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Nazi  Control  P D F
 

Nazi Control P D F

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    Nazi  Control  P D F Nazi Control P D F Presentation Transcript

    • Januaryate History@Holg PAPER 2 NAZI CONTROL How did Hitler and the Nazi Party control Germany? [1]
    • “If you stay in your political party the Nazis will put you in prison. They have total control of the state (country)” The Law against the formation of new parties The Enabling Act (23 March 1933) made Hitler the all-powerful ‘Fuhrer’ (leader) of Germany. The Law against the Formation of Parties (14 July 1933) declared the Nazi Party the only political party in Germany. It was an offence to belong to another Party. All other parties were banned, and their leaders were put in prison. The SS, Nazi Police and the Gestapo The Nazis took over local government and the police. On 26 April 1933, Hitler set up the Gestapo (the secret police) and the SS, and encouraged Germans to report opponents and 'grumblers'. Tens of thousands of Jews, Communists, gypsies, homosexuals, alcoholics and prostitutes were arrested and sent to concentration camps for 'crimes' as small as writing anti-Nazi graffiti, possessing a banned book, or saying that business was bad [2]
    • How did Hitler and the Nazi Party control Germany? PROPAGANDA AND CENSORSHIP OF NEWSPAPERS The German people were subjected to continual propaganda, under the control of Josef Goebbels.  It was the cult of personality - everything was organised to make Germans 'One People, One Nation, One permanently grateful to Adolf Hitler. They used modern Leader!' poster of Hitler, 1938 technology to put their messages across.The Nazis took control of Radio stations - the SS took over Radio Berlin. They even controlled the ‘airwaves’! The Nazis heavily censored German newspapers. This meant that they removed any information that they did not agree with. Typically, stories that did not show Hitler or the Nazi party in a positive way were removed. Beatings, murders and other crimes were not reported to the German people as reporters faced prison. The Nazis actually controlled newspapers and even made up stories in order to make Hitler as popular as possible. Censorship allowed Hitler to control the information that the ‘Long live Germany’ German public received. The Nazis made Radios cheaper. Consequently, their propaganda messages reached the German people’s homes. There were also loud speakers in town centres Newspapers were not printed without the permission of Nazi officials. [3]
    • NAZI How did Hitler and the Nazi Party control Germany? PERSECUTION “Please, please stop ... look at these children faces and multiply them by a few hundred thousand. Only then will you realise or gain an inkling into the greatest tragedy in Human history” - SIMON WISENTHALL: ARTIST Concentration camps were the Nazis’ ultimate sanction against their own people. They were set up almost as soon as Hitler took power. The first concentration camps in 1933 were simply makeshift prisons in disused factories and warehouses. Soon these were purpose-built. These camps were usually in isolated rural areas, and run by SS Death’s Head units. Prisoners were forced to do hard labour. Food was very limited and prisoners suffered harsh discipline, beatings and random executions. By the late 1930s, deaths in the camps became increasingly common and very few people emerged alive from them. Jews, Socialists, Communists, trade unionists, churchmen and anyone else brave enough to criticise the Nazis ended up there. Ultimately, fear was an incredibly effective tool and allowed Hitler to protect his position from any opposition. Hitler also persecuted people who did not fit his agenda for building a strong Germany: Homosexuals, Black people, Gypsies and even alcoholics were thrown in concentration camps or murdered. It must be remembered that Hitler controlled the police, judges, courts and the newspapers: telling jokes about Hitler could lead to a beating and prison. [4]
    • NAZI A case study: Religion & Jews PERSECUTION in Germany We should use the case study of the be broadcasters, teachers, journalists, or persecution of Jewish people in Germany lawyers. There were boycotts of Jewish shops as an example of how Hitler and the where windows were painted with the Nazi party abandoned any Star of David and the SA intimidated concepts of right and wrong. German customers. In 1935 the From the very start, the Nazis NUREMBURG LAWS were passed were an anti-semetic (anti The persecution of Jews which meant that Jewish people Jewish) political party. The could not be citizens of Germany, origins of Hitler’s hatred of in Germany 1933-1939 they could not marry German Jewish people is unknown, but people or have sexual relations with what is much clearer was Hitler’s them and they were forced to wear blame of Jews for Germany’s defeat the star of David on their clothes. This in World War One. In 1933 Jews were was only the beginning. During the 1940s excluded from Government jobs, they had to the Nazis murdered millions of Jewish people in give up jobs in the Civil Service, they could not concentration camps across Europe. In 1938 Kristallnacht, also know as ‘The night of the Broken Glass’, was triggered by the murder of a German diplomat in Paris by his Jewish lover and used as an excuse for an attack on Jews. Hundreds of homes and businesses were attacked, 200 synagogues were burned down, 91 Jews killed, 20,000 Jews put in concentration camps, Jews had to pay a fine of one billion marks. The police did nothing, violence against Jews increased. Initially, Hitler did not feel strong enough to tackle the Church. Nevertheless, he did try to set up a ‘ Reich Church’ (meaning the Government’s Church) but this was not popular. Instead, Hitler signed an agreement with the Roman Catholic Church (Concordat) in which both sides agreed not to interfere with the other. Groups such as Jehovah’s Witnesses who opposed Nazi views were sent to concentration camps) [5]
