• Philippine Literature in English reveals the spirit of the Filipino.• Gradually this literature has learned to express the deepest of human experiences in words that create memorable images.
SOME CONCURRENTSIGNIFICANT HISTORICALAND LITERARY EVENTS IN THE PHILIPPINES
HISTORICAL• 1898- American forces occupy Manila• 1900- On January 29th, Taal Volcano erupts, killing 1,300 people and destroying 13 villages.• 1901. Civil government is inaugurated with Judge William H. Taft as governor.• 1907: Establishment of the first Philippine Assembly. Sergio Osmeña serves as the speaker from 1907-1922
• 1908- University of the Philippines was founded.• 1909- Manuel L Quezon is appointed as Filipino Resident Commissioner to the United States.• 1913-1931- Governor General Francis Burton Harrison initiates policy of Filipinizing the government.
LITERARY• 1900- English becomes the official medium of instruction of all public schools.• 1901- The Philippine Normal School was founded. Its purpose was to train Filipinos in the Art of Teaching so that they could eventually take charge of elementary education.• 1905- The Philippine Free Press was founded
• 1910- The College Folio is published at the University of the Philippines.- This magazine printed the works of the first promising writers in English. These early selections were mostly ghost stories or folk tales explaining natural phenomena.• 1920- The Philippine Herald began publication. It was founded by Manuel L. Quezon and its magazine section was edited by Paz Marquez Benitez.• 1921- First Filipino novel in English, A Child of Sorrow, is written by Zoilo M. Galang.
• First volume of essays in English, Life and Success, is published by Zoilo M. Galang.• 1924- Philippine Education Magazine is started. It is later renamed Philippine Magazine.• 1925- The Philippine Free Press offers a literary prizes.• 1927- The writers club was founded at the University of the Philippines.
Historical BackgroundThe Filipino Revolutionists won against theSpaniards who colonized us for more than 300years. Our flag was hoisted on June 12, 1898as a symbol of our independence. Gen. EmilioAguinaldo was elected the first President of thePhilippine Republic but this was short-lived.The Fil.-American was resulted in the defeat ofGen. Miguel Malvar in 1903.The peace movements started as early as 1900.Many Filipinos started writing again and thenationalism of the people remained undaunted.
Filipino writers went into all forms ofliterature like news, reporting, poetry,stories, plays, essays, and novels. Theirwritings clearly depicted their love ofcountry and their longings for independence.The active arousal in the field of literaturestarted to be felt in the followingnewspapers.1. EL NUEVO DIA (The New Day).Established by Sergio Osmeña in 1900. TheAmerican censors twice banned this andthreatened Osmeña with banishment becauseof his nationalistic writings.
2. EL GRITO DEL PUEBLO (The Call of theNation). Established by Pascual Poblete in1900.3. EL RENACIMIENTO (The Rebirth). Foundedby Rafael Palma in 1901.There were also plays written then but after thefirst and second presentations, the Americansput a stop to this because of the consistenttheme of nationalism. Included here were thefollowing:1. KAHAPON, NGAYON AT BUKAS (Yesterday,Today and Tomorrow).
Written by Aurelio Tolentino depicting thesuppression done by the Americans and theirplan to colonize the Philippines.2. TANIKALANG GINTO of Juan Abad.3. MALAYA by Tomas Remigio.4. WALANG SUGAT by Severino Reyes.A. Characteristics of Literature during ThisPeriodThree groups of writers contributed toPhilippine Literature during this period.
During the first year of the American period, the languages used inwriting were Spanish and Tagalog and the dialects of the differentregions, but Spanish and Tagalog predominated.In 1910, a new group started to write in English.Hence, Spanish, Tagalog, the Vernaculars and finally, English, werethe mediums used in literature during these times. While the threegroups were one in their ideas and spirit, they differed in theirmethods of reporting. The writers in Spanish were wont to write onnationalism like honoring Rizal and other heroes.
