PHYSICS ASSESSMENT General Types of Assessment and The Types of Scales


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General Types of Assessment and The Types of Scales

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PHYSICS ASSESSMENT General Types of Assessment and The Types of Scales

  2. 2. GENERAL TYPES OF ASSESSMENTA. SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENTS Summative assessments are cumulative evaluations used to measure student growth after instruction and are generally given at the end of a course in order to determine whether long term learning goals have been met.1 ["The Value of Formative Assessment." Retrieved 6 April 2009 from FairTest: The National Center for Fair and Open Testing Website:] Summative assessment is a process that concerns final evaluation to ask if the project or program met its goals. Typically the summative evaluation concentrates on learner outcomes rather than only the program of instruction. It is a means to determine a student’s mastery and understanding of information, skills, concepts, or processes. Summative assessments occur at the end of a formal learning/instructional experience, either a class or a program and may include a variety of activities, e.g., tests, demonstrations, portfolios, internships, clinicals, and capstone projects. Summative assessments are set to enable tutors to evaluate, and assign a mark to their students learning at a particular point in time. The mark assigned contributes to the final outcome of the students degree. The most important thing when completing any form of assessment or examination is to establish what the goalposts are, by looking at: the exact details of the assignment, including instructions about format, presentation and structure the marking criteria for the assessment the "intended learning outcomes" for the course, i.e. what the tutor has stated that s/he expects you to be able to demonstrate in order to pass the course These should be made available in handbooks, via Blackboard and/or on course unit outlines distributed by the course unit leader. 2
  3. 3. Summative assessment is a high-stakes type of assessment for thepurpose of making final judgments about student achievement andinstructional effectiveness. By the time summative assessment occurs,students have typically exited the learning mode. Summative assessmentforms an end point that sums up the performance or learning level ofachievement. The evaluation of summative assessments provides a look atstudent performance as well as an opportunity to evaluate instructionalpractices. Examples of summative assessment include but are not limitedto: Chapter/Unit tests Projects Performances Final copiesSummative Assessment Methods currently in use include: Unseen Examination in controlled conditions (e.g. 3 questions in 3 hours) Seen exam paper in controlled conditions (as above, but you know the question(s) in advance) Open Book or Take-Away exam Multiple Choice Test in controlled conditions (paper-based) In-class test Essay or Report (e.g. on an individual or group project) Portfolio Dissertation Presentation (may be peer-assessed and/or tutor-assessed) Performance (e.g. musical or dramatic) Oral examination (e.g. foreign language speaking skills) Attendance Participation in lectures and/or seminars/online discussion boards, or group work (may be peer-assessed and/or tutor-assessed) Creation of a web pageThe most common examples of summative assessments include: State-mandated assessments District benchmark or interim assessments End-of-unit or -chapter tests End-of-term or -semester exams 3
  4. 4. Scores that are used for accountability for schools (AYP) and students (report card grades)2 [Garrison, C. & Ehringhaus, M. (1995). "Formative and Summative Assessments in the Classroom."] Summative assessment… • Should reflect formative assessments that precede it. • Should match material taught. • May determine student’s exit achievement. • May be tied to a final decision, grade or report. • Should align with instructional/curricular outcomes. • May be a form of alternative assessment.B. FORMATIVE ASSESSMENTS Formative Assessment is part of the instructional process. When incorporated into classroom practice, it provides the information needed to adjust teaching and learning while they are happening. In this sense, formative assessment informs both teachers and students about student understanding at a point when timely adjustments can be made. These adjustments help to ensure students achieve, targeted standards-based learning goals within a set time frame. Although formative assessment strategies appear in a variety of formats, there are some distinct ways to distinguish them from summative assessments. Some of the instructional strategies that can be used formatively include the following: o Criteria and goal setting with students engages them in instruction and the learning process by creating clear expectations. In order to be successful, students need to understand and know the learning target/goal and the criteria for reaching it. Establishing and defining quality work together, asking students to participate in establishing norm behaviors for classroom culture, and determining what should be included in criteria for success are all examples of this strategy. Using student work, classroom tests, or exemplars of what is expected helps students understand where they are, where they need to be, and an effective process for getting there. 4
  5. 5. o Observations go beyond walking around the room to see if students are on task or need clarification. Observations assist teachers in gathering evidence of student learning to inform instructional planning. This evidence can be recorded and used as feedback for students about their learning or as anecdotal data shared with them during conferences.o Questioning strategies should be embedded in lesson/unit planning. Asking better questions allows an opportunity for deeper thinking and provides teachers with significant insight into the degree and depth of understanding. Questions of this nature engage students in classroom dialogue that both uncovers and expands learning. An "exit slip" at the end of a class period to determine students understanding of the days lesson or quick checks during instruction such as "thumbs up/down" or "red/green" (stop/go) cards are also examples of questioning strategies that elicit immediate information about student learning. Helping students ask better questions is another aspect of this formative assessment strategy.o Self and peer assessment helps to create a learning community within a classroom. Students who can reflect while engaged in metacognitive thinking are involved in their learning. When students have been involved in criteria and goal setting, self-evaluation is a logical step in the learning process. With peer evaluation, students see each other as resources for understanding and checking for quality work against previously established criteria.o Student record keeping helps students better understand their own learning as evidenced by their classroom work. This process of students keeping ongoing records of their work not only engages students, it also helps them, beyond a "grade," to see where they started and the progress they are making toward the learning goal.Educators use formative assessments to monitor and update classroominstruction, and these types of assessments are not used in the grade pointaverage of the student. Types of formative assessment include informalobservation, worksheets, pop quizzes, journals and diagnostic tests thatenable the teacher to assess how students are performing and how well theparticular lesson plan is working. In fact, some teachers like to useformative evaluation as a prompt to design courses of instruction.Formative assessment is a range of formal and informal assessmentprocedures employed by teachers during the learning process in order tomodify teaching and learning activities to improve student attainment.[1] [Crooks,, T. (2001). The Validity of Formative Assessments. British 5
