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The gilded age


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The gilded age

  1. 1. The Gilded Age<br />Chapter 7, Sections 1 & 3<br />
  2. 2. Essential Question<br />How was the Gilded Age a time of social and political change in the United States?<br />
  3. 3. The New Immigrants<br />Chapter 7 – Section 1<br />
  4. 4. Why did they come?<br />Escape religious persecution<br />Rising population in Europe<br />Independent lives in America<br />Shortage of work in homeland<br />
  5. 5. Where did they come from?<br />Southern and Eastern Europe<br />Northeast States<br />China & Japan<br />West Coast<br />West Indies<br />Eastern and Southeast States<br />Mexico<br />Southwestern States<br />
  6. 6. A Difficult Journey<br />Steerage<br />Cargo hold of <br /> ship<br />
  7. 7. Ellis Island<br />New York Harbor<br />Open 1892-1924 <br />Chief immigration station for East coast<br />2% denied entry<br />Processing took about 5 hours<br />Physical exam<br />Government inspector – easy questioning<br />17 million immigrants passed through<br />
  8. 8. Ellis Island<br />
  9. 9. Angel Island<br />San Francisco Bay<br />Open 1910-1940 <br />Chief immigration station for West coast<br />Processing took weeks to months<br />Lived in filthy buildings<br />Physical exam<br />Government inspector - harsh questioning<br />Approximately 50,000 Chinese passed through<br />
  10. 10. Angel Island<br />
  11. 11. Nativism<br />Favoritism toward native born Americans<br />
  12. 12. What did they believe?<br />Anglo-Saxons superior<br />Immigrants from“right”countries OK<br />Immigrants from“wrong”countries caused the problems<br />Objected to religious beliefs of Jews and Roman Catholics<br />Immigration restrictions<br />
  13. 13. Nativism Groups<br />American Protective Association<br />Vicious anti-Catholic attacks<br />Immigration Restriction League<br />Pushed for literacy tests<br />
  14. 14. Chinese Exclusion Act <br />Banned entry to all Chinese except<br />Students<br />Teachers<br />Merchants<br />Tourists<br />Government officials<br />Not repealed until 1943<br />
  15. 15. Gentleman’s Agreement<br />Japan agreed to limit emigration of unskilled workers to US<br />In exchange for repeal of San Francisco segregation order<br />Local government segregated Japanese children in separate schools<br />
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  17. 17. Politics in the Gilded Age<br />Section 3<br />
  18. 18. What does it mean?<br />Gild: to coat with gold leaf or a gold color. To make seem more attractive or valuable than it is.<br />Synonyms: overlay with gold, varnish, give glitter to, paint in rosy colors<br />
  19. 19. The Gilded Age1876-1900<br />The term Gilded Age refers to the political and economic situation of the United States from approximately 1876-1900.<br />It created a number of immensely successful businessmen as public figures; these were often referred to as the“robber barons”.<br />
  20. 20. “What is the chief end of man? To get rich. In what way? Dishonestly if we can; honestly if we must.”<br />-Mark Twain 1871<br />
  21. 21. The Gilded Age<br />Phrase coined by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner in their 1873 book.<br />Video<br />
  22. 22. It was the best of times for the rich, it was the worst of times for the poor.<br />At the height of the Gilded Age, 90% of the nation’s families earned less than $1,200 a year and the average annual income was $380, well below the poverty line.<br />
  23. 23. Robber Barons built mansions on Fifth Avenue<br />
  24. 24. While the rich wore diamonds, many wore rags.<br />For immediate relief, the urban poor turned to political machines.<br />Video<br />
  25. 25. The Political Machine<br />An organized group that controlled the activities of a political party in a city by taking advantage of the needs of the immigrants and urban poor.<br />Ensured voter loyalty by providing jobs and social services to immigrants’ most pressing problems.<br />
  26. 26. The Political Machine<br />City Boss<br />Controlled the activities of the political party throughout the city.<br />Ward Boss<br />Secure the vote in all the precincts in the ward, or electoral district.<br />Local precinct workers & captains<br />Gained voters’ support on a city block or neighborhood.<br />