The writers in Tagalog continued in theirlamentations on the conditions of thecountry and their attempts to arouse love forone’s native tongue. The writers in Englishimitated the themes and methods of theAmericans.A. Literature in SpanishThe inspiration of our Filipino writers inSpanish was Rizal not only because of hisbeing a national leader but also because ofhis novels NOLI and FILI. These two novelscontained the best qualities of a novel everwritten, in English or in Filipino. Those whowere inspired to write in praise of him wereCecilio Apostol, Fernando Ma. Guerrero,Jesus Balmori, Manuel Bernabe and Claro M.Recto.
CECILIO APOSTOLCecilio Apostol wrote poems dedicated to Rizal,Jacinto, Mabini and all other heroes but his poemdedicated to Rizal is considered the best poem inpraise of the hero of Bagumbayan. FERNANDO MA. GUERREROIt is believed that Fernando Ma. Guerrero sharedwith Apostol the reign in the balagtasan inSpanish during their time.
He also dedicated a poem to Rizal but hecollected the best of his poems in a book calledCRISALIDAS, meaning, a kind of black, woolycaterpillar. JESUS BALMORIJesus Balmori is well-known for his pen nameof Batikuling. He and Manuel Bernabeparticipated in a debate on the topic –(Remembrance and Forgetfulness). He waselected Poet Laureate in Spanish bestingManuel Bernabe. MANUEL BERNABEManuel Bernabe is a lyric poet and thefierceness of his nationalistic spirit wasunchanged in any topic he wrote about.
In his debate with Balmori, he was moreattractive to the public because of themodious words he used. He defendedOLVIDO (Forgetfulness). CLARO M. RECTOIn nobility of speech and theme, Claro M.Recto can compare with the other writers ofSpanish. He collected his poems in a bookentitled BAJO LOS COCOTEROS (Under TheCoconut Trees).Other Writers in Spanish1. Adelina Guerrea was the first woman poetin the Philippines who was good in Spanish.She obtained the Zobel prize in her song ElNido. (The Nest).
2. Isidro Marpori became famous for his fourbooks entitled Aromas de Ensueño (Scents ofDreams).3. Macario Adriatico wrote of a legend ofMindoro entitle La Punta de Salto (The Placeof Origin).4. Epifanio de los Santos (known as DonPAnyong). He was a good leader and biographerduring the whole period of Spanish literature.5. Pedro Aunario wrote the Decalogo delProteccionismo.B. Filipino LiteratureFLORANTE AT LAURA of Francisco Balagtasand URBANA AT FELISA of Modesto de Castrobecame the inspiration of the Tagalog writers.Julian Cruz Balmaceda classified three kindsof Tagalog poets: They were:
1. Poet of the Heart (Makata ng Puso). Theseincluded Lope K. Santos, Iñigo Ed. Regalado,Carlos Gatmaitan, Pedro Deogracias del Rosario,Ildefonso Santos, Amado V. Hernandez, NemecioCarabana, and Mar Antonio.2. Poets of Life (Makata ng Buhay). Led by LopeK Santos, Jose Corazon de Jesus, FlorentinoCollantes, Patricio Mariano, Carlos Garmaitan,and Amado V. Hernandez.3. Poets of the Stage (Makata ng Tanghalan).Led by Aurelio Tolentino, Patricio Mariano,Severino Reyes, and Tomas Remigio.
In the realm of short stories that started toappear in the column PangsandaliangLibangan (Short-time Leisure) and Dagli(Fast) we find here the names of Lope K.Santos, Patricio Mariano, and RosauroAlmario. In the Liwayway Publications, wefind Deogracias Rosario, Teodoro Gener, andCirio H. Panganiban.Noted novelists or biographers wereValeriano Hernandez Peña, Lope K. Santos,Iñigo Ed. Regalado, Faustino Aguilar, etc.Here are the autobiographies of some of thewriters mentioned:
LOPE K. SANTOSLope K. Santos, a novelist, poet and author,and grammarian covered three periods ofTagalog literature – American, Japanese and thecontemporary period. If Manuel L. Quezon iscalled the Father of the National Language,Lope K. Santos is called the Father of theNational Language Grammar. He was alsocalled the “Apo” of the Tagalog writers.BANAAG AT SIKAT was his masterpiece. JOSE CORAZON DE JESUSJose Corazon de Jesus is very popularly knownas Huseng Batute. He was also called the Poetof Love in his time. ANG ISANG PUNONGKAHOY (A TREE), an elegy, is believed to be hismasterpiece.
