INTRODUCTION. Censorship is the control of information and ideas that arecirculated within a society. Propaganda is the manipulation of information to influence thepublics opinion it uses a number of techniques such as emphasizingthe bits of information that support a position and minimizing andexcluding the bits that don’t .
T H E P R E S S I N N A Z I G E R M A N Y. The newspapers in Nazi Germany were encouraged by the Nazi’s,but they had to provide views which the ministry agreed with or facethe consequences. If they said anything bad about the Nazi’s and the Nazi Party thenthey would be in serious trouble, because Hitler was such a strongleader they knew they weren’t allowed to dis-respect their chancellor/president.
CONTINUED. Journalists were given regular briefings containing the informationthe government were willing to publicise they were sometimes givendirect instructions on what to write. Under these circumstances, there could be no free press inGermany every newspaper was a Nazi Newspaper.
UNIVERSITIES. The Nazi’s had little respect for academic research and had often viewed it as a wasteof time. The Nazi Education Minster once said “ A road-sweeper sweeps 1000microbes with a stroke; a scientist preens himself on discovering a singlemicrobe” . Between 1933 and 1938, 3000 professors of lecturers were dismissed fromjobs. Research was heavily directed by the Ministry and results were expected to supportNazi views. All academics who remained had to agree publicly to things which wereclearly made no sense. “Physics is the creation of the German mind… in fact, all European science isthe fruit of Aryan thought.”
THE ARTS. (LITERATURE) The Nazi’s decided what literature German people could access.Books with views which they didn’t like was censored. Millions ofbooks were taken from university and public libraries and burned onhuge public bonfires. On one occasion students in Berlin burned20,000 books written by Jews, communists and anti-Nazi authorsdestroying books, For example of Freud, Einstein and ThomasMann.
THE ARTS. (MUSIC) Music was also censored. Jazz music was banned; it was seen asblack music and therefore inferior. The work of Mendelssohn wasalso banned because he was partly Jewish. Richard Wagner, in contrast, was promoted because he put tomusic heroic legends from the past. Beethoven, Bach and TraditionalGerman folk music were also favoured.
This is the type of music thatwas allowed in Nazi Germany,as it was Beethoven a famousand successful German it wasnot banned or censored.
THE ARTS. (ART) As an artist Hitler had very strong views in this area it was heavilycensored on racial and political grounds, or just as a matter of taste. The Ministry disapproved, for example, of almost all modern art.The Nazi’s preferred art which showed images of perfect Germanmen and women or heroic German folk tales.
THE ARTS. (THEATRE) In the theatre, plays about German history and politics werefavoured as long as they reflected Nazi views. For this reason, cheaptheatre tickets were made available- plays were a good way of gettingNazi views across. This effected the public greatly as it suppressed free expressionand creativity.
The Nazis frequently stagedplays about German historyand politics.Frederich schiller andJohann Wolfgang von Goethewere shown to create a greatersense of national community
This is one of thePaintings in Nazi Germanywhich shows Aryan men andwomen , something the Nazisconsidered to be perfect and“true” Germans.
INTRODUCTION. Goebbels learned many ways to publicise the Nazi Party. But from1933, Goebbels could use all the resources of the government topublicise Hitler and his views on every aspect of society. Some ofthese ways just continued methods used by the Nazi’s in the 1920’s.For example:
Posters This is an example of a Nazi propaganda poster showing Hitler as a god like being with rays of light beaming on him. Posters like this were used to promote the Hitler Myth “one empire, one people, one leader”
RADIO. Goebbels started to use the power of the radio. All radio stations were put under the Nazi control. Hitler and other Nazi officials made frequent broadcasts. Cheap mass-produced radios were sold or placed in frequent café’s,factories and schools; speakers were even placed in the street. By the1930’s there were more radio’s per person in Germany than anywherein Europe.
Hitler held mass rallies every year toemphasise and advertise the strength, unityand organisation of the Nazi party.
CINEMA. Goebbels also influenced films shown at cinemas. With audiences of over 25omillion in 1933, they obviously had excellent potential for getting the Nazi viewsacross. Films were shown along side a 45-minute official newsreel, publicisingGermany’s achievements Film-makers had to send the plot of every new film to Goebbels for approval. Some films had overtly political messages, like Hitlerjunge Quex (1933) in whicha young member of the Nazi party was killed by communists.
Triumph des Willens("Triumph of the Will")was a documentary depicting theThird Reichs 1934 Nuremberg Party Rally.Featuring a cast of thousands as well as, of course,Hitler, Himmler, Goebbels, Hess, Goering andother top party officials.It was used to glorify the Nazi party and give it a sense of idealism tothe public.
SPORT. Hitler and Goebbels also used sport to show Nazi Germany a good light. Theirbest opportunity to do this came in 1936 when the Olympic Games were held inBerlin. The Nazi’s built an Olympic stadium which could hold 110,000 people and wasthe largest in the world, to reflect the power of Germany. All the events were faultlessly organised, to show off German Effiency. Germany won 33 gold medals, more than any other country- and more silverand bronze too. The Nazi’s claimed this was proof of Aryan superiority.
CONTINUED. There was only 1 embarrassment for the Nazi’s at the Olympics;the black American athlete, Jesse Owens, broke Olympic records 11times in heats and finals and won four gold medals. Hitler refused topresent medals to any of the nine black US medal winners.
This helped the Nazi’s gain more control and power over Germanyand it helped to get them more votes in the Reichstag. It also Hitlermade look good and strong leader. I think this helped him get into power because it publicised whathe did and the way he wanted to run the country.
ON WHITEBOARDS! What is the difference between Censorship and Propaganda?
ON WHITEBOARDS.Do you think this helped Hitler getinto power?If so, why?If not, why?
ON WHITEBOARDS.How do you think the Nazi censorship and propaganda effected the German people?Do you think you would have been influenced by it if you were in Germany at the time?
What do you think was the most effectivetechnique used in getting Hitler into power?Censorship? OrPropaganda?