  27. 27. What was the role of the political boss?<br />Controlled access to municipal jobs and business licenses<br />Influenced the courts and other municipal agencies<br />Provide government support for new businesses<br />Often paid extremely well<br />Reinforce voters’ loyalty<br />Win additional political support<br />Extend influence<br />
  28. 28. What role did immigrants play?<br />Immigrants provided the political machine with votes.<br />Many precinct captains and political bosses were 1st or 2nd generation immigrants<br />Entered politics & worked way up from bottom<br />Able to provide solutions<br />
  29. 29. How did political machines maintain power?<br />Fraud<br />Graft – illegal use of political influence for personal gain<br />Bribes<br />“kicked back”<br />Granted favors in return for cash<br />Credit Mobilier<br />
  30. 30. Tammany Hall<br />NYC Democratic political machine<br />
  31. 31. The Tweed Ring<br />William Tweed (Boss Tweed) head of Tammany Hall 1868<br />Graft involving construction of NY County Courthouse<br />Group of corrupt politicians<br />The “forty thieves”<br />Cost taxpayers $13 million, actual cost $3 million<br />Tweed and his henchmen were tried, convicted and jailed in the scandal<br />
  32. 32. Thomas Nast<br />Political cartoonist<br />Santa Claus, Uncle Sam, and political symbols – elephant & donkey<br />Aroused public outrage against Tammany Hall’s graft, and broke the Tweed Ring.<br />Boss Tweed offered money to get him to cease cartoon attacks.<br />
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  36. 36. Patronage<br />Giving of government jobs to people who had helped a candidate get elected.<br />“spoils system”<br />Employees not qualified for positions<br />Used positions for personal gain<br />Reformers pressed for adoption of merit system<br />Civil service<br />
  37. 37. Could not convince Congress to support reform.<br />Named independents to his cabinet<br />Set up commission to investigate corrupt custom houses<br />President Rutherford B. Hayes<br />
  38. 38. Roscoe Conkling<br />New York senator and political boss.<br />Head of The Stalwarts.<br />Opposed change in the spoils system.<br />Video<br />
  39. 39. President James Garfield<br />Gave reformers most of the patronage jobs`<br />July 1881 was shot 2 times by mentally unbalanced lawyer whom Garfield had turned down for a job<br />
  40. 40. President Chester A. Arthur<br />Nominated for vice president by Conkling supporters.<br />Turned reformer in office<br />Encouraged Congress to pass civil service law<br />Video<br />
  41. 41. Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883<br />Authorized a bipartisan (supported by two parties) civil service commission <br />To make appointments to federal jobs through a merit system <br />Based on performance on an examination<br />Video<br />
  42. 42. Business Buys Influence<br />With civil service reform, employees no longer source of campaign contributions<br />Turned to wealthy business owners<br />Alliance between government and big business<br />Business wanted tariffs raised to protect domestic industry from foreign competition<br />
  43. 43. President Grover Cleveland<br />Democratic president<br />elected in 1884<br />Tried to lower tariff rates<br />Congress refused to support him<br />
  44. 44. President Benjamin Harrison<br />Defeated President Grover Cleveland in 1888<br />Won passage of the McKinley Tariff Act of 1890<br />Raised tariffs to their highest levels<br />
  45. 45. Here comes Cleveland again…<br />Only president to serve two non-consecutive terms<br />Supported a bill to lower the McKinley Tariff<br />Would not sign the bill because it contained a federal income tax<br />Wilson-Gorman Tariff became law in 1894 without his signature<br />
  46. 46. President William McKinley<br />Inaugurated in 1897<br />Raised tariffs once again<br />
  47. 47. Taking Notes<br />In a chart like the one shown, list examples of corruption in 19th century politics.<br />Corruption<br />
  48. 48. Taking Notes<br />In a chart like the one shown, list examples of corruption in 19th century politics.<br />Election fraud<br />kickbacks<br />Corruption<br />graft<br />bribery<br />patronage<br />