AMADO V. HERNANDEZAmado V. Hernandez was dubbed Makata ngmga Manggagawa (Poet of the Laborers) inour literature because he pictures in hispoem the intense love for the poor worker orlaborer. To him, a poem is a scent,bittersweet memories, and a murmur offlowing water. The pen is powerful andaccording to him, even a king can be bent bythe pen.
He contributed a lot of writings to literaturelike ISANG DIPANG LANGIT (A Stretch ofHeaven), BAYANG MALAYA (A Free Nation),ANG PANDAY (The Blakcsmith), and MUNTINGLUPA (A Small Plot), but his masterpiece is ANGPANDAY. VALERIANO HERNANDEZ PEÑATogether with Lope K. Santos he reached thesummit of his novel-writing. He was known asTandang Anong and his pen name was KuntilButil (Small Grain). He considers NENA ATNENENG his masterpiece.
IÑIGO ED. REGALADOIñigo Ed. Regalado was a son of a popularwriter during the Spanish time known asOdalger. He proved that he not only followedthe footsteps of his father but also reachedthe peak of his success by the “sumpong”(whim) of his pen. He also became a popularstory-teller, novelist and newspaperman. The Tagalog DramaDuring the advent of the American period,Severino Reyes and Hermogenes Ilaganstarted the movement against the moro-moro ( a play on the Spanish strugglesagainst the Muslims) and struggled to showthe people the values one can get from thezarzuela and the simple plays.
The people one should not forget in the field ofwriting are the following:1. Severino Reyes. Father of the Tagalogdrama and author of the immortal WALANGSUGAT.2. Aurelio Tolentino. The dramatist in whomthe Kapampangans take pride. Included in hiswritings were LUHANG TAGALOG, hismasterpiece, and KAHAPON, NGAYONG ATBUKAS that resulted in his incarceration.3. Hermogenes Ilagan. Founded the groupCampaña Ilagan that presented many dramas inCentral Luzon.
4. Patricio Mariano. Wrote the novel NINAYand ANAK NG DAGAT (Son of the Sea), hismasterpiece.5. Julian Cruz Balmaceda. Wrote BUNGANGANG PATING (Shark’s Mouth). This gave himmuch honor and fame. The Tagalog Short StoryTwo collections of Tagalog stories werepublished during the American Period. Firstwas the MGA KUWENTONG GINTO (GoldenStories) published in 1936 and %) KUWENTONGGINTO ng 50 BATIKANG KUWENTISTA (50Golden Stories by 50 Noted Storytellers) in1939. The first was written by AlejandroAbadilla and Clodualdo del Mundo thatcontained the 25 best stories according tothem.
The second was written by Pedrito Reyes.PAROLANG GINTO (Golden Lantern) andTALAANG BUGHAW (Blue List) of Abadillabecame popular during this period. Tagalog PoetryAlmost all Tagalog writers during theAmerican Period were able to composebeautiful poems which made it difficult toselect the best. Even if poetry writing is asold as history, poetry still surfaces with itssweetness, beauty, and melody.
Other Forms of LiteratureThe following are those recognized in the fieldof Ilocano Literature:1. Pedro Bukaneg. Father of IlocanoLiterature. From his name was derived theword Bukanegan, which means Balagtasan (apoetic contest) in Ilocano.2. Claro Caluya. Prince of Ilocano Poets.Known as poet and novelist.3. Leon Pichay. Known as the bestBukanegero (from Bukaneg). Also a poet,novelist, short story writer, dramatist andessayist.
Literature of the Kapampangans (Pampango Literature)Two stalwarts in the literature of theKapampangans stand out: they are:1. Juan Crisostomo Soto. (Father ofKapampangan Literature). The wordCRISOTAN (meaning Balagtasan) in Tagalogis taken from his name.2. Aurelio Tolentino. He truly proved hisbeing a Kaampangan in his translation ofKAHAPON, NGAYON AT BUKAS intoKapampangan which he calledNAPON, NGENI AT BUKAS.
