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American Revolution and Constitution Ch.4 S2-4 Ch.5 S1-4
Declaring Independence <ul><li>Loyalists </li></ul><ul><li>Patriots </li></ul><ul><li>Second Continental Congress  (1775) ...
Declaring Independence <ul><li>Olive Branch Petition </li></ul><ul><li>Common Sense </li></ul><ul><li>Declaration of Indep...
Declaring Independence <ul><li>Assignment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sections 3 & 4 worksheet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Page ...
Articles of Confederation and the Constitution Chapter 5
What do you need to know? <ul><li>Differing ideas of republicanism </li></ul><ul><li>Issues debated by those making the Ar...
Experimenting <ul><li>No democracy! </li></ul><ul><li>Republic and republicanism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Republic:  governme...
Experimenting <ul><li>Some believed: </li></ul><ul><li>Government can only succeed if leaders put the good of the nation b...
Experimenting <ul><li>Continental Congress debates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand how and why our govt works by understa...
Experimenting <ul><li>Continental Congress debates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Representation by population or state? </li></ul>...
Experimenting <ul><li>Continental Congress debates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Can we divide power among the states? </li></u...
Experimenting <ul><li>Continental Congress debates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Can we divide power among the states? </li></u...
Experimenting <ul><li>Continental Congress debates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Can we divide power among the states? </li></u...
Experimenting <ul><li>Continental Congress debates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3. How to divide western lands? </li></ul></ul><u...
Experimenting <ul><li>Assignment:   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On page 136, list the major political and economic problems with...
Drafting the Constitution <ul><li>Shays’ Rebellion : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmer uprising draws attention to debt problem...
Drafting the Constitution <ul><li>Problems for the nation: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lacked national unity </li></ul></ul>...
Drafting the Constitution <ul><li>Constitutional Convention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Big vs. small states </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Drafting the Constitution <ul><li>Constitutional Convention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to count slaves in representation? <...
Drafting the Constitution <ul><li>Constitutional Convention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Division and Separation of Powers </l...
Drafting the Constitution <ul><li>foreign affairs </li></ul><ul><li>National defense </li></ul><ul><li>Trade btwn states <...
Drafting the Constitution <ul><li>Constitutional Convention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Division and Separation of Powers </l...
Drafting the Constitution <ul><li>Constitutional Convention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electoral College </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Drafting the Constitution <ul><li>Constitutional Convention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electoral College </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Ratification <ul><li>Who were Federalists and Antifederalists? </li></ul><ul><li>What were their arguments? </li></ul><ul>...
Ratification <ul><li>9 of 13 states had to agree to the Constitution before it could take effect </li></ul>Federalists :  ...
Ratification <ul><li>Debates continued from 1788-1789 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Federalist : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><l...
Ratification <ul><li>Bill of Rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Was added to get the support of Antifederalists </li></ul></ul><...
Ratification <ul><li>Some questions to consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why were Americans so afraid that the national ...
<ul><li>Assignment: </li></ul><ul><li>F/AF and Bill of Rights reading and  worksheets </li></ul>Ratification
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Chapter 4, S3 & Chapter 5

