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Greeks
Greeks
Greeks
Greeks
Greeks
Greeks
Greeks
Greeks
Greeks
Greeks
Greeks
Greeks
Greeks
Greeks
Greeks
Greeks
Greeks
Greeks
Greeks
Greeks
Greeks
Greeks
Greeks
Greeks
Greeks
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Greeks

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  • 1. The Age of HomerThe Early Greeks<br />
  • 2. Objectives<br />What were the early characteristics of Greek civilization involving colonization, military development, etc., and how did they contribute to building a new civilization<br />How did Sparta and Athens develop differently? One along the militaristic side the other on the more aristocratic/republican side<br />How did Tyrants eventually lead to the structural changes in Greek governance in either Sparta or Athens. <br />
  • 3. The Early Greek Civilization<br />Homer: Source Illiad & Odyssey<br />Ballads source of History<br />Government: power of Kings/ Nobel Councils<br />People’s role limited<br />Society<br />Class divisions: Nobles/Thetes/ Slaves<br />Homeric Values:<br />Powerful influence in School (History)<br />Physical prowess, courage, and protection of one’s family<br />Highest Value was Arête – manliness<br />Central Ethical Idea: “always be the best and distinguished above other.” <br />
  • 4. The Polis<br />City-State<br />Does not adequately describe the city<br />More than Agricultural Town<br />But not a “city”<br />Independent Political Units –<br />Community of common relatives/common ancestor<br />Subgroups, clan, tribe, <br />Polis original meaning: a citadel, an elevated defensible roc that farmers/others would retreat to in case of attack<br />
  • 5. The Polis<br />Polis: The Acropolis in Athens and the Acrocorinth in Corinth, highest places adjacent to farms.<br />No Urban planning<br />Location of Polis depended on land and natural fortress<br />Emergence of Agora – marketplace and civic center<br />Emerged around 8 BCE, common by at least 750 BCE<br />Cities governed by kings and or aristocratic republic<br />
  • 6. The Hoplite Phalanx<br />Emerges in the late 8th Century BCE, Crucial Military Strategy<br />Who were the Hoplites? Infantryman, spear, shield<br />Soldiers arranged in close orders, 8 ranks deep to form Phalanx.<br />Close order discipline<br />Early Battles Between Polis’<br />Invasion around harvest<br />Decisive battles<br />Spared houses, livestock and capital of Farmers who were/ made up the phalanx.<br />Minimized casualties/ suited to farmer-soldier citizen, kept wars short and limited destructiveness<br />
  • 7. Expansion of the Greek World<br />From the 8th to the 6th centuries BCE, Greeks expanded their territory of control, wealth, and contacts<br />From Spain to the Black Sea marks their territory with trading posts in Syria, where they learned new techniques in art and craft from other civilizations.<br />750 BCE They borrowed a writing system from Semitic Scripts and added vowels to create the first alphabet. The Greek alphabet was easier to learn than any earlier writing system and made possible a widely literate society.<br />
  • 8. Expansion of the Greek World<br />Greek Colonies<br />Colonies spanned Spain to Black Sea, However, they became concentrated in Sicily and Southern Italy (Magna Craecia)<br />By 7th Century BCE The Greeks colonized the Northern coast of the Mediterranean, The Black Sea and the straits that connected them<br />Why Colonize? Colonization was a powerful influence, It relieved pressure at home for land and a growing population,<br />Prevent Civil wars<br />Cultural Identity, Pan-Hellenic (all Greek) sprit. Evolved and lead to est. of festivals, Olympia, Delphi, Corinth, and Nemea.<br />
  • 9. Expansion of the Greek World<br />Greek Colonies<br />Encouraged Industry and Trade<br />Manufacturing of Goods (pottery, tools, weapons, metalwork&apos;s, perfumed oils, soap)<br />Non-nobles could become wealthy<br />Tyrants (700-500 BCE)<br />New economic conditions lead to Political /factional divisions within the ruling aristocracy.<br />Tyrant: Greek, a monarch who has gained power in an unorthodox way, exercises strong one man rule that might be popular.<br />