Visayan LiteratureThe following are the top men in Visayanliterature:1. Eriberto Gumban. (Father of VisayanLiterature). He wrote a zarzuela, moro-moroand a play in Visayan.2. Magdalena Jalandoni. She devoted hertalent to the novel. She wrote ANG MGATUNUK SAN ISA CA BULACLAC.
C. Philippine Literature in EnglishIn a way, we can say that we can trace thebeginnings of Philippine literature in Englishwith the coming of the Americans. For thispurpose, we can divide this period into threetime frames, namely:1. The Period of Re-orientation: 1898-19102. The Period of Imitation: 1910-19253. The Period of Self-Discovery: 1925-1941
(1) The Period of Re-orientation (1898-1910)English as a literary vehicle came with theAmerican occupation in August 13, 1898 and asthey say, a choice bestowed on us by history.By 1900, English came to be used as a mediumof instruction in the public schools. From theAmerican forces were recruited the firstteachers of English.By 1908, the primary and intermediate gradeswere using English. It was also about this timewhen UP, the forerunner in the use of Englishin higher education, was founded.
Writers of this period were still adjusting tothe newfound freedom after the paralyzingeffect of repression of thought and speechunder the Spanish regime. They wereadjusting the idea of democracy, to the newphraseology of the English language and tothe standards of the English literary styleWriters had to learn direct expression asconditioned by direct thinking. They had tolearn that sentence constructions; soundsand speech in English were not the same asin the vernacular. They had to discardsentimentality and floridity of language forthe more direct and precise Englishlanguage.
Not much was produced during this period andwhat literature was produced was not much ofliterary worth. The first attempts in Englishwere in two periodicals of this time:(a) El Renacimiento: founded in Manila byRafael Palma in 1901.(b) Philippines Free Press: established inManila in 1905 by R. McCullough Dick and D.Theo Rogers.POETRYIn 1907, Justo Juliano’s SURSUM CORDAwhich appeared in the Renacimiento was thefirst work to be published in English.
In 1909, Jan F. Salazar’s MY MOTHER andhis AIR CASTLES were also published in thispaper.It was also in 1909 when Proceso Sebastianfollowed with his poem TO MY LADY INLAOAG, also in this same paper.(2) The Period of Imitation (1910-1924)By 1919, the UP College Folio published theliterary compositions of the first Filipinowriters in English. They were the pioneersin short story writing.
They were then groping their way intoimitating American and British models whichresulted in a stilted, artificial and unnaturalstyle, lacking vitality and spontaneity. Theirmodels included Longfellow and Hawthorne,Emerson and Thoreau, Wordsworth andTennyson, Thackeray and Macaulay,Longfellow, Allan Poe, Irving and otherAmerican writers of the Romantic School.Writers of this folio included FernandoMaramag (the best editorial writer of thisperiod) Juan F. Salazar, Jose M. Hernandez,Vicente del Fierro,
and Francisco M. Africa and VictorianoYamzon. They pioneered in English poetry.ESSAYSThe noted essayists of this time were: CarlosP. Romulo, Jorge C. Bocobo, Mauro Mendez,and Vicente Hilario.Their essays were truly scholarlycharacterized by sobriety, substance andstructure. They excelled in the seriousessay, especially the editorial type.
The next group of writers introduced theinformal essay, criticism and the journalisticcolumn. They spiced their work with humor,wit and satire. These group included IgnacioManlapaz, Godefredo Rivera, FedericoMangahas, Francisco B. Icasiano, Salvador P.Lopez, Jose Lansang and Amando G. Dayrit.SHORT STORIESIn the field of short stories, DEAD STARS byPaz Marquez Benitez written in the early 1920’sstand out as a model of perfection in characterdelineation, local color, plot and message.Other short stories published during this timewere but poor imitations of their foreignmodels.
