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World Civilization


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Introduction to World Civilization PPt

World Civilization

  1. 1. World Civilization I Introduction
  2. 2. Difficulty Studying History <ul><li>July 2001 discovery of Hominid </li></ul><ul><li>Early Hominid Society: Prehistoric </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nomadic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools/ language and communication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of Early Ancestors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Prior to 5000, archeological and anthropologic (records, fossils, cultural, genetic) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Difficulty Studying History <ul><li>Knowledge of early Ancestors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans descended from Hominids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beginning about 2 million years ago Hominids grew in dexterity, brainpower, tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural Behavior begins with the onset of the of Old Stone Age or Paleolithic period (2 million-10,000 BCE) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Achievements of Hominids/cultural behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social /communication skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunting, Foraging, Family, Gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Migration </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Social/Cultural Skills <ul><li>What set Hominids apart from other Animals </li></ul><ul><li>Better ways at adapting to environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learned which plants were digestible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power of memory and speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural development unique to humans- languages, arts, rituals, institutions, technologies, - distinguished form others </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Hunting, Foraging, Family, and Gender <ul><li>Early Hominids scavengers/ nomads </li></ul><ul><li>Foraging parties were connected by Kinship, small easy to relocate </li></ul><ul><li>Members of Kinship group – extended family </li></ul><ul><li>Children of hominids require nurturing longer. </li></ul><ul><li>Family concerns may explain division of labor between men and women </li></ul><ul><li>Gender division does not mean women valued less. Adults collaborated in making decisions for all in extended group </li></ul>
  6. 6. Migration/Ice Age <ul><li>Paleolithic period corresponds roughly with what geologists called the Pleistocene Epoch aka the Great Ice age – (2,000,000 BCE to roughly 8,000 BCE. </li></ul><ul><li>Ice age alternates in climate </li></ul><ul><li>Induced by growing populations or environmental changes, mammals created new habits </li></ul><ul><li>1.8 million years ago hominids left Africa and traveled to Asia. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Migration/Ice Age <ul><li>200,000 to 150,000 BCE; Homo Sapiens emerged (modern man) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed greater linguistic skills, ability to reason, developed sharing of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovators: fashioned ropes from fibers, developed spears and harpoons for hunting, warmer clothing, food preservation leading to longer life span </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By about 50,000 BCE - human societies migrated to Australia via boat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12,000 BCE when huge glaciers absorbed much of the water, sea levels dropped hundreds of feet, exposing a broad land bridge. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Migration/Ice Age <ul><li>By the End, Paleolithic period, almost every region of globe was inhabited by human societies. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each group adjusted to their climates and conditions differently </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paleolithic Cultural/Spiritual perspectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. New forms of expression , paintings, writing, burial practices </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Inter-connections/ Conflict <ul><li>Distinct separate societies/ not in isolation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact made with neighbors. Divide territory, familial links, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict occurs when hunting became depleted </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Emergence of Agriculture <ul><li>10,000 BCE, Nomadic life changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>West Africa – new techniques for gathering food </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neolithic (New Stone Age, 9000-3000 BCE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New tools developed, domesticated plants & animals, established permanent settlements. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Farming began in West Africa (archeological evidence) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread to Fertile Crescent between 9000-8000 BCE, crescent shaped region, Israel, Syria, Iraq </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is believed that animal domestication began here </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Emergence of Agriculture <ul><li>Agricultural Innovation and Expansion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>West Africa first place, Sudan, Sahara, 8000 BCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China, valleys of the great rivers settlers started to grow crops and cultivated sorghum as early as 8000 BCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 7000 BCE Ag began in the Indus Valley of India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 6000 BCE AG it started in Europe and Egypt’s Nile Valley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Western Hemisphere: Ag developed differently, w/o contact with Eurasia, 7000 BCE the crop was corn, beans, and squash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In all areas the farming was accompanied by population growth and need for more land, land was cleared. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Pastoral Nomads <ul><li>Foraging persisted, not all took up ag readily, harder work than hunting </li></ul><ul><li>Combination of hunting/ag in Northern areas (North America) </li></ul><ul><li>Americas, some took up farming but not herding, were there were fewer large domesticated animals </li></ul><ul><li>Central Asia, embraced herding but not farming where arid climate were unsuitable for grazing animals bunt not crops. </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile herders such as these know as Pastoral Nomads </li></ul>
