Coral triangle vs climate change
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Coral triangle vs climate change

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    Coral triangle vs climate change Coral triangle vs climate change Presentation Transcript

    • Coral Triangle vs. Climate Change Hanny Tioho, coloqium PS. IPA, Pasca-Sarjana UNSRAT, 13 Juni 2012, Manado
    • Coral Triangle (Segitiga Karang) (1) Indonesia, (2) East Timor, (3) Philippines, (4) Malaysia (Sabah), (5) Papua New Guinea, (6) Solomon Islands. Hanny Tioho, coloqium PS. IPA, Pasca-Sarjana UNSRAT, 13 Juni 2012, Manado  583 km2 Ocean teritory  >100.000 km2 Coral Reefs
    • Hanny Tioho, coloqium PS. IPA, Pasca-Sarjana UNSRAT, 13 Juni 2012, Manado Sejarah “Segitiga Karang” Spatial Database Coral Geographic Spatial Database Coral Geographic (Peta Orijinal Spesies terkini by Veron, 2000) 798 peta spesies dalam 141 ecoregion Coral Ecoregions of the World (Veron et al. 2009a)
    • Hanny Tioho, coloqium PS. IPA, Pasca-Sarjana UNSRAT, 13 Juni 2012, Manado Spatial Database Coral Geographic Global Biodiversity of Zooxanthellate corals (Veron, 2011) Ecoregions and spesies richness of Zooxanthellate corals of the CT (Veron, 2011)
    • Hanny Tioho, coloqium PS. IPA, Pasca-Sarjana UNSRAT, 13 Juni 2012, Manado Tropical Ecosystems in CT region (Burke et al., 2001; Spalding et al., 2002, WWF Australia 2009)
    • Hanny Tioho, coloqium PS. IPA, Pasca-Sarjana UNSRAT, 13 Juni 2012, Manado Karakteristik “Segitiga Karang” CT Area: The ‘Amazon’ of Seas Food security, income and coastal protection for over 225 million people Significant Marine Based Tourism ($ 9.6B/yr, Cesar et al., 2003) Supports World’s largest tuna fishery ($ 5B/yr, Bell et al., 2009) Habitat & Migration route for some threatened species A Mega-diversity in CT Area
    • Aktivitas MC : burning of fossil fuels, deforestation and changing land use meningkatkan konsentrasi gas rumah kaca di atmosfer (CO2 dan Metan) global warming and ocean acidification both of which pose serious threats to coral reef ecosystems through increased thermal stress and ocean acidity as well as declining carbonate ion concentrations Perubahan Iklim (Climate Change) Hanny Tioho, coloqium PS. IPA, Pasca-Sarjana UNSRAT, 13 Juni 2012, Manado
    • Hanny Tioho, coloqium PS. IPA, Pasca-Sarjana UNSRAT, 13 Juni 2012, Manado Perubahan Iklim (Climate Change) Peningkatan yg cepat konsentrasi CO2 dan gas-gas rumah kaca lainnya di atmosfer sejak mulainya periode industri yg mengakibatkan perubahan lingkungan fisika-kimia dan sistem biological di bumi (IPCC, 2007) Variation in planetary conditions as a result of natural and anthropogenic climate change. (a) Variation in atmospheric carbon dioxide over the past 420,000 years (Petit et al. 1999). Arrows indicate atmospheric concentrations today, as well as for three key scenarios from the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2007). (b) Anomalies in global temperature of relative to 1999 calculated from isotope proxies. (c) Changes in key greenhouse gases over the past 2,000 years (IPCC 2007). (d) Changes in sea level measured using satellite altimeters (Courtesy of Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research, University of Colorado) (O. Hoegh-Guldberg dalam Z. Dubinsky and N. Stambler, 2011)
    • Hanny Tioho, coloqium PS. IPA, Pasca-Sarjana UNSRAT, 13 Juni 2012, Manado Faktor-Faktor Penyebab Stres pada Terumbu Karang
    • Hanny Tioho, coloqium PS. IPA, Pasca-Sarjana UNSRAT, 13 Juni 2012, Manado G R L Stress Factors Scale Comments Faktor-Faktor Penyebab Stres pada Terumbu Karang