The UP College Folio was later replaced bythe Philippine Collegian. Newspapers andperiodicals also saw print during this timelike the Bulletin, the Philippines Herald(1920), the Philippine Review, theIndependent, Rising Philippines andCitizens, and the Philippine EducationMagazine 1924.D. Period of Self-Discovery and Growth(1925-1941)By this time, Filipino writers had acquiredthe mastery of English writing. They nowconfidently and competently wrote on a lotof subjects although the old-time favorites oflove and youth persisted. They went into allforms of writing like the novel and thedrama.
1. POETRYNoteworthy names in this field include Marcelode Gracia Concepcion, Jose Garcia Villa, AngelaManalang Gloria, Abelardo Subido, TrinidadTarrosa Subido and Rafael Zulueta da Costa.They turned our not only love poems butpatriotic, religious, descriptive and reflectivepoems as well. They wrote in free verse, inodes and sonnets and in other types. Poetrywas original, spontaneous, competently writtenand later, incorporated social consciousness.2. THE SHORT STORY (1925-1941)Probably because of the incentives provided bypublications like the Philippine Free Press, TheGraphic, The Philippine Magazine and collegepublications like the UP Literary Apprentice,poetry and the short story flourished duringthese times.
Other writers during this time includeOsmundo Sta. Romana, Arturo Rotor, PazLatorena’s Sunset, and Jose Garcia Villa’s Mir-in-isa. From 1930 to 1940, the Golden Era ofFilipino writing in English saw the short storywriters “who have arrived,” like JoseLansang’s The Broken Parasol, Sinai C.Hamada’s Talanata’s Wife, Fausto Dugenio’sWanderlust, Amando G. Dayrit’s His Gift andYesterday, Amador T. Daugio’s The WomanWho Looked Out of the Window.Characteristics of the short stories duringthese times:There were still remnants of Spanish influencein the use of expressions that were florid,sentimental, exaggerated and bombastic. Theinfluence of the Western culture also wasalready evident.
3. ESSAYS AND OTHER PROSE STYLES(1925-1941)Essays during this period improved with theyears in quality and quantity, in content,subject and style. Essayists like Carlos P.Romulo became even more eminent editorialwriters.The notable writers of essays during thisperiod were:a. Political, social reflective essays: Throughtheir newspaper columns the followingbecame very popular: Federico Mangahas,Salvador P. Lopez, Pura S. Castrence, VicenteAlbano Pacis, Ariston Estrada and Jose A.Lansang.
b. Critical essays were espoused by SalvadorP. Lopez, I.V. Mallari, Ignacio Manlapaz, JoseGarcia Villa, Arturo B. Rotor, and Leopoldo Y.Yabes. An example of this is Maximo V.Soliven’s THEY CALLED IT BROTHERHOOD.c. Personal or Familiar essays were writtenby F.B. Icasiano (Mang Kiko), Alfredo E.Litiatco, Solomon V. Arnaldo, Amando G.Dayrit and Consuelo Gar (Catuca).
Some of the notable works during this timewere:1940:Salvador P. Lopez’ LITERATURE ANDSOCIETY which is a collection of criticalreflections and serious essays and which wonfirst prize in the Commonwealth LiteraryContest of 1940.1940:Camilo Osias published THE FILIPINOWAY OF LIFE, a series of essays on the Filipinoway of life as drawn from history, folkways,philosophy and psychology of the Philippines.
1941: F.B. Icasiano (Mang Kiko) wasreprints of the best of Icasiano’s essays inthe Sunday Times Magazine under thecolumn From My Nipa Hut. It is an essay ofthe common “tao” and is written with humorand sympathy.August 16, 1941: Carlos P. Romulo had aneditorial printed in the Philippines Herald.Entitled I AM A FILIPINO, it was reprinted inhis book MY BORTHER AMERICANS in 1945in New York by Doubleday & Co.OTHER ESSAYISTS INCLUDE:Ignacio Manlapaz, Vicente Albano Pacis, I.V.Mallari, Jose M. Fernandez, Leopoldo Y.Yabes, Isidro L. Ritizos, Pura Santillan.
