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Hardware

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    Hardware Hardware Presentation Transcript

    • Hardware: Processors and CPUs
      Kenny Yang
    • What is a Processor?
      -inputs  outputs
      -software instructions to useful information
      -central processing unit (CPU)
    • Transistor
      -silicon
      -voltage controlled
      -on/off
      -smallest size: 2000=human hair
    • Transistor
      -N and P (NPN shown)
      -voltage input at gate
      -flow=1, no flow=0
      -combine transistors
    • Integrated Circuit
      -enhance power of transitor
      -mass production
      -before circuit, wires
      -store and process bits and bytes
    • CPU
      -condenses chips and circuits into microprocessor
      -controls the whole computer
      -chips onto wafer
    • CPU-components
      -control unit: coordinator
      -arithmetic/logic unit (ALU): logic
      -registers: bytes in process
    • CPU-components
      -cache: temp storage area, boosts speed
      -clock speed: internal clock in GHz
      -overclocking
    • RAM
      -random access memory
      -works with CPU
      -not enough-slow
      -temporary storage area to work with apps
    • ROM
      -read-only memory
      -permanent storage
      -fixed circuit states
    • Video Memory
      -graphics support
      -buffer between microprocessor and display
      -may have graphics processing unit (GPU) to assist CPU
    • Motherboard
      -connects all the components
      -slots for microprocessor, RAM, ROM, video card, extensions
      -form controls size of computer
    • Bus
      -connects components of motherboard
      -speed impacts CPU performance
      -front side bus (FSB) feeds instructions to CPU
    • Machine Cycle
      -organizes processing instructions
      -4 steps:
      -record location
      -fletching from RAM
      -decode
      -send to ALU
    • Multiprocessing
      -multiple processors
      -parallel processing: divide work
      -graphic rendering-save time
    • Multicore
      -multiple CPUs on one chip
      -increased speed
      -slower clock speed
    • Moore’s Law
      -Gordon Moore’s prediction
      -more is better
      -law will eventually end
    • New Technologies
      -High k-materials: smaller than silicon
      -Optical computing: light waves
      -3D processing: vertical and horizontal
    • New Technologies
      -quantum computing: quantum mechanics
      -DNA computing: nanotech, DNA< enzymes, 100,000x PC speed
    • Summary
      -instruction translation
      -transistors
      -CPU
      -components held on motherboard
      -rate of advancement