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Indian aerospace since independence


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Describes how India emerged in the field of Aerospace.

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Indian aerospace since independence

  1. 1. Development of Indian Space Science since Independence Kiran Hanjar S M.Tech MSRIT
  2. 2. • To know how Indian Space Science has been emerged • What are the satellites has been launched • Applications of those satellites
  3. 3. 1950-1970: * Though ancient Indians were known to have knowledge about rocket science, It was only after independence that the process of exploring space really accelerated. * Indian scientists and politicians recognized the potential of rocket technology in defence applications, and for research and development. * Dr. Vikram Ambalai Sarabhai was the architect of the Indian space program * Then established the Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) with Dr. Sarabhai as Chairman in 1962. * The RH-75, the first sounding rocket developed by India, was launched from TERLS on November 20, 1967 * On August 15th 1969 the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was created from the INCOSPAR programme
  4. 4. 1970-1980: * Once feasibility of using satellites for applications as wide as direct television broadcasting was known and this study had found that it was the most economical way of transmitting such broadcasts * ISRO set about designing and creating an independent launch vehicle, capable of launching into orbit * India about to build the technology and infrastructure for the Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV) Aryabhata- India’s first satellite * Aryabhata was launched on April 19, 1975 by an Intercosmos Rocket of erstwhile USSR * It carried Instruments for X-ray astronomy, Solar Physics and Aeronomy Experiments
  5. 5. INDIAN LAUNCH VEHICLES * By 1979 the Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV) was ready to be launched from a newly-established second launch site, the Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) * The first launch in 1979 was a failure * The first indigenous launch vehicle SLV-3 was tested successfully in 1980 * India developed two experimental satellite launch vehicles SLV-3 and ASLV SLV-3 ASLV
  6. 6. 1980-1990: * The ASLV was flight tested in 1987, but this launch was a failure. After minor corrections, another launch was attempted in 1988, this launch again failed * Design of the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) was soon underway Indian National Satellite System (INSAT): * The Indian National Satellite (INSAT) system is one of the largest domestic communication satellite systems in the Asia-Pacific region. * INSAT System established in 1983, is a multi-purpose system for telecommunications, television broadcasting and radio networking, meteorology and disaster warning. * The satellites of INSAT system, which are in service today, are INSAT-2F, INSAT-3A, INSAT-3B, INSAT-3C, INSAT-3E, KALPANA-1, GSAT-2, EDUSAT and INSAT-4D was launched recently.
  7. 7. * Telecommunications * A total of 590 telecommunication terminals * 10,070 two-way speech circuits * 354 BSNL VSATs * 57 high speed VSAT networks * Mobile satellite service * TV Broadcasting * Covers over 90% of the Indian population and 65% of the Indian landmass * 40 Doordarshan TV channels and 47 private TV channels * Cyclone warning services * Through 350 receivers in coastal regions * Meteorological * INSAT Meteorological data for weather forecasting * 300 Meteorological data collection platforms * Search and rescue operations
  8. 8. * India has the largest constellation of Remote Sensing Satellites, which are providing services both at the national and global levels * The satellites of IRS system which are in service today are IRS-1C, IRS- ID, IRS-P3, OCEANSAT-1, Technology Experimental Satellite (TES), RESOURCESAT-1, and the recently launched CARTOSAT-1 capable of taking stereo pictures. * The latest Remote Sensing Satellite are Cartosat-2, RISAT (Redar Imaging Satellite) and Oceansat-2.
  9. 9. * Under National Natural Resources Management System(NNRMS), projects at national level are carried out by NRSA Hyderabad, SAC Ahmedabad, RRSSCs located at Bangalore, Dehradun, Jodhpur, Kharagpur, Nagpur and NE-SAC Shillong. * Agriculture * * * Surface water mapping Run-off forecasting Reservoir sedimentation and drainage congestion studies Ground water potential zone mapping Environment * * * * Crop condition assessmen Water Resources * * * * * Crop acreage and production estimation Atmospheric constituents and aerosols Land-air-ocean interaction Past climate data modeling Geoscience * * * Geological mapping Geomorphological mapping Mineral targeting
  10. 10. * Disaster warning and management * * * * * Flood damage management Flood risk zone mapping Monitoring of volcanic eruption and underground coal fire Forest fire and risk mapping Ocean applications * * * * Potential Fishing Zone(PFZ) mapping Monitoring of navigational channels Coastal zone mapping Coral reef mapping