The Philippine Writer’s League put out acollection of essays called Literature Under theCommonwealth.Amando G. Dayrit with his column GoodMorning Judge led others like Leon Ma.Guerrero, Salvador P. Lopez, Vicente AlbanoPacis, Jose A. Lansang and Federico Mangahas.4. BIOGRAPHY 1925-1941In 1935, I.P. Caballero and Marcelo de GraciaConcepcion wrote about QUEZON.In 1938, THE GREAT MALAYAN won a prize inthe national contest sponsored by theCommonwealth of the Philippines. This waswritten by Carlos Quirino, the most famousbiographer of the period. He also wroteQuezon, the Man of Destiny.
In 1940, I.V. Mallari’s The Birth of Discontentrevealed the sensitive touch of a writer who insimple language was able to reveal his profoundthoughts and feelings.5. HISTORYNot much about history has been written byFilipino writers. In 1937, with regard toliterary history, we can cite Teofilo delCastillo’s The Brief History of the PhilippineIslands.6. PUBLICATIONSThe Philippine Free Press provided the firstincentives to Filipino writers in English byoffering prizes to worthwhile contributions.Other publications followed suit.
7. THE DRAMA (1925-1941)Drama during this period did not reach theheights attained by the novel or the shortstory. The UP provided the incentives whenthey introduced playwriting as a course andestablished the UP Little Theater.
Exercises1 The Philippine flag was hoisted on _______ as a symbol of our independence.2. The peace movement started as early as _______.3. Written by Aurelio Tolentino depicting the suppression done by the Americans and their plan to colonize in the Philippines.4. Why Rizal became the inspiration of the Filipino writers.5. A book of Fernando Ma. Guerrero which means kind of black, wooly caterpillar
6. The first woman poet in the Philippines who was good in Spanish7. The Father of the National Language Grammar.8. According to ________ even a king can be sent by the pen.9. A son of a popular writer during the Spanish time known as Odalager10. The Father of Kapampangan Literature
11. His name derived from the word Bukanegan12. In what year did English become a medium of instructions in the public schools.13. The first to break away from the conventional forms and themes of Philippine poetry placed the Philippines on the Literary map with the publication of his books in the U.S.14-15 Their essays were truly scholarly characterized by sobriety, substance and structure
Historical BackgroundBetween 1941-1945, Philippine Literature wasinterrupted in its development when thePhilippines was again conquered by anotherforeign country, Japan. Philippine literature inEnglish came to a halt. Except for theTRIBUNE and the PHILIPPINE REVIEW, almostall newspapers in English were stopped by theJapanese.This had an advantageous effect on FilipinoLiterature, which experienced renewedattention because writers in English turned towriting in Filipino. Juan Laya, who use to writein English turned to Filipino because of thestrict prohibitions of the Japanese regardingany writing in English.
The weekly LIWAYWAY was placed understrict surveillance until it was managed byJapanese named Ishiwara.In other words, Filipino literature was givena break during this period. Many wrote plays,poems, short stories, etc. Topics and themeswere often about life in the provinces.A. FILIPINO POETRY DURING THIS PERIODThe common theme of most poems duringthe Japanese occupation was nationalism,country, love, and life in the barrios, faith,religion and the arts.
Three types of poems emerged during thisperiod. They were:1. Haiku – a poem of free verse that theJapanese like. It was made up of 17 syllablesdivided into three lines. The first line had 5syllables, the second, 7 syllables, and the third,five. The Haiku is allegorical in meaning, isshort and covers a wide scope in meaning.2. Tanaga – like the Haiku, is short but it hadmeasure and rhyme. Each line had 17 syllablesand it’s also allegorical in meaning.3. Karaniwang Anyo (Usual Form) – like thosementioned earlier in the beginning chapters ofthis book.
