Hardware

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Hardware

  1. 1. Kenny Yang
  2. 2. What is a Processor? -inputs  outputs -software instructions to useful information -central processing unit (CPU)
  3. 3. Transistor -silicon -voltage controlled -on/off -smallest size: 2000=human hair
  4. 4. Transistor -N and P (NPN shown) -voltage input at gate -flow=1, no flow=0 -combine transistors
  5. 5. Integrated Circuit -enhance power of transitor -mass production -before circuit, wires -store and process bits and bytes
  6. 6. CPU -condenses chips and circuits into microprocessor -controls the whole computer -chips onto wafer
  7. 7. CPU-components -control unit: coordinator -arithmetic/logic unit (ALU): logic -registers: bytes in process
  8. 8. CPU-components -cache: temp storage area, boosts speed -clock speed: internal clock in GHz -overclocking
  9. 9. RAM -random access memory -works with CPU -not enough-slow -temporary storage area to work with apps
  10. 10. ROM -read-only memory -permanent storage -fixed circuit states
  11. 11. Video Memory -graphics support -buffer between microprocessor and display -may have graphics processing unit (GPU) to assist CPU
  12. 12. Motherboard -connects all the components -slots for microprocessor, RAM, ROM, video card, extensions -form controls size of computer
  13. 13. Bus -connects components of motherboard -speed impacts CPU performance -front side bus (FSB) feeds instructions to CPU
  14. 14. Machine Cycle -organizes processing instructions -4 steps: -record location -fletching from RAM -decode -send to ALU
  15. 15. Multiprocessing -multiple processors -parallel processing: divide work -graphic rendering-save time
  16. 16. Multicore -multiple CPUs on one chip -increased speed -slower clock speed
  17. 17. Moore’s Law -Gordon Moore’s prediction -more is better -law will eventually end
  18. 18. New Technologies -High k-materials: smaller than silicon -Optical computing: light waves -3D processing: vertical and horizontal
  19. 19. New Technologies -quantum computing: quantum mechanics -DNA computing: nanotech, DNA< enzymes, 100,000x PC speed
  20. 20. Summary -instruction translation -transistors -CPU -components held on motherboard -rate of advancement

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