    • German children special, as one of the Aryan race which was so superior in intelligence and strength to the Untermenschen or and eduction ‘sub-human’ Jews and Slavs of eastern Europe. The Nazis called this the It was Hitler’s aim to control every ‘science of race’. aspect of life in Germany, including the daily life of ordinary people. If you As a member of the Hitler Youth or had been a 16-year-old Aryan living in League of German Maidens, you Nazi Germany you would probably would have marched in exciting have been a strong supporter of Adolf parades with loud bands. You would Hitler. The Nazis had reorganised probably be physically fit. Your leisure every aspect of the school curriculum time would also be devoted to Hitler School girls joined the to make children loyal to them. and the Nazis. You would be a strong German Maiden’s League cross-country runner, and confident at where they learned the At school you would have learned reading maps. After years of summer skills of motherhood. about the history of Germany. PE was camps, you would be comfortable done everyday in order to make boys camping out of doors and if you were a strong and ready for war. Girls were boy you would know how to clean a taught traditional subjects like rifle and keep it in good condition. cooking. You might well remember the hardships of the 1920s for yourself, Overall, children in Nazi Germany but at school you would have been told were indoctrinated (brainwashed) to how these were caused by Jews believe that Hitler was all powerful squeezing profits out of honest and in a struggle to make Germany Germans. By the time you were a great again. Hitler saw this as an senior pupil, your studies in history important tool for keeping the German would have made you confident that people under his control loyalty to the Führer was right and good. Your biology lessons would have informed you that you were How did Hitler By 1936 there were 4 million members of the and the Nazi Hitler Youth. Party control Germany? Children as young as 9 became members of the Hitler Youth. Taken from a text book from Nazi Germany - children were made to believe that Jewish people were ‘sub-human’. [6]
    • SMACK the EXAMINER in the face! Give yourself a head start and recognise the questions that have appeared in previous exams based on the topic that you have been learning about. We will practice them in class, you should also do this at home during revision. Your parents could help you. Paper 2: Nazi Germany 1933-1939 How did Hitler and A selection from the 2004, 2005, 2006 exam papers the Nazi Party *Remember: the exam paper does not look like this! control Germany? a) What does Source U tell us about how the Nazis SOURCE A: From E Wilmot, Weimar and Nazi made use of schools in Germany?’ (3 marks) Germany, 1997 Hitler used the schools to teach Nazi ideas and the glories of Germany’s past. Nazi ideas were taught in b) Explain what you can learn from Source B about every subject. Science focussed on chemical warfare how the Nazis controlled education. (5 marks) and explosives. Maths problems dealt with social issues. Geography lessons were used to show how YOU SHOULD THINK ABOUT: Germany was surrounded by hostile neighbours.’ Paraphrase the source, put it in your own words. Think about what the source infers (suggests) SOURCE B: From Germany 1918-1945 by G Lacey and K. Shepard, 1997 c) How useful is Source F to an historian studying Nazi attitudes to the Jews. The Nazis used their control over teachers to Use Source F and your own knowledge to influence what children learned at school. Many explain your answer. (9 marks) teachers were already very nationalistic and accepted that they should teach Nazi ideas. Those who did not YOU SHOULD THINK ABOUT: were usually sacked. Many teachers attended Be positive – say what the source does tell you. teacher’s camps which concentrated on indoctrination How does it help you to understand the topic? and physical training. Ninety-seven per cent joined Is it reliable? This will make it more useful the Nazi Teacher’s Association.’ What are the limitations of the source? What doesn’t it tell you? Does it support/ contradict your knowledge of what happened? SOURCE C: From a children’s book published in Germany in the 1930s. The picture shows Jewish children being taken out of the school to be taught separately. d) Explain how Nazi racial and religious policies affected people living in Germany in the years 1933 to 1939. (15 marks) YOU SHOULD THINK ABOUT: The key areas involved in the question (explain at least 2) Remember: this is an extended piece of writing (structure) How things changed over the period of time in question [7]