  • 10. Expansion of the Greek World<br />Tyrants (700-500 BCE)<br />Founding Tyranny Characteristics<br />Member of ruling class<br />Rise to power through through his military ability/support of military<br />Support of the politically powerless<br />Upon ascension: expelled aristocrats, destroys aristocratic privileges, foster trade and colonization<br />Usually provides over a period of urban & population growth and public works projects<br />Patrons of the Arts<br />Peaceful alliances with other Tyrants were established.<br />
  • 11. End of Tyrants<br />By the end of 6th century, Tyrants had disappeared from Greece, not to return in the same form.<br />Modern notion of Tyrant derived from the last cruel tyrants.<br />Rule of Tyrant was arbitrary and unpredictable.<br />Tyranny came into being in defiance of tradition and law, tyrant governed without either.<br />Did contributed to Greek civilization encouraging economic changes that helped secure the future prosperity of Greece.<br />Tyrants broke the gripe of aristocrats and put the productive powers of the most active and talented of its citizens to the service of the Polis<br />
  • 12. Life in Ancient Greece<br />Greece enters the 5th Century, features that would distinguish Greek society took shape<br />The role of the artisan and merchant grew more important as contact with the non-Greek world became easier and more prevalent.<br />Greeks continued to make their living from the land; wealthy aristocrats and large estates, powerful households, families clans<br />Poorer peasants and the independent farmers who had smaller and less fertile lands had a different life<br />
  • 13. Life in Ancient Greece<br />Farmers, rarely leave records<br />Hesiod presented himself as a small farmer and wrote Works and Days giving some idea of life of a farmer<br />Crops included grain, chiefly barely, wheat, grapes, olives, etc.<br />Sheeps and goats: milk and cheese<br />Farmers work was hard, October the worst season, at the start of the rainy season, the time for the first plowing<br />Autumn and winter were times for cutting wood, building wagons, and making tools<br />Summer was a time for some rest, but by September came round it was time to harvest grapes.<br />
  • 14. Life in Ancient Greece<br />Aristocrats<br />Had hired hands/sharecroppers/ slaves to run their lands<br />More time for a social life, the Symposion (Drinking party). Symposion structured occasion often with a :king” who chose the order of events and to determine that nights mix of wine and water<br />Party for men only with games involving Kottabos, Dancing girl with flues,, participants often participated with their own poems, or songs, or philosophical disputes.<br />Aristocratic values always involved competition and the need to excel Athletic competitions and games.<br />Only the Rich could afford to raise, train, and race horses, or have chariot races. <br />
  • 15. Life in Ancient Greece<br />Religion<br />Pantheon of Gods existed, Greeks were polytheists<br />Worship did not involve great emotion<br />Sense of Justice: Lay in paying one’s debts<br />Civic Virtue: worshipping the state deities in traditional way, performing required public services, fighting in defense of the state.<br />Private morality meant to do good one’s friends and harm to one’s enemies<br />6th century BCE influence of the Cult of Apollo (noting in excess)<br />Hubris: “arrogance brought on by the excessive wealth or good fortune and leads to moral blindness and to divine vengeance<br />
  • 16. Major City-States (Sparta)<br />Emerged in 725BCE after First Messenian War. Sparta now had much land to confront the land lust of its inhabitants.<br />Imprisoned Messenians became helots or Serfs, who would later rebel in the Second Messenian War about 650 BCE, <br />2nd Messenian War became a bitter struggle and Spartans learned the lesson that changes needed to take place, <br />
  • 17. Major City-States (Sparta)<br />Spartan Society<br />Emerged in 6th century exerting a tremendous control over citizens, from birth<br />At Birth: officials decided which infants were physically fit to survive<br />At 7 Spartan boys were taken from their mothers and turned over to the instructors of the state.<br />At 20 Boys were enlisted in the Army and lived in the barracks with his companions until 30<br />At 30, became a full citizen, an “equal” and allowed to live in his own house with this wife, but took meals at a public mess in the company of 15 comrades.<br />