B. FILIPINO DRAMA DURING THE JAPANESEPERIODThe drama experienced a lull during theJapanese period because movie houses showingAmerican films were closed. The big moviehouses were just made to show stage shows.Many of the plays were reproductions ofEnglish plays to Tagalog. The translators wereFrancisco Soc Rodrigo, Alberto Concio, andNarciso Pimentel. They also founded theorganization of Filipino players namedDramatic Philippines. A few of playwriterswere:1. Jose Ma. Hernandez – wrote PANDAY PIRA2. Francisco Soc Rodrigo – wrote sa PULA, SAPUTI
3. Clodualdo del Mundo – wrote BULAGA (anexpression in the game Hide and Seek).4. Julian Cruz Balmaceda – wrote SINO BAKAYO?, DAHIL SA ANAK, and HIGANTE NGPATAY.C. THE FILIPINO SHORT STORY DURINGTHE JAPANESE PERIODThe field of the short story widened duringthe Japanese Occupation. Many wrote shortstories. Among them were: BrigidoBatungbakal, Macario Pineda, SerafinGuinigindo, Liwayway Arceo, Narciso Ramos,NVM Gonzales, Alicia Lopez Lim, LigayaPerez, and Gloria Guzman.
The best writings in 1945 were selected by agroup of judges composed of FranciscoIcasiano, Jose Esperanza Cruz, AntonioRosales, Clodualdo del Mundo and TeodoroSantos. As a result of this selection, thefollowing got the first three prizes:First Prize: Narciso Reyes with hisLUPANG TINUBUANSecond Prize: Liwayway Arceo’s UHAW ANGTIGANG NA LUPAThird Prize: NVM Gonzales’ LUNSODNAYON AT DAGAT-DAGATAN
D. PHILIPPINE LITERATURE IN ENGLISH(1941-1945)Because of the strict prohibitions imposed bthe Japanese in the writing and publishing ofworks in English, Philippine literature inEnglish experienced a dark period. The fewwho dared to write did so for their bread andbutter or for propaganda.Writings that came out during this period werejournalistic in nature. Writers felt suppressedbut slowly, the spirit of nationalism started toseep into their consciousness. While somecontinued to write, the majority waited for abetter climate to publish their works.
Noteworthy writer of the period was Carlos P.Romulo who won the Pulitzer Prize for hisbestsellers I SAW THE FALL OF THEPHILIPPINES, I SEE THE PHILIPPINES RISE andhis MOTHER AMERICA AND MY BROTHERAMERICANS.Journalists include Salvador P. Lopez, Leon Ma.Geurrero, Raul Manglapuz and Carlos Bulosan.Nick Joaquin produced THE WOMAN WHOLOOKED LIKE LAZARUS. Fred Ruiz Castrowrote a few poems.F.B. Icasino wrote essays in The PhilippineReview.
Carlos Bulosan’s works included THELAUGHTER OF MY FATHER (1944), THEVOICE OF BATAAN, 1943, SIX FILIPINOPOETS, 1942, among others. AlfredoLitiatco published With Harp and Sling andin 1943, Jose P. Laurel published Forces thatMake a Nation Great.The Commonwealth Literary Awards gaveprizes to meritorious writers. Those whowon were:1. LIKE THE MOLAVE – by Rafael Zuluetada Costa (Poetry)2. HOW MY BROTHER LEON BROUGTHHOME A WIFE – by Manuel E. Arguilla (ShortStory)
3. LITERATURE AND SOCIETY – by Salvador P.Lopez (Essay)4. HIS NATIVE SOIL – by Juan Laya (Novel)President Manuel L. Quezon’s autobiographyTHE GOOD FIGHT was published posthumously.Radio broadcasts echoed the mingled fear anddoubts in the hearts of the people.Other writers of this period were Juan Collas(19440, Tomas Confesor (1945), Roman A. de laCruz and Elisa Tabuñar.
Exercises1-2. Almost all newspapers in English were topped by the Japanese except for this two3. It is made up of 17 syllables divided into 3 lines. The first line had 5 syllables, the second, 7 syllables and the third , 5.4. Like Haiku, is short but it had measure and rhyme5. He won the Pulitzer Prize for his bestsellers I SAW THE FALL OF THE PHILIPPINES, I SEE THE PHILIPPINE RISE and HIS MOTHER AMERICA and MY BROTHER AMERICANS.
6. The title of President Manuel L. Quezon’s autobiography7-10. Common themes of most poems during the Spanish Occupation.