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Chapter 4, S3 & Chapter 5

  1. 1. American Revolution and Constitution Ch.4 S2-4 Ch.5 S1-4
  2. 2. Declaring Independence <ul><li>Loyalists </li></ul><ul><li>Patriots </li></ul><ul><li>Second Continental Congress (1775) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appointed Gge. Washington commander of the Continental Army </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Battle of Bunker Hill </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deadliest of war </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Colonial loss </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Declaring Independence <ul><li>Olive Branch Petition </li></ul><ul><li>Common Sense </li></ul><ul><li>Declaration of Independence (1776) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Declaring Independence <ul><li>Assignment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sections 3 & 4 worksheet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Page 107, interpret the reasons why each of the 6 people decided to support either the colonists or the British </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due at end of class. </li></ul></ul>Wilkins: Warren: Brant: Armistead: Inglis: Greene: Loyalists Patriots
  5. 5. Articles of Confederation and the Constitution Chapter 5
  6. 6. What do you need to know? <ul><li>Differing ideas of republicanism </li></ul><ul><li>Issues debated by those making the Articles of Confederation </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the problems faced by the Confederation </li></ul>
  7. 7. Experimenting <ul><li>No democracy! </li></ul><ul><li>Republic and republicanism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Republic: government in which citizens rule through elected officials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Republicanism: governments should be based on the consent of the people </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Experimenting <ul><li>Some believed: </li></ul><ul><li>Government can only succeed if leaders put the good of the nation before personal interests. </li></ul><ul><li>Others thought: </li></ul><ul><li>If everyone pursues own interest, the whole nation will benefit. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Experimenting <ul><li>Continental Congress debates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand how and why our govt works by understanding how a different one didn’t work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each colony, now state, began drawing up own constitution, each with different powers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: New Jersey women who owned land could vote! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Experimenting <ul><li>Continental Congress debates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Representation by population or state? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should each state elect the same number of reps? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If based on population, how to account for big and small states? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each state gets one vote </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Experimenting <ul><li>Continental Congress debates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Can we divide power among the states? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most assumed a govt cannot share power with states </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make a confederation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Articles of Confederation </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Experimenting <ul><li>Continental Congress debates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Can we divide power among the states? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All other powers </li></ul><ul><li>Declare war </li></ul><ul><li>Make peace </li></ul><ul><li>Sign treaties </li></ul><ul><li>Borrow money </li></ul><ul><li>Set standards for coins, wghts </li></ul><ul><li>Postal service </li></ul><ul><li>Handle Native Amer. issues </li></ul>State govts. National govt.
  13. 13. Experimenting <ul><li>Continental Congress debates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Can we divide power among the states? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>National government had no power to enforce or interpret the laws of the Articles of Confederation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Experimenting <ul><li>Continental Congress debates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3. How to divide western lands? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small states, like Maryland, feared big states would take all the land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All states give up land west of Appalachians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Northwest Ordinance of 1787 : procedure for dividing western lands and becoming a state </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Experimenting <ul><li>Assignment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On page 136, list the major political and economic problems with the confederation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On page 137: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>#3-4 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due at end of class. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Drafting the Constitution <ul><li>Shays’ Rebellion : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmer uprising draws attention to debt problems of America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The government had no power to tax and was too weak </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Drafting the Constitution <ul><li>Problems for the nation: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lacked national unity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Every state must agree to make any changes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Debt of the war </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No power to tax </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trading rights and taxes between states </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Drafting the Constitution <ul><li>Constitutional Convention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Big vs. small states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Madison: Virginia Plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bicameral legislature based on population </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paterson: New Jersey Plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unicameral legislature; one state, one vote </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sherman: Great Compromise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bicameral legislature </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Senate has equal representation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>House of Reps. is based on population </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Drafting the Constitution <ul><li>Constitutional Convention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to count slaves in representation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>South wanted to count slaves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three-fifths Compromise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3/5 of a states’ slaves would be counted as population </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Virginia: 14,000 total; 10,000 slaves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6,000 count as population </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20,000 ppl. in Virginia count for representatives </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Drafting the Constitution <ul><li>Constitutional Convention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Division and Separation of Powers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federalism : power divided btwn national and state governments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enumerated powers : those given to national govt. by the Constitution </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reserved powers : those left to the states </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Drafting the Constitution <ul><li>foreign affairs </li></ul><ul><li>National defense </li></ul><ul><li>Trade btwn states </li></ul><ul><li>Coining money </li></ul><ul><li>education </li></ul><ul><li>marriage/divorce laws </li></ul><ul><li>Trade within state </li></ul><ul><li>tax </li></ul><ul><li>Borrow money </li></ul><ul><li>Pay debts </li></ul><ul><li>Establish courts </li></ul>Enumerated Reserved Both
  22. 22. Drafting the Constitution <ul><li>Constitutional Convention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Division and Separation of Powers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three branches of government: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legislative branch: makes laws </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Executive branch: enforces laws </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Judicial branch: interprets laws </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Checks and balances : to prevent one branch from dominating the others (pg. 143) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Drafting the Constitution <ul><li>Constitutional Convention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electoral College </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why do we have it? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many upper class ppl. feared the lower classes would not vote wisely </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Others felt that the lower classes would vote the upper class out of power </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biggest reason: They felt that ppl. would vote for too many local candidates and no one would have a majority </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Drafting the Constitution <ul><li>Constitutional Convention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electoral College </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each state chooses a number of electors to cast ballots based on the way the majority of the people in their district vote </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Ratification <ul><li>Who were Federalists and Antifederalists? </li></ul><ul><li>What were their arguments? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the need for the Bill of Rights. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Ratification <ul><li>9 of 13 states had to agree to the Constitution before it could take effect </li></ul>Federalists : liked the Constitution as it was the balance of power was enough to protect the people and the states Antifederalists : Did not like the Constitution National government has too much power There is no provision for the rights of the individual
  27. 27. Ratification <ul><li>Debates continued from 1788-1789 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Federalist : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison & John Jay defending the Constitution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Letters from the Federal Farmer : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antifederalist publication that listed and discussed the individual rights they felt were left out of the Constitution </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Ratification <ul><li>Bill of Rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Was added to get the support of Antifederalists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of speech, press, religion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Right to trial by jury </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Right to bear arms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No quartering of troops </li></ul></ul></ul>WHY??
  29. 29. Ratification <ul><li>Some questions to consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why were Americans so afraid that the national government would have too much power? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is the benefit of adding the 9 th and 10 th amendments in the Bill of Rights? (pg. 149) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who was excluded from “the people” in the Bill of Rights? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How might American history have changed if the Bill of Rights had forbidden discrimination of all kinds? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What are the possibilities that could have happened if the Constitution had been accepted without a Bill of Rights? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Assignment: </li></ul><ul><li>F/AF and Bill of Rights reading and worksheets </li></ul>Ratification

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