  6. 6. Educational Research Association Annual Conference, University ofLeeds, September 13-15 2001.]The time between formative assessment and adjustments to learning canbe a matter of seconds or a matter of months. Some examples of formativeassessment are: A language teacher asks students to choose the best thesis statement from a selection; if all choose correctly she moves on; if only some do she may initiate a class discussion; if most answer incorrectly then she may review the work on thesis statements. A teacher asks her students to write down, in a brainstorm activity, all they know about how hot-air balloons work so that she can discover what students already know about the area of science she is intending to teach. A science supervisor looks at the previous years student test results to help plan teacher workshops during the summer vacation, to address areas of weakness in student performance. [Wiliam, Dylan (2006). "Formative assessment: getting the focus right". Educational Assessment 11: 283–289]Formative assessments occur throughout the learning process. Theyprovide multiple opportunities for students to demonstrate attainment ofidentified targeted goals without concerns about grading. Formativeassessments should vary to accommodate students abilities to demonstrateknowledge. Examples of formative assessments include but are not limitedto: Conferences Observations Question and Answer Sessions First Drafts / Quizzes JournalsFormative assessment provides ongoing direction for improvement and/oradjustment in learning and instruction. It is non-graded and consideredlow-stakes. An important element of formative assessment is feedback.Feedback makes the biggest impact when it occurs during the learning 6
  7. 7. process. Research shows that most assessments should be formative in nature.C. DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT Diagnostic Assessment involves making judgements as to how a pupil is performing against a predetermined set of criteria. This kind of assessment must be linked to further work which will tackle problems identified. There is thus an overlap between formative and diagnostic assessment. Internationally, there are moves to implement formal, standardised, objective types of diagnostic assessment; it is also possible to view it in a more informal way. It must be remembered, however, that no diagnostic test is 100% accurate. Teachers should balance a test result against their own professional judgement of aptitude. Diagnostic assessment occurs at the beginning of the teaching/learning cycle. This type of assessment will provide the teacher with an understanding of the prior knowledge and skills a student brings to a unit, as well as the strengths and specific learning needs of an individual or groups of students in relation to the expectations that will be taught. Diagnostic assessment is conducted prior to and during teaching and learning to determine: what existing knowledge, skills, attitudes, interests, and/or needs the student has the range of individual differences what program plans and/or modifications are required to meet the needs of individuals or groups of students For example, the Heritage College Mathematics Department administers a diagnostic test to all Math 98, 99, and 101 students during the first week of each new semester. Math 98 students take an exam that covers Math 97 material; Math 99 students take one that covers Math 97 and 98 materials; and Math 101 students take one that covers Math 97, 98, and 99 materials. Based on the diagnostic exam results, each student’s deficiencies are determined, and each student is subsequently required to complete a 7
  8. 8. computer-based mathematics tutorial program that is tailored to his or herspecific difficulties. Because the primary purpose of the diagnostic test isremediation, it is both un-graded and low-stakes.Diagnostic assessment provides a way for teachers to chart a course ofaction, or map out a route, using existing knowledge to build upon. It alsoallows for identification of gaps or misconceptions in prior learning. Theseassessments are used to gather information about what students alreadyknow and are able to do. Examples of diagnostic assessments include butare not limited to: Graphic organizers Journal Entries KWLs Pre-tests THE TYPES OF VALUES SCALENominal values scale is a scale that used to identifying objects, individual,or group. For the example, to classifying the gender (male/female),religion, work, etc. In the questioner that gave Yes(1) answer or No(0) isthe sample of nominal values scale. Nominal basically refers tocategorically discrete data such as name of your school, type of car youdrive or name of a book.Ordinal values scale is a scale that have a rank form. For the example, thefirst rank, second, and soon. In the questioner that have a Likert scale, usethe ordinal values scale such as a disagree(1) statement, doubt(2)statement, and an agree(3) statement. Ordinal refers to quantities thathave a natural ordering. The ranking of favorite sports, the order ofpeoples place in a line, the order of runners finishing a race or more oftenthe choice on a rating scale from 1 to 5. With ordinal data you cannot statewith certainty whether the intervals between each value are equal. Forexample, we often using rating scales (Likert questions). On a 10 pointscale, the difference between a 9 and a 10 is not necessarily the same 8
  9. 9. difference as the difference between a 6 and a 7. This is also an easy one toremember, ordinal sounds like order.Interval values scale is a same scale with nominal and ordinal values scale,but it has a remain characteristics and be able to notate into themathematics function. For the example, how much a woman go to market(once, twice, etc), or final test score, etc. Interval data is like ordinalexcept we can say the intervals between each value are equally split. Themost common example is temperature in degrees Fahrenheit. Thedifference between 29 and 30 degrees is the same magnitude as thedifference between 78 and 79 (although I know I prefer the latter). Withattitudinal scales and the Likert questions you usually see on a survey,these are rarely interval, although many points on the scale likely are ofequal intervals.Ratio values scale is a real values scale, have a same distance, and be ableto notate into the mathematics function. For the example, weight, thedistance of street, etc. Ratio data is interval data with a natural zero point.For example, time is ratio since 0 time is meaningful. Degrees Kelvin hasa 0 point (absolute 0) and the steps in both these scales have the samedegree of magnitude. 9