    • SMACK the EXAMINER in the face! continued... e) Using your own knowledge, explain how Hitler kept his position as Dictator during the period of 1933-1939. (15 marks) YOU SHOULD THINK ABOUT: The key areas involved in the question (explain at least 2) Remember: this is an extended piece of writing (structure) Ensure you use quality explanation - use plenty of connectives (Eg: ‘as a result of this...’ ‘this led to .....’ etc) Turn over for mark schemes and examples of answers [8]
    • SMACK the EXAMINER in the face! Paper 2: Nazi Germany 1933-1939 A selection of MARK SCHEMES from the 2004, 2005, How did Hitler and the 2006 exam papers. Use them to help practice your exam Nazi Party control Germany? questions from the previous page. b) Explain what you can learn from Source B about how the Nazis controlled education. (5 marks) L1: You are able to take things out of the source to show what can be learned about the topic in question (1-2) L2: You are able to draw out the inferences (SUGGESTIONS) that can be made from the source. (Have a conclusion for higher marks) (3-4) L3: You are able to put two facts together from the source and make a ‘complex’ inference (5) c) How useful is Source F to an historian studying Nazi attitudes to the Jews. Use Source F and your own knowledge to explain your answer. (9 marks) L1 – Includes Nature, Origin, Purpose or the content of the source to make a simple statement about how useful the source is. (1-2) L2 – The Origin/ Limitations /Content of the source are used to explain how useful the source is. (3-5) L3 – The Purpose (MOTIVE) or content of the source is used to explain why the source is useful by using own knowledge. (6-7) THE EXAMINER MUST SEE HOW USEFUL YOU THINK THE SOURCE IS! L4 – Same as level 3 BUT an in depth use of knowledge is used to explain and justify the choice of how useful the source is. (8-9) d) Explain how Nazi racial and religious policies affected people living in Germany in the years 1933 to 1939. (15 marks) L1 Simple description (1-3 marks) * Nazis passed laws against Jews marrying Germans * Nazis believed they were the Master Race and treated other groups differently. L2 (4-8 marks) * Simple outline of what happened * May mention some areas in which Jews affected. * Gives details about one aspect. L3 Gives details on at least 2 of the following; (9-12 marks) * Jews and employment (Excluded from Government jobs, give up jobs in Civil Service, could not be broadcasters, teachers, journalists, or lawyers, boycotts of Jewish shops, windows painted with Star of David, intimidation of customers) * Nuremburg laws (Passed in 1935, Jews could not be German citizens, Jews could not marry Germans, Jews had to wear a yellow star on their clothing) * Kristallnacht (Murder of a German diplomat in Paris used as an excuse for an attack on Jews, homes and businesses were attacked, 200 synagogues were burned down, 91 Jews killed, 20,000 Jews put in concentration camps, Jews had to pay a fine of one billion marks. The police did nothing, violence against Jews increased. * Religion Hitler did not feel strong enough to tackle the Church, tried to set up a ‘ Reich Church’. Hitler signed an agreement with the Roman Catholic Church (Concordat) in which both sides agreed not to interfere with the other. Groups such as Jehovah’s Witnesses who opposed Nazi views were sent to concentration camps) * Master Race ( Belief in superiority of Aryan Race, need for racial purity. Anti-semitism in education, race science taught in schools, campaign of hate against Jews, in posters, films and newspapers. L4 Answer shows how treatment of the Jews changed over time and deals with other races and religions. (13-15 marks) [9]
    • e) Using your own knowledge, explain how Hitler kept his position as Dictator during the period of 1933-1939. (15 marks) Level 1: EITHER Simple, descriptive narrative of part of the topice.g. The SS and the Gestapo used intimidation and violence on those Germans who were not Nazi supporters. OR Simple, generalised statements of causation e.g. The Nazis used propaganda and violence to increase fear so that people were forced to do what the Nazis wanted. 1-3 Level 2: EITHER Narrative implying analysis of causation e.g. Description of what the SS and the Gestapo did (and this might include the Night of the Long Knives) to create/maintain a Nazi dictatorship. OR Multicausal explanation which lacks development e.g. Several methods mentioned, but not developed, such as violence and intimidation, the use of films, marches, radio, control of the Church, censorship of books, etc. OR Developed monocausal answer. e.g. Detailed answer on Night of the Long Knives, the role of the SS and the Gestapo. 4-8 Level 3: EITHER Developed multicausal answer e.g. Several points from list in Level 2 are developed in relation to Nazi dictatorship.. OR A selective and structured account establishing some arguments e.g. Answer is mostly descriptive, cataloguing the things Hitler and the Nazis did to increase their control over Germany, with some conclusions in relation to Nazi dictatorship. 9-12 Level 4: A balanced, sustained, analytical, multicausal answer clearly linked to the demands of the question. e.g. In addition to Level 3, answer highlights inter-connections between the reasons explained, or tries to establish a hierarchy of reasons, or sees how Hitler used the adverse economic circumstances and German shame at losing the First World War to his advantage. NB Candidates can gain some credit for foreign policy successes if linked to Hitler keeping his position as dictator. 13-15 [10]