  13. 13. Pastoral Nomads <ul><li>Contact with Ag societies and trade took place also conflict. In long run Ag could support far more people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Settled societies developed </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Agricultural Societies (Village, Land, Family) <ul><li>Ag societies would develop into settled societies, with many advantages; population, weapons, possessions, and power, enabling them to defeat or displace all nomadic peoples </li></ul><ul><li>Key Difference 1: permanence of place, the Farming Village, small settlements of homes in a compact cluster, surrounded by lands on which the villagers raised food. </li></ul><ul><li>Key Difference 2: Ag society communities grew larger than nomadic groups, who were limited by the need for mobility, </li></ul>
  15. 15. Agricultural Societies (Village, Land, Family) <ul><li>Possession of land became a key concern in Ag societies. Where livelihoods depended largely on the land they sought to maintain/expand access to various lands </li></ul><ul><li>Families were also more structured. </li></ul><ul><li>Key Difference 3: Gender roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nomadic societies: women’s role crucial to survival, women supplied the plant food for whole groups survival while men are out hunting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AG: women worked in the home and village, men in the fields </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Agricultural Societies (Village, Land, Family) <ul><li>Key Difference 4: Family size: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nomadic families smaller, women needed to be able to share child rearing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ag societies: many hands were needed in the fields, larger families were desirable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long run: Ag societies had a crucial advantage: the ability to produce a food surplus, in good years, and store for bad years, ensuring survival </li></ul>
  17. 17. Complex Societies Emerge <ul><li>End of Neolithic Period. (West Africa, North Africa) </li></ul><ul><li>Mesopotamia: The First Civilization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Civilization is a culture that has attained a degree of complexity, characterized by urban life and the interdependence of its urban residents. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civilization is a culture capable of sustaining a greater number of specialists to furnish the economic, social, political and religious needs of a greater unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other concerns: writing (need to keep records) architecture that is permanent, combined with a religious background </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Sumer (Bronze Age) <ul><li>In the area of Mesopotamia. Emerged around 3500-3100 BCE. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First complex society, 3500 wheels, and transportation of wood and stone down rivers to urban centers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3200 BCE Sumer obtains majority of characteristics of civilization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact with other civilizations: Egypt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 2800 BCE syllabic writing reduced from 2000 characters to 600, evolved from a pictorial form of writing. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Sumer (2800 BCE) <ul><li>Full complex civilization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age of constant warfare, (Old Sumerian Period), each city attempted to protect and enlarge its land and guarantee its access to water and irrigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each city-state Theocracy, chief local god was believed to be the actual ruler, in Sumer it was Ensi. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gilgamesh the famous Ensi of Urk about 2700 BCE, was strong ruler, Epic poem shows Sumerian rules could be questioned. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Sumer (2800 BCE) <ul><li>Full complex civilization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like many religions to follow, priests, administrators, Ensi’s began to confiscate land and assert their authority over other people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slavery: like their other Mesopotamian neighbors/ancestors used Slavery. However had rights, and not based on race. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sumerian women could attain a high prominence on the rank of their own or their husbands. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men had the greatest authority over their wives in economic and legal matters, children were under control of parents until 20 or 21 years of age. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Akkadian Period (2300-2150) <ul><li>North of Sumer was Akkad, inhabited by Semites who adopted Sumerian Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Sargon I was the first Akkadian ruler from 2370-2315 BCE to conquer Sumer and establish Empire from Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean. </li></ul><ul><li>Sargon I proud of his low status </li></ul><ul><li>Successors were not as tireless as Sargon and Dynasty collapsed around 2150 BCE </li></ul>
  22. 22. Lugals Return (2150-2000) <ul><li>Lugal: those of the political elite in Sumer, often lugal would refer to KING. </li></ul><ul><li>By 2150 Lugals of Sumer city of UR returned the rule of Sumer to Mesopotamia. </li></ul><ul><li>New Neo-Sumerian period- introduced centralized administration to Akkad and Sumer </li></ul><ul><li>The formerly temple dominated cities became provinces administered by closely regulated governments. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Lugals Return (2150-2000) <ul><li>Religion became an arm of the state, High priests became state appointees </li></ul><ul><li>Head of bureaucratic state was a Lugal located in Ur </li></ul><ul><li>Lugal of Ur called themselves “Vigilant Sheppard” of their people and were celebrated as living Gods. </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster struck Ur around 2000 BCE when the Elamites from what is now Iran destroyed the city. </li></ul><ul><li>The Sumerians were never again a dominant political force, but their cultural influence would be powerful throughout all subsequent civilizations in the Tirgis Euphrates valley. </li></ul><ul><li>Sumerian language continued as a language of scholarship and ritual </li></ul>
  24. 24. Summary <ul><li>Agricultural Revolution gave way to the birth of complex civilizations </li></ul><ul><li>Sumer/Akkad were first great complex civilizations </li></ul>