  • 18. Major City-States (Sparta)<br />Spartan Society<br />At 60, he could retire from the military service and live in his own home with his family<br />Girls received military training, & had greater freedom than other Greek women<br />Girls were indoctrinated into service of the state. The entire system of Sparta was designed to change the notion of family and enlarged that to the state.<br />Privacy, luxury, and even comfort were sacrificed to the purpose of producing soldiers whose physical prowess, training, and discipline made them the best in the world<br />Neither family or money was allowed to interfere with the only ambition permitted to a Spartan male: to win glory and respect by bravery in war.<br />
  • 19. Major City-States (Sparta)<br />Spartan Government<br />Combination Aristocracy, Monarchy, and Democracy<br />Had 2 Kings. Rivalry between the two kings usually limited them along with law<br />Council of Elders - 28 men over 60 who were elected for life, judicial functions sitting in cases involving the kings. And the council was consulted before any proposal as put before the assembly<br />Assembly: all men over 30, and theoretically the final authority, it usually only ratified the decisions of magistrates, elders, and kings.<br />
  • 20. Major City-States (Sparta)<br />Spartan Government<br />Council of Ephors<br />Suppression of Helots required al the efforts of Spartans, and problems on the Peninsula.<br />Tegea illustrates change in Spartan Policy, Tegea was defeated by the Spartans. <br />Peloponnesian League: every city-state on the Peloponnese except Argos. By 500 BCE this alliance would be capable of facing mighty threats. <br />
  • 21. Major City-States (Athens)<br />By the 7th Century BCE Athens and Attica constituted a typical aristocratic polis.<br />Aristocrats held most and best land and dominated religious and political life<br />No written law<br />Areopagus: Council of Nobles, (name from the hill where it held session)<br />Archons: 9 magistrates who joined the Areopagus after their year in office.<br />
  • 22. Major City-States (Athens)<br />Crisis<br />7th BCE quarrels began to breakout in Attica between nobility. Also an agrarian crisis <br />After planting and plowing wheat for many years, without crop rotation or fertilizers, there was a sift in AG. More intensive agricultural techniques and cultivation of trees an vines forced the less successful farmers to borrow from wealthy neighbors.<br />Debtors ledged their wives, children, and themselves as surety for new loans. Many defaulted.<br />
  • 23. Major City-States (Athens)<br />Crisis<br />Among the poor revolutionary pressures grew and they began to demand the abolition of debt and redistribution of land<br />Reforms of Solon <br />594 BCE elected as sole Archon with power to revise the governing institutions of Athens<br />Program was called “shaking off the burden”, cancels debt and forbade future loans secured by the person of the borrower.<br />Brought back many Athenians enslaved abroad and freed those in Athens enslaved for debt.<br />Some of his actions were profoundly successful in the long run. He encouraged commerce and turned Athens in direction that would lead it to great prosperity in the 5th BCE<br />
  • 24. Major City-States (Athens)<br />Reforms of Solon<br />Commerce turned city into a great prosperous one by end of 5th century BCE.<br />Forbade the export of wheat, making it more available in Attica<br />Encouraged export of Olive Oil and wine, much of the Athenian land diverted to olive trees/grape vines<br />Solon offered foreign citizenship to artisans, stimulating development of outstanding pottery in Attica<br />Expanded citizenship – previously limited to adult males whose father’s were citizens- include immigrants artisans and merchants.<br />
  • 25. Major City-States (Athens)<br />Reforms of Solon <br />Divided the citizenry into 4 classes based on wealth, only wealthiest group could be Archons and sit in the Areopagus<br />Men of the 3rd class could be hoplites and sit on a council of 400 chosen by the assembly of all male citizens..<br />4th class the Thetes, voted into assembly and sat on a new court of appeals that would hear almost all cases in Athens by the end to the 5th century BCE<br />

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