Causes of the Civil War: Sectionalism & States' Rights


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Causes of the Civil War: Sectionalism & States' Rights

  1. 1. Causes of the Civil War
  2. 2. Causes of the Civil War <ul><li>Notes </li></ul><ul><li>Review for HW each night </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment on Tuesday, November 30 th </li></ul><ul><li>BE PREPARED! </li></ul>
  3. 3. Group Activity <ul><li>The room has been divided into sections. </li></ul><ul><li>You will have 10 minutes to talk with your section of the room and decide what qualities your section of the room possesses that makes your section better than any other section of the room. </li></ul><ul><li>List your reasons on the flip chart paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Rudeness will not be tolerated! </li></ul><ul><li>Share with class! </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cause #1: Sectionalism <ul><li>How would you define sectionalism? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The belief that one section or region of a country is better than any other section or region of that country. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: North vs. South </li></ul>
  5. 5. Political leaders began to look at how certain issues affected their region or section rather than the nation as a whole.
  6. 6. There were three main sectional difference between the North and the South. <ul><li>Tariffs </li></ul><ul><li>Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Population </li></ul>This caused these two regions of people to not always get along .
  7. 7. Tariffs <ul><li>What are tariffs? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxes on imported goods. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To protect Northern industries against foreign competition, business leaders favored high tariffs. </li></ul><ul><li>Southerners did not like high tariffs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They traded with foreign countries a lot and did not appreciate paying higher prices just to protect Northern businesses. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Tariffs <ul><li>What was the South’s main cash crop? COTTON </li></ul><ul><li>American tariffs on cotton clothing imported from England meant high prices, which cut demand. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Tariffs <ul><li>RESULT: England imported less cotton from the South. </li></ul><ul><li>Southerners were ANGRY that their rights were being sacrificed to Northern businesses, so they talked of ignoring the new laws regarding tariffs. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Economy In the South, the weather is warm all year. So, most people were farmers. Since there were no machines back then, Southerners who owned large plantations needed lots of workers. They used slaves.
  11. 11. Economy In the North, the weather is much colder. So, most people worked in factories. They did not need slaves and did not think anyone should own them. In fact, many Northern states passed laws against slavery.
  12. 12. Population The population in the north was 22 million people. So the north had more voting power ! The population in the south was 9 million people. And the south had less voting power.
  13. 13. Cause # 2: States’ Rights <ul><li>What are states’ rights? </li></ul><ul><li>SOVEREIGN : The belief that states are subject to no higher power except for powers specifically given to the national government. </li></ul><ul><li>What does this mean? </li></ul><ul><li>That the states’ interests should come before the interests of the national government. </li></ul>
  14. 14. States Rights Most Southerners believed that each state should have the most decision making power. Most Northerners believed that the Federal Government should have the most decision making power. Our state government should have more power! No! The National Government should have more power !
  15. 15. States’ Rights <ul><li>Most southern states believed in nullification. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nullification: the right to decide if a law passes by Congress was constitutional or not. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If states decided that the law violated the U.S. Constitution, then they would declare the law “null and void”, within that state. </li></ul><ul><li>The North argued that only the U.S. Supreme Court could declare a law unconstitutional. </li></ul>
  16. 16. States’ Rights <ul><li>Example # 1: Tariffs (pg. 227) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1832: South Carolina threatened to secede because new tariffs were too high. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President Jackson wanted to force S.C. to accept the tariffs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress passed a compromise tariff law, reducing the tariff over a 10-year period. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This pleased S.C. and their protests ended. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. States’ Rights <ul><li>Example # 2: The Union (All States) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Southerners argued that the U.S. Constitution was an agreement among independent states. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Just as states had voluntarily joined the Union, they could secede (leave the Union) in order to protect their rights. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Northerners felt this was illegal. </li></ul></ul>