Chemical Recycling
Biogeochemical Cycles <ul><li>The cycling of nutrients in an ecosystem involves both the biotic and abiotic parts.  </li><...
Macronutrients  <ul><li>Elements required in large amounts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydroge...
Micronutrients  <ul><li>Elements needed on small amounts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zinc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molybdenum ...
Reservoirs  <ul><li>Storage sites of nutrients </li></ul>
The Cycles <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorous </li></ul><ul><...
The Water Cycle
Why Water? <ul><li>Best natural solvent </li></ul><ul><li>Most chemical reactions in body take place in water </li></ul><u...
The Cycle
Precipitation  <ul><li>Movement of water from atmosphere to Earth </li></ul>
Evaporation  <ul><li>Sun’s energy turns water to vapour </li></ul><ul><li>Vapour rises to the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li...
Transpiration  <ul><li>Water stored in plant tissues moves up the plant to the leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Carries nutrients ...
Metabolic Water  <ul><li>Cycled by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis and respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drinkin...
Humans  <ul><li>Deplete surface and ground water </li></ul><ul><li>Wasteful use of water </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution  </li...
Carbon Cycle
Carbon  <ul><li>Key compound in  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fats </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Reservoir  <ul><li>Limestone (CaCO 3 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Atmospheric carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon compounds dis...
The Cycle
Humans  <ul><li>Burn forests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase CO 2  released ...
Global Warming <ul><li>Ozone layer reflects some radiation  </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2  + water vapour reflect radiation back ...
Nitrogen Cycle
Nitrogen  <ul><li>For proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Reservoir  <ul><li>Air 78% nitrogen but largely unusable </li></ul><ul><li>Used as nitrate ion dissolved in soil water </l...
The Cycle <ul><li>Nitrate absorbed by plant roots and turnid into proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Animals eat proteins </li></u...
<ul><li>Nitrite absorbed by plants </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen in air fixed by lightening or  Rhizobium </li></ul><ul><li>R...
Humans <ul><li>Use nitrogenous fertilisers </li></ul><ul><li>Add compost or sewage </li></ul><ul><li>Plant legumes </li></...
Phosphorous Cycle
Phosphorous  <ul><li>For DNA, RNA, ATP, phospholipids, bones, teeth, photosynthesis, respiration </li></ul>
Calcium Cycle <ul><li>Similar to phosphorous cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell membranes </li...
Humans  <ul><li>Fertilisers add phosphorous and increase the rate of calcium recycling </li></ul><ul><li>Seabird deposits ...
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Cycles

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  • Cycles

    1. 1. Chemical Recycling
    2. 2. Biogeochemical Cycles <ul><li>The cycling of nutrients in an ecosystem involves both the biotic and abiotic parts. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Macronutrients <ul><li>Elements required in large amounts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Micronutrients <ul><li>Elements needed on small amounts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zinc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molybdenum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selnium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iodine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For enzymes </li></ul>
    5. 5. Reservoirs <ul><li>Storage sites of nutrients </li></ul>
    6. 6. The Cycles <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorous </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium </li></ul>
    7. 7. The Water Cycle
    8. 8. Why Water? <ul><li>Best natural solvent </li></ul><ul><li>Most chemical reactions in body take place in water </li></ul><ul><li>Main transport medium </li></ul><ul><li>Stable </li></ul><ul><li>Ionise into hydrogen and hydroxyl (pH) </li></ul><ul><li>Resists rapid temperature changes </li></ul>
    9. 9. The Cycle
    10. 10. Precipitation <ul><li>Movement of water from atmosphere to Earth </li></ul>
    11. 11. Evaporation <ul><li>Sun’s energy turns water to vapour </li></ul><ul><li>Vapour rises to the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Greatest amount of evaporation from the sea </li></ul>
    12. 12. Transpiration <ul><li>Water stored in plant tissues moves up the plant to the leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Carries nutrients with it to the leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves the plant as water vapour through stomata </li></ul>
    13. 13. Metabolic Water <ul><li>Cycled by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis and respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drinking and excretion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burning fossil fuels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decay by micro-organisms </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Humans <ul><li>Deplete surface and ground water </li></ul><ul><li>Wasteful use of water </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul>
    15. 15. Carbon Cycle
    16. 16. Carbon <ul><li>Key compound in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Reservoir <ul><li>Limestone (CaCO 3 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Atmospheric carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon compounds dissolved in water </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil fuels </li></ul>
    18. 18. The Cycle
    19. 19. Humans <ul><li>Burn forests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase CO 2 released by compustion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Burn fossil fuels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal and wood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Petrol, diesel </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Global Warming <ul><li>Ozone layer reflects some radiation </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 + water vapour reflect radiation back to Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Causes general warming of Earth </li></ul>
    21. 21. Nitrogen Cycle
    22. 22. Nitrogen <ul><li>For proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Haemoglobin </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Reservoir <ul><li>Air 78% nitrogen but largely unusable </li></ul><ul><li>Used as nitrate ion dissolved in soil water </li></ul><ul><li>Must be fixed by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lightening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria in legumes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free-living bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cyanobacteria </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. The Cycle <ul><li>Nitrate absorbed by plant roots and turnid into proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Animals eat proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves body as waste (urine, faeces) </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposers turn into ammonia (aminification) </li></ul><ul><li>Ammonia turned into nitrate by nitrifying bacteria (nitrification) </li></ul>
    25. 25. <ul><li>Nitrite absorbed by plants </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen in air fixed by lightening or Rhizobium </li></ul><ul><li>Rhizobium in mutualistic relationship with legumes </li></ul><ul><li>Denitrifying bacteria break down nitrates to nitrogen </li></ul>
    26. 26. Humans <ul><li>Use nitrogenous fertilisers </li></ul><ul><li>Add compost or sewage </li></ul><ul><li>Plant legumes </li></ul><ul><li>Remover plants or animals (remove nitrogen) </li></ul><ul><li>Plant removal causes nitrates to be released (leaching) </li></ul><ul><li>Remove oxygen (no nitrification) </li></ul><ul><li>Burn fossil fuels (nitrous oxide released) </li></ul>
    27. 27. Phosphorous Cycle
    28. 28. Phosphorous <ul><li>For DNA, RNA, ATP, phospholipids, bones, teeth, photosynthesis, respiration </li></ul>
    29. 29. Calcium Cycle <ul><li>Similar to phosphorous cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bones, teeth, exoskeletons </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Humans <ul><li>Fertilisers add phosphorous and increase the rate of calcium recycling </li></ul><ul><li>Seabird deposits accumulated over years mined for fertiliser </li></ul><ul><li>Fishing returns calcium from sea to land </li></ul>

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