  11. 11. 1990-2000: * In 1992 the first successful launch of the ASLV took place. At this point the launch vehicle, which could only put very small payloads into orbit, had achieved its objective * In 1993 the time had come for the maiden flight of the PSLV. The first launch was a failure * The first successful launch took place in 1994, and since then, the PSLV has become the workhorse launch vehicle – placing both remote sensing and communications satellites into orbit, creating the largest cluster in the world, and providing unique data to Indian industry and agriculture * Continual performance upgrades have increased the payload capacity of the rocket significantly since then. Typical Parameters of PSLV Lift-off weight 295 tonne Pay Load 1600 kg in to 620 km Polar Orbit, 1060 kg in to Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) Height 44 metre
  12. 12. A Timeline 1990-2000 * June 12, 1990: INSAT-1D * July 10, 1992: INSAT-2A launched * July 23, 1993: INSAT-2B * December 7, 1995: INSAT-2C * June 4, 1997: INSAT-2D * April 3, 1999: INSAT-2E launched by Ariane from Kourou French Guyana * May 26, 1999: Indian Remote Sensing Satellite, IRS-P4 (OCEANSAT), launched by Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C2) along with Korean KITSAT-3 and German DLR-TUBSAT from Sriharikota
  13. 13. 2000-2010: Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle: * The GSLV was successful on its very first test flight. After its successful second flight on 8 May 2003, it was commissioned * This was followed by the success of its third flight on 20 September 2004 * The GSLV is capable of launching 2,000 kg class satellites into Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) * The development of Indigenous cryogenic stage to be used as the third stage of GSLV made further progress during the year * The cryogenic engine which forms part of this stage, has already been successfully qualified * GSLV-Mk III, a new version of GSLV and capable of launching spacecraft weighing upto 4 tonnes to GTO is under development. Typical Parameters of GSLV Mark III Lift-off weight 630 Tonne Pay Load 4 Tonne in to Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) Height 42.4 metre
  14. 14. Satellites launched from 2000-2010 * October 22, 2001: PSLV-C3 successfully launched three satellites — Technology Experiment Satellite (TES) of ISRO, BIRD of Germany and PROBA of Belgium. * September 12, 2002: PSLV-C4 successfully launched KALPANA-1 satellite from Sriharikota * 2004: Maiden operational flight of GSLV (GSLV-F01) launched EDUSAT from SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota (September 20, 2004) * 2005: PSLV-C6 carries CARTOSAT-1 and HAMSAT satellites from Sriharikota on May 5, 2005 into orbit. * Launch of INSAT-4A by Ariane from Kourou French Guyana, (December 22, 2005). * 2007: * ISRO launches India’s CARTOSAT-2 and Space Capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE-1) and Indonesia’s LAPAN-TUBSAT and Argentina’s PEHUENSAT-1 at one go on January 10, 2007. * Successful recovery of SRE-1 from Bay of Bengal after it reenter the earth’s atmosphere on January 22, 2007 – a crucial operation that will help India in mastering the know how of reentering earth atmosphere from space.
  15. 15. * 2008: * • PSLV-C10 successfully launches TECSAR satellite under a commercial contract with Antrix Corporation on January 21, 2008. * • PSLV-C9 successfully launches CARTOSAT-2A, IMS-1 and 8 foreign satellites from Sriharikota on April 28. * Chandrayaan-1 launched by a modified version of the PSLV XL on 22 October 2008 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh at 06:23 IST * Moon Impact Probe lands on Moon`s south pole on November 14, 2008 * 2009: * On April 20 PSLV-C12 successfully launches RISAT-2 * Earth observation satellite named Oceansat-2 was successfully launched by PSLV-C14 on September 23
  16. 16. 2010-2012: * 2010: * Geo-Stationary satellites such as GSAT-4 and GSAT-5P were launched by GSLV * STUDSAT, an experimental small satellite was launched on July 12 * 2011: * Megha-Tropiques which is an Earth observation satellite was successfully launched by PSLV-C18 on November 12 * 2012: * On April 26 PSLV-C19 successfully launched RISAT-1 * Ariane-5 VA-209 carried GSAT-10 on September 29 and launched into Earth’s orbit
  17. 17. International Cooperation * India has cooperative agreements with several countries/space agencies * Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station established in 1963 was dedicated to UN in 1968 * Satellite instructional television experiment (SITE) using ATS-6 satellite of NASA(1975-76) * Satellite telecommunications experiment project (STEP) using Franco-German symphonie satellite(1977-79) * Launch of India’s communication satellite APPLE by European space agency on board Ariane(1981) * German MOS payload on board IRS satellite(1996) * Megha-Tropiques, a collaborative satellite mission with France to study tropical atmosphere and climate related aspects * TAUVEX, an ultraviolet astronomical telescope from Israel to fly on board GSAT-4 * India is a member of international charter for space and major disasters * Establishment of UN-sponsored centre for space science and technology education for Asia Pacific in India * India’s first scientific mission to moon, Chandrayaan-1, to carry European space agency, US and Bulgarian payloads * This apart, an Italian scientific instrument will be included onboard India’s OCEANSAT * An Indian scientific instrument to study solar physics and solar-terrestrial sciences will be flown onboard Russia’s CORONAS-PHOTON satellite.
  18. 18. THANK YOU