Transport In Humans

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  • 1. Transport in Humans
    • 1. Transport System
    • 2. Functions of Blood
    • 3. Components of Blood
      • a. Plasma
      • b. Red Blood Cells
      • c. White Blood Cells
      • d. Platelets
    • 4. Blood vessels
      • a. Arteries
      • b. Veins
      • c. Capillaries
    • 5. Internal Circulation
    • 6. Diseases
  • 2. 1. Need for Transport System
    • Unicellular organisms
      • They can transport materials like oxygen and urea in and out of their bodies by diffusion or osmosis easily.
    • Multicellular organisms
      • Most of the cells inside the organisms are too far from the surface of their bodies and diffusion and osmosis are too slow to be relied on.
      • A transportation system is required for food and oxygen to be brought efficiently from one place to another.
      • Mammals possess a circulatory system comprising of the blood system and the lymphatic system.
  • 3. 2. Functions of Blood
      • Transport Materials
    • Oxygen from the lungs to respiring tissues in the body.
    • Carbon dioxide from respiring tissues to the lungs.
    • Food substances from intestines to parts of the body.
    • Waste products from tissues to kidneys and liver for excretion.
    • Hormones from testes or ovaries to parts of the body that requires it.
    • Body heat from metabolically active organs to the rest of the body
  • 4. 2. Functions of Blood
      • Protection against wounds
    • Blood has a mechanism called clotting or thrombosis to protect mammals from bleeding continuously.
    • When this happens, the damaged tissue will release thrombokinase, with platelets.
    • Thrombokinase converts inactive prothrombin to active thrombin, with calcium ions.
    • Thrombin converts soluble protein fibringen into insoluble fibrin.
    • Fibrin forms insoluble threads to plug up the wound, with Vitamin K.
  • 5. 2. Functions of Blood
      • Protection against wounds
    • Blood is no longer able to escape from the vessel.
    • Fibrin mesh stays until new protoplasm is synthesized.
    • If blood vessels are undamaged, heparin aids in the clotting of blood. Heparin is an anti-clotting substance produced by the liver.
    • Prevents humans from bleeding continuously.
    • Prevents foreign particles from entering the bloodstream through an open or cut wound.
  • 6. 3. Components of Blood
    • Blood contains
      • 55% – Plasma
      • 44% – Red blood cells
      • 1 % – White blood cells and platelets
    • One drop of blood
      • Red blood cell – 250 million – Biconcave
      • White blood cell – 0.5 million – Compressed
      • Platelets – 13 million – Fragments of cytoplasm
  • 7. a. Plasma contains
      • 91% water
      • 9%
        • organic nutrients
        • inorganic ions
        • hormones
        • soluble proteins
          • albumin, globulin and fibrinogen
        • dissolved gases
        • waste products
  • 8. b. Functions of plasma
    • Main transport medium for blood including
      • organic and inorganic substances
      • waste products such as urea to kidneys and skin
      • carbon dioxide from the respiring tissues to the lungs
    • Transports the red blood cells which carry oxygen to the respiring tissues
    • Transports heat from metabolically active organs to parts of the body that are less active
      • plasma is mainly water hence most suitable for the transport of heat. keeps body temperature at 37°C.
  • 9. c. Proteins in plasma
    • Albumin
      • makes the blood thick and viscous
      • Facilitates the exchange of materials between blood and tissue cells.
    • Globulins
      • include antibodies that support the defensive role of blood
    • Fibrinogen
      • the main protein that forms blood clots.
    • Plasma proteins also act as buffers in blood so that the pH of plasma is always slightly alkaline.
  • 10. 5. Internal Circulation
  • 11.