    • Impacts of Thermal Stress on Coral Reefs large-scale ‘mass’ coral bleaching began to occur in the early 1980s in Panama, Florida, and at other Caribbean sites (Glynn 1983; Lessios et al. 1983; Glynn 1996) with corals across large areas of reef literally turned white over a number of weeks The whitening of coral tissues during bleaching events is primarily due to the loss of pigments and/or cells of their essential symbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium) (Hoegh-Guldberg 1999). Climate Change Hanny Tioho, coloqium PS. IPA, Pasca-Sarjana UNSRAT, 13 Juni 2012, Manado Coral Bleaching
    • mass bleaching is highly likely on a coral reef if sea temperatures rise by 1°C above the long-term summer maximum temperatures (Strong et al. 1996; Toscano et al. 2000) These measurements have been further extended by incorporating the length of time that a coral reef region is exposed to a particular anomaly. In this respect, analysis of the “degree heating weeks” (DHW = anomaly size × length of exposure) Climate Change Impacts of Thermal Stress on Coral Reefs Hanny Tioho, coloqium PS. IPA, Pasca-Sarjana UNSRAT, 13 Juni 2012, Manado
    •  DHW diatas 4, karang akan memutih tapi cepat pulih dgn sedikit atau tanpa kerusakan.  DHW diatas 8, karang akan memutih diikuti kematian yg signifikan  DHW diatas 12 seluruh sistem terumbu akan mati In 1998, many sites across the Western Indian Ocean experienced DHW values of over 12, with as much as 95% of corals on some reef systems being killed (Hoegh-Guldberg 1999). Almost 50% of all corals died across the region by the end of the very long warm summers associated with this period (Hoegh-Guldberg 1999; Wilkinson and Hodgson 1999; Wilkinson et al. 1999). Climate Change Impacts of Thermal Stress on Coral Reefs Hanny Tioho, coloqium PS. IPA, Pasca-Sarjana UNSRAT, 13 Juni 2012, Manado
    • Coral Bleaching (pemutihan karang) Coral Bleaching : Keluarnya/hilangnya zoox dari jaringan hewan karang, yg mengakibatkan hewan karang menjadi berwarna putih The number and severity of coral bleaching events has been described as a “biological signal” (Hughes 2000) for the consequences of global climate change on coral reefs Hanny Tioho, coloqium PS. IPA, Pasca-Sarjana UNSRAT, 13 Juni 2012, Manado
    • Coral Bleaching (pemutihan karang) Penyebab Coral Bleaching :  magnitude of temperature elevation,  duration of exposure,  salinity changes,  sedimentation,  exposure to supra-optimal irradiances of visible radiation,  exposure to ultraviolet radiation, and  low-temperature thermal stress.  diseases Hanny Tioho, coloqium PS. IPA, Pasca-Sarjana UNSRAT, 13 Juni 2012, Manado
    • Akibat Coral Bleaching pada sistem terumbu normal bleached dead Hanny Tioho, coloqium PS. IPA, Pasca-Sarjana UNSRAT, 13 Juni 2012, Manado
    • Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Coral Reefs “ocean acidification”: is a consequence of the increasing flux of carbon dioxide into ocean waters as a result of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations When CO2 level in seawater is elevated or when seawater is acidified, corals slow down their calcification rates (Andersson et al. 2009) Climate Change Hanny Tioho, coloqium PS. IPA, Pasca-Sarjana UNSRAT, 13 Juni 2012, Manado
    • This series of photographs depict a series of sites on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) that are analogous to reef states expected under the rapid buildup of atmospheric CO2 Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Coral Reefs Climate Change Hanny Tioho, coloqium PS. IPA, Pasca-Sarjana UNSRAT, 13 Juni 2012, Manado
    • Hanny Tioho, coloqium PS. IPA, Pasca-Sarjana UNSRAT, 13 Juni 2012, Manado
    • Hanny Tioho, coloqium PS. IPA, Pasca-Sarjana UNSRAT, 13 Juni 2012, Manado What next ???? (tindakan aksi …..) Kurangi (hentikan) tekanan ke terumbu karang Kurangi (aktivitas) pemicu peningkatan CO2 Political : CTI ------- done !!! Masyarakat ????????????
    • Hanny Tioho, coloqium PS. IPA, Pasca-Sarjana UNSRAT, 13 Juni 2012, Manado