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    Spanish project Spanish project Document Transcript

    • “SPAIN-CULTURE, FESTIVAL, SPORTS, LANGUAGE & LITERATURE”SRI SHARADA INSTITUTE OF INDIAN MANAGEMENT-RESEARCH (A unit of Sri Sringeri Sharada Peetham, Sringeri) Approved by AICTE Plot No. 7, Phase-II, Institutional Area, Behind the Grand Hotel, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi ± 110070 Tel.: 2612409090 / 91; Fax: 26124092 E-mail: administration@srisim.org; Website: www.srisim.org THE PROJECT REPORT ON “SPAIN-CULTURE, FESTIVAL, SPORTS, LANGUAGE & LITERATURE”SUBMITTED TO SUBMITTED BYProf Tapan Paul Deepanshu Chamoli (20100131) Saptarshi Roy (20100122) PGDM-2nd YEAR Page 1
    • “SPAIN-CULTURE, FESTIVAL, SPORTS, LANGUAGE & LITERATURE”DECLARATIONI hereby declare that the project on “SPAIN-CULTURE, FESTIVAL, SPORTS,LANGUAGE & LITERATURE” ” of “ ” of PGDM to Sri Sharada Institutes ofIndian Management Research is my own original work for thefulfillment of the requirement for nay course of the study. I alsodeclare that no chapter of the manuscript in whole or part is liftedand incorporated in this report from any other work done by me orothers.Place:Date: Page 2
    • “SPAIN-CULTURE, FESTIVAL, SPORTS, LANGUAGE & LITERATURE”AcknowledgementIt is said, the most important single word is “WE” and the zero important singleword is “I”. This true even in today’s modern era .It is absolutely impossible for asingle individual to complete the assigned job without help and assistance fromothers.I would like to acknowledge to my sincere gratitude to our CMT& MD Rev. Swamiji (Dr.) Parthasarathy and my project guide Prof. Tapan Paul for helping me in thisproject work.I am thankful to all my friends and batch metes for their help in completing thisproject work. Finally, I am thankful to my entire family members for their greatsupport and encouragement.Deepanshu Chamoli (20100131)Saptarshi Roy (20100122)PGDM (2010-2012)Sri Sharada Institute Of Indian Management- Research Page 3
    • “SPAIN-CULTURE, FESTIVAL, SPORTS, LANGUAGE & LITERATURE”A SPANISH OVERVIEWPeople  Nationality: Noun--Spaniard(s).  Adjective--Spanish.  Population (National Institute of Statistics (INE), January 1, 2011): 47,150,819.  Ethnic groups: Distinct ethnic groups within Spain include the Basques, Catalans, and Galician’s.  Religion: Predominantly Roman Catholic (approx. 75%); Protestant and Islamic faiths also have a significant presence.  Languages: Spanish (official) 74%, Catalan-Valencia 17%, Galician 7%, Basque 2%.  Education: Years compulsory--to age 16. Literacy (INE, third quarter 2008)-- 97.6%.  Work force (first quarter 2011): 18.2 million.  Unemployment rate (first quarter 2011): 21.29%. Page 4
    • “SPAIN-CULTURE, FESTIVAL, SPORTS, LANGUAGE & LITERATURE”Economy  GDP (2010): $1.409 trillion (€1.063 trillion); seventh-largest economy in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).  Per capita GDP (2010): $29,876 (€22,536).  GDP annual growth rate (2010): -0.1%.  Natural resources: Coal, lignite, iron ore, uranium, mercury, pyrites, fluorspar, gypsum, zinc, lead, tungsten, copper, kaolin, hydroelectric power.  Agriculture and fisheries(2.5% of GDP, 2010): Products--grains, vegetables, citrus and deciduous fruits, wine, olives and olive oil, sunflowers, livestock and poultry, dairy products, seafood.  Industry (11.5% of GDP, 2010): Types--processed foods, textiles, footwear, petrochemicals, steel, automobiles, consumer goods, electronics.  Services (2010): 65.57% of GDP.  Trade (2010): Exports--$247.7 billion (€185.8 billion): automobiles, fruits, minerals, metals, clothing, footwear, textiles. Major markets--EU 67.7%, U.S. 3.51%. Imports--$317.4 billion (€238.1 billion): petroleum, oilseeds, aircraft, grains, chemicals, machinery, transportation equipment, fish, consumer goods. Major sources--EU 54.6%, U.S. 4%.  Average exchange rate (2010): 1 euro=U.S. $1.326.PeopleSpains population density, lower than that of most European countries, is roughlyequivalent to New Englands. In recent years, following a longstanding pattern inthe rest of Europe, rural populations are moving to cities. Urban areas are alsoexperiencing a significant increase in immigrant populations, chiefly from NorthAfrica, South America, and Eastern Europe. Spain has no official religion. Theconstitution of 1978 disestablished the Roman Catholic Church as the official statereligion, while recognizing the role it plays in Spanish society. According to theNational Institute of Statistics (April 2010), 73.2% of the population are Catholic,2.3% belong to another religion, 14.6% are agnostic, and 7.6% are atheists. Page 5
    • “SPAIN-CULTURE, FESTIVAL, SPORTS, LANGUAGE & LITERATURE”Educational SystemAbout 70% of Spains student population attends public schools or universities.The remainder attends private schools or universities, the great majority of whichare operated by the Catholic Church. Compulsory education begins with primaryschool or general basic education for ages 6-14. It is free in public schools and inmany private schools, most of which receive government subsidies. Followinggraduation, students attend either a secondary school offering a general highschool diploma or a school of professional education (corresponding to grades 9-12 in the United States) offering a vocational training program. The Spanishuniversity system offers degree and post-graduate programs in all fields--law,sciences, humanities, and medicine--and the superior technical schools offerprograms in engineering and architecture.HISTORY OF SPAINThe Iberian Peninsula has been settled for millennia. Some of Europes mostimpressive Paleolithic cultural sites are located in Spain, including the famouscaves at Altamira that contain spectacular paintings dating from about 15,000 to25,000 years ago. Beginning in the ninth century BC, Phoenicians, Greeks,Carthaginians, and Celts entered the Iberian Peninsula. The Romans followed inthe second century BC and laid the groundwork for Spains present language,religion, and laws. Although the Visigoths arrived in the fifth century AD, the lastRoman strongholds along the southern coast did not fall until the seventh centuryAD. In 711, North African Moors sailed across the straits, swept into Andalusia,and within a few years, pushed the Visigoths up the peninsula to the CantabrianMountains. The Recon quest--efforts to drive out the Moors--lasted until 1492. By1512, the unification of present-day Spain was complete.During the 16th century, Spain became the most powerful nation in Europe, dueto the immense wealth derived from its presence in the Americas. But a series oflong, costly wars and revolts, capped by the English defeat of the "InvincibleArmada" in 1588, began a steady decline of Spanish power in Europe. Controversyover succession to the throne consumed the country during the 18th century, Page 6
    • “SPAIN-CULTURE, FESTIVAL, SPORTS, LANGUAGE & LITERATURE”leading to an occupation by France during the Napoleonic era in the early 1800sand a series of armed conflicts throughout much of the 19th century.The 19th century saw the revolt and independence of most of Spains colonies inthe Western Hemisphere; three wars over the succession issue; the brief oustingof the monarchy and establishment of the First Republic (1873-74); and, finally,the Spanish-American War (1898), in which Spain lost Cuba, Puerto Rico, and thePhilippines to the United States. A period of dictatorial rule (1923-31) ended withthe establishment of the Second Republic. It was dominated by increasing politicalpolarization, culminating in the leftist Popular Front electoral victory in 1936.Pressures from all sides, coupled with growing and unchecked violence, led to theoutbreak of the Spanish Civil War in July 1936.Following the victory of his nationalist forces in 1939, General Francisco Francoruled a nation exhausted politically and economically. Spain was officially neutralduring World War II but followed a pro-Axis policy. Therefore, the victorious Alliesisolated Spain at the beginning of the postwar period. The country signed theMutual Defense Assistance Agreement with the U.S. on September 26, 1953 andjoined the United Nations in 1955. In 1959, under an International Monetary Fund(IMF) stabilization plan, the country began liberalizing trade and capital flows,particularly foreign direct investment.Despite the success of economic liberalization, Spain remained for years the mostclosed economy in Western Europe--judged by the small measure of foreign tradeto economic activity--and the pace of reform slackened during the 1960s as thestate remained committed to "guiding" the economy. Nevertheless, in the 1960sand 1970s, Spain was transformed into a modern industrial economy with athriving tourism sector. Its economic expansion led to improved incomedistribution and helped develop a large middle class. Social changes broughtabout by economic prosperity and the inflow of new ideas helped set the stagefor Spains transition to democracy during the latter half of the 1970s.Upon the death of General Franco in November 1975, Francos personally-designated heir Prince Juan Carlos de Bourbon y Borbon assumed the titles of kingand chief of state. Dissatisfied with the slow pace of post-Franco liberalization, he Page 7
    • “SPAIN-CULTURE, FESTIVAL, SPORTS, LANGUAGE & LITERATURE”replaced Francos last Prime Minister with Adolfo Suarez in July 1976. Suarezentered office promising that elections would be held within 1 year, and hisgovernment moved to enact a series of laws to liberalize the new regime. Spainsfirst elections since 1936 to the Cortes (Parliament) were held on June 15, 1977.Prime Minister Suarezs Union of the Democratic Center (UCD), a moderatecenter-right coalition, won 34% of the vote and the largest bloc of seats in theCortes. Under Suarez, the new Cortes set about drafting a democratic constitutionthat was overwhelmingly approved by voters in a national referendum inDecember 1978.SPANISH CULTURE-KEY CONCEPT AND VALUESFace - Spanish culture places a large emphasis on personal pride. Therefore,causing loss of face through criticism or embarrassment should be avoided at allcosts. During business meetings, for example, it is essential that yourpresentations are comprehensible in order to avoid any embarrassment that mayoccur from possible misunderstandings. In addition, when dealing with yourSpanish counterparts you may also find that competence and control areimportant elements of their work ethos and crucial for saving face. This mayresult in your Spanish colleagues insisting that everything is in order, even if it isnot.Individualism – In terms of personal attributes, individualism is highly valued inSpain, along with an emphasis on character and social status. Spanish culturehighlights the importance of self and one’s family. However, influenced by itscollectivist past, family values, a sense of identity and belonging to a group, arealso integral parts of society in Spain. Consequently personal qualities,appearance, image and personal relationships are extremely significantcomponents in contemporary Spanish culture. In a business context, personalattributes and character are frequently valued as much as technical ability,experience or professional competence. When doing business in Spain, you willfind that individualism is particularly predominant in management, where Spanishmanagers are less inclined to favor group decision making and team orientation. Page 8
    • “SPAIN-CULTURE, FESTIVAL, SPORTS, LANGUAGE & LITERATURE”Uncertainty Avoidance – This is a vital element of Spanish culture that refers tothe cautious approach the Spanish take towards new ideas. In Spain, individualstend to avoid ambiguity, but often accept a familiar risk situation. Spainsattitudes to rules, regulations and structure are important for maintaining a senseof control in a typically uncertain situation. In business, managers in Spaingenerally prefer to have precise answers to questions and give preciseinstructions in order to reduce conflict. In addition, you may find that the Spanishamenable nature to initial business suggestions is often hindered by a consideredand tentative approach to final decisions.SPANISH CULTUREClothing:  Modern, conservative, stylish  Girls wear trousers  Boys are into designer wear  Denim is “in”  Short skirts and swim-wear are frowned upon Page 9
    • “SPAIN-CULTURE, FESTIVAL, SPORTS, LANGUAGE & LITERATURE”Food:  Cheap, substantial meals as opposed to gourmet  Tapas  Serrano Ham  Fish delicacies (Paella)  Continental breakfast, light lunch, late evening mealConformities:  Greetings consist of a handshake and a kiss on both cheeks  Spanish men maintain longer eye contact with females  Life is slow paced  Life begins when the sun goes down Page 10
    • “SPAIN-CULTURE, FESTIVAL, SPORTS, LANGUAGE & LITERATURE”Nightlife:  Evenings start with el paseo  Spanish life is lived in the streets  Street cafes and bars  Nightclubs are the main attraction for teenagersSpain Architecture:The oldest works of architecture in Spain of which remains are left go back to themegalithic culture, approximately 3000 B.C. Anyhow, they are probably notexactly what you expect to find here. Lots of Roman monuments are conservedtoo, among the most important being the great aqueduct of Segovia and theTheater of Merida Roman Aqueduct of SegoviaAbsolutely stunning is what Moors have left in this country. The Great Mosque ofCordoba is one of the most visited sights by tourists, the other of course being Page 11
    • “SPAIN-CULTURE, FESTIVAL, SPORTS, LANGUAGE & LITERATURE”Granadas Alhambra which is perfectly conserved in its original condition. TheSpanish Moors created a style of their own that differs in many aspects from theirtraditional architecture which you may find in Africa and introduced severalnovelties. This style is called CaliphStyle. The Christians who lived in Muslimterritory were called Mozarabes, and so is called their particular architectonicalstyle which combines Visigoth construction technics and caliphstyle. After thecountry was conquered from the Muslims, Moorish architects who stayeddeveloped another new style combining their traditional architecture withRomanesque and Gothic elements, the Mudejar style.While most of Spain was occupied by the Moors, there existed still Visigothkingdoms in the countrys north. There you can find important monuments ofVisigoth and Romanesque styles, of the latter in particular along the "Way of SaintJames" (Tip!).In 12th century Gothic style was introduced in Spain, arriving to its greatestimportance during 13th century when the cathedrals of Burgos,Toledo and Leonwere built. Gothic in Spain combines frequently with Mudejar-elements.Mosque Mosque Moschee Court of the Myrtles AlhambraPlateresque style is the Spanish variation of Renaissance style. The word comesfrom "Plata", silver, indicating that it is much richer in ornamentation than forinstance Italian Renaissance style. One of the most representative monuments isthe University of Salamanca. Page 12
    • “SPAIN-CULTURE, FESTIVAL, SPORTS, LANGUAGE & LITERATURE”Monastery of the Escorial UniversityBaroque in Spain falls together with the countries perhaps most glorious epoch.Two opposite approaches may be observed: the works of Juan Herrera areremarkably austere (e.g. Monastery "El Escorial”, close to Madrid) whileChurriguera used extremely rich ornamentation. In Galicia exists another variationof baroque style, the so-called Barroco Compostelano, with Santiago deCompostable as its center.In Modernism Spain played again a highly important role. Most outstanding areperhaps the works of AntonioGaudi in Barcelona, as his great cathedral "SagradaFamiliar”. Until today Barcelona in particular has remained a center of modernand even futuristically architecture.SPAIN LANGUAGESpanish (Española or lengua Española), also known as Castilian (castellan orlengua castellan), is a Romance language in the Ibero-Romance group thatevolved from several dialects of spoken Latin in central-northern Iberia aroundthe ninth century and gradually spread with the expansion of the Kingdom ofCastile (present northern Spain) into central and southern Iberia during the laterMiddle Ages.The transition from medieval to modern Spanish is marked by the devoicing andshifting of the sibilant consonants of the old language (known in Spanish as thereadjusts de las sibilantes), which began in the fifteenth century. Early in itshistory, the Spanish vocabulary was enriched by its contact with Basque and Page 13
    • “SPAIN-CULTURE, FESTIVAL, SPORTS, LANGUAGE & LITERATURE”Arabic, and the language continues to adopt foreign words from a variety of otherlanguages, as well as developing new words. Spanish was taken most notably tothe Americas as well as to Africa and Asia Pacific with the expansion of theSpanish Empire between the fifteenth and nineteenth centuries, where it becamethe most important language for government and trade.In 1999 there were, according to Ethnologies, 358 million people speaking Spanishas a native language and a total of 417 million speakers worldwide. Currentlythese figures are up to 400 and 500 million people respectively. Spanish is thesecond most natively spoken language in the world, after Mandarin Chinese.Mexico contains the largest population of Spanish speakers. Spanish is one of thesix official languages of the United Nations, and is used as an official language bythe European Union and Mercosur.Due to its increasing presence in the demographics and popular culture of theUnited States, particularly in the fast-growing states of the Sun Belt, Spanish is themost popular second language learned by native speakers of American English.The increasing political stability and economies of many larger Hispanophonenations, the languages immense geographic extent in Latin America and Europefor tourism, and the growing popularity of warmer, more affordable, andculturally vibrant retirement destinations found in the Hispanic world havecontributed significantly to the growth of learning Spanish as a foreign languageacross the globe.Spanish is considered to be the worlds third most influential language afterEnglish and French, and is the third most commonly used language on theInternet after English and Mandarin. Spanish is second most studied language andsecond language in international communication, after English, in the world. Page 14
    • “SPAIN-CULTURE, FESTIVAL, SPORTS, LANGUAGE & LITERATURE”SPAIN FESTIVAL  Cdiz Cardinