinstone CollegeNotable Royal Institute of Science Padma Bhushan (1954)awards University of Cambridge
  22. 22. Subramaniam Chandrasekhar (1910-1995) Born October 19, 1910 Lahore, British India Died August 21, 1995 (aged 84) Chicago, Illinois, United States Residence United States Citizenship India (1910–1953) United States (1953–1995)Doctoral Donald Edward Osterbrock,Roland Fields Astrophysicsstudents Winston, F. Paul Esposito Institutions University of ChicagoKnown for University of Cambridge Chandrasekhar limit Alma mater Presidency College, MadrasNotable Nobel Prize in Physics (1983) Trinity College, Cambridgeawards Copley Medal (1984) Doctoral National Medal of Science (1966) R.H. Fowler advisor Padma Vibhushan (1968)
  23. 23. Vikram Sarabhai (1919-1971) Born 12 August 1919[1][2] Ahmedabad, India Died 30 December 1971 (aged 52) Halcyon Castle, Kovalam inThiruvana nthapuram, Kerala, India Residence India Nationality Indian Fields PhysicsKnown for Indian space program Institutions Indian Space Research Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad Organisation Physical Research LaboratoryNotable Padma Bhushan (1966) Alma materawards Padma Vibhushan(posthumously) University of Cambridge (1972) DoctoralSpouse advisor Sir C. V. Raman Mrinalini Sarabhai
  24. 24. C. R. Rao (1920 - )Born 10 September 1920 (age 92)Hadagali, Kingdom of Mysore, British IndiaResidence India, United Kingdom, United StatesCitizenship United States[1]Fields Mathematics and StatisticsInstitutions Indian Statistical Institute Cambridge University Penn State University University at Buffalo, The State University of New YorkAlma mater Andhra University University of Calcutta Kings College, CambridgeDoctoral Ronald FisheradvisorDoctoral V. S. Varadarajanstudents S. R. Srinivasa Varadhan
  25. 25. K. Chandrasekharan (1920 -)Born November 21, 1920 (age 91),MadrasFields Number theoryInstitutions TIFR, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule ZürichAlma mater Madras UniversityDoctoraladvisor K. Ananda Rao
  26. 26. Har Gobind Khorana (1922 -2011 ) Born January 9, 1922 Raipur, Punjab British India (now part of Pakistan) Died November 9, 2011 (aged 89) Concord, Massachusetts,U.S Residence India/Pakistan, United States,United Kingdom Citizenship United States[1] Fields Molecular biology Notable Nobel Prize in awards Medicine (1968),GairdnerInstitutions MIT (1970–2007) Foundation International University of Wisconsin, Award, Louisa Gross Horwitz Madison(1960–70) Prize, Albert Lasker Award for University of British Columbia(1952– Basic Medical Research, Padma 60) Vibhushan Cambridge University (1950–52) Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Alma University of the Punjab Zurich (1948–49) mater University of Liverpool
  27. 27. G. N. Ramachandran(1922-2001)Born 8 October 1922 Madras, Madras Presidency,British IndiaDied 7 April 2001 (aged 78) Bangalore, Karnataka, IndiaNationalit IndianyFields BiophysicsInstitutio Indian Institute of Sciencens Cavendish LaboratoryAlma Madras Universitymater University of CambridgeDoctoraladvisor C V RamanKnown for Ramachandran plot
  28. 28. Harish Chandra (1923-1983) Born 11 October 1923 Kanpur, British India Died 16 October 1983 (aged 60) Princeton, New Jersey, United States Residence United States Citizenship United States[1] Fields Mathematics, Physics Institutions Indian Institute of ScienceNotable awards Harvard University Columbia University Fellow of the Royal Tata Institute of Society[2] Fundamental Research Cole Prize Institute for Advanced Srinivasa Ramanujan Study Medal Alma mater University of Allahabad University of Cambridge
  29. 29. M. K. Vainu Bappu(1927-1982)Honorary Belgium Academy ofForeign Sciences[1]FellowHonorary American AstronomicalMember Society[1]Vice- International AstronomicalPresident Union (1967–73)[1] International AstronomicalPresident Union (1979)[1]
  30. 30. IMS-1 AT A GLANCE Launch Date -28.04.2008 IMS-1, previously referred to as TWSat (ThirdWorld Satellite), is a low-cost microsatelliteimaging mission of ISRO (Indian SpaceResearch Organization). INDIAN MICRO SATELLITE (IMS-1) has beenlaunched as co-passenger along with Cartosat-2A on 28-Apr-2008 onboard PSLV-C9. The microsatellite bus IMS-1 provides 3- axis stabilizationwith a mission life of 2 years.
  31. 31. Orbit Polar Sun Synchronous Altitude 635 km Life 2 yearsPhysical Dimensions 0.604x0.980x1.129 m Mass 83 kg Two deployable sun pointing solar panels Power generating 220 W power, 105 Ah Lithium ion batteryTelemetry, Tracking S-band and Command Star Sensor,Altitude and Orbit Miniature Sun Sensors, Magnetometers Gyros, Control System Miniature Micro Reaction Wheels, Magnetic Torques, single 1 N Hydrazine Thruster Data Handling S-band Data Storage 16 Gb Solid State Recorder
  32. 32. All about ims-1INDIAN MICRO SATELLITE (IMS-1) has been launched as co-passenger along with Cartosat-2A on 28-Apr-2008 onboard PSLV-C9.The micro satellite bus IMS-1 provides 3- axis stabilization with amission life of 2 years.IMS-1 is the first satellite in the micro satellite seriesenvisaged to provide satellite platform within 100 kgclass of payloads for earth images, space science,atmosphere, ocean studies etc. It carries two payloadsviz., Four Band Multi Spectral CCD Camera (MxT) &Hyper Spectral Imager (HySi-T). The spacecraft isdesigned such that payload will be earth pointing duringimaging operations and solar panels will be sun pointingduring nonimaging periods for maximum powergeneration. The Hyper-spectral imager first flownonboard IMS-1 to evaluate and validate the payload issimilar to the one flown in Chandrayaan-1 mission.
  33. 33. Payloads The Multi-spectral CCD camera is a 4- Bandcamera with ground resolution of 37 meters andswath of 151 Km enabling real time imaging andits data reception in near real time and dataproduct generation by the users. The payload canbe used for the purpose of natural resourcesmanagement like agriculture, forest coverage,land use as well as disaster management. Thefour spectral bands B1, B2 and B3 can be used forgenerating Natural Colour Composite DataProducts and bands B2, B3, and B4 are used forFalse Colour Composite Data Products. Thesebands are selected keeping in mind theapplication of natural resource management.
  34. 34. Hyper Spectral Imager (HySi-T) is one ofthe two onboard imaging payloads. It is animager for ocean and atmosphere study ofearth surface in large number of bandswith high spectral resolution. Theinstrument shall have 64 bands in thespectral zone from 400 nm to 950nm. Theimager using specific optics will collectand focus the solar reflection from theearth’s surface on to an area detector. Thecollecting optics for HySI-T is amultielement lens assembly with a thermalfilter at the front.
  35. 35. Rise of a newdawn
  36. 36. Some pictures of ims
  37. 37. kepler 22bKepler-22b is an extra solar planet orbiting G-type star Kepler-22.It is located 600 light years away from Earth in theconstellation of Cygnus. It was discovered by NASAs KeplerSpace Telescope and is the first known transiting planet toorbit within the habitable zone of a Sun-like star. Discoveryand observation. The planets first transit in front of its hoststar was observed on Keplers third day of scientificoperations, 12 May 2009. The third transit was detected inlate 2010. Additional confirmation data was provided bythe Spitzer Space Telescope and ground-based observations.On December 5, 2011, the confirmation of the existence ofKepler-22b was announced.
  38. 38. Special images by IMS-1
  39. 39. Physical characteristicsKepler-22bs radius is roughly 2.4 times the radius of Earth. Its mass andsurface composition remain unknown, with only some very rough estimatesestablished: it has less than 124 Earth masses at the 3-sigma confidence limit,and less than 36 Earth masses at 1-sigma confidence. The HabitableExoplanets Catalog gives a mass estimate of 6.36 Earth masses (and a radiusof just 2.10 Earth radii) for the planet as of October 2012,after initiallyestimating it at ~10-35 Earth masses.Kepler-22b might be an "ocean-like" world. It might also be comparable to thewater-rich planet GJ 1214 b although Kepler-22b, unlike GJ 1214 b, is in thehabitable zone. An Earth-like composition is ruled out to at least 1-sigmauncertainty by radial velocity measurements of the system.It is thus likely tohave a more volatile-rich composition with a liquid or gaseous outershell; this would make it similar to Kepler-11f, the smallest known gasplanet."If it is mostly ocean with a small rocky core," Natalie Batalha, one of thescientists on the project, speculated, "its not beyond the realm of possibilitythat life could exist in such an ocean."This possibility of life hasspurred SETI to perform research on top candidates for extraterrestrialintelligence. However, if the planets carbon cycle has ceased due to lack ofoceans and plate tectonics, Kepler-22b may turn out to be a searing, sterilesuper-Venus.
  40. 40. My destination
  41. 41. DESCRIPTIONAccording to our introduction, We would send satellites to the planet Kepler. One main satellites and 7 extra satellites would be sent to Kepler which would remain connected with the main sattelite. The main satellite on high altitude and the remaining 7 would move over its surface to study the thickness of the and depth of water. Among those 7 satellites, one would examine all the gases present in the atmosphere of Kepler 22b.
  42. 42. If NASA’S project named :GRAVITY RECOVERYwill be modified soon then it would be sent with our satellites then we would be able to check the gravity of the planet Kepler. It would be only possible if they grant us thier kind help.
  43. 43. Nothing isimpossible
  44. 44. Some may have only heard about it while some would not have heard about the term neutrino. In this satellite I’m going to use neutrino as a propellant in my self designed space craft. Neutrino is an electrically neutral, weakly interacting elementary subatomic particle with half-integer spin.The neutrino (meaning "small neutral one" in Italian) is denoted by the Greek letter ν (nu). All evidence suggests that neutrinos have mass but that their mass is tiny even by the standards of subatomic particles. Their mass has never been measured accurately.
  45. 45. How to obtain neutrino?In 1942 Wang Ganchang first proposed the use of beta-capture toexperimentally detect neutrinos. In the July 20, 1956 issueof Science, Clyde Cowan, Frederick Reines, F. B. Harrison, H. W.Kruse, and A. D. McGuire published confirmation that they haddetected the neutrino, a result that was rewarded almost fortyyears later with the 1995 Nobel Prize.In this experiment, now known as the Cowan–Reines neutrinoexperiment, antineutrinos created in a nuclear reactor by betadecay reacted with protons producing neutrons and positrons:νe + p+ → n0 + e+The positron quickly finds an electron, and they annihilate eachother. The two resulting gamma rays (γ) are detectable. Theneutron can be detected by its capture on an appropriate nucleus,releasing a gamma ray. The coincidence of both events – positronannihilation and neutron capture – gives a unique signature of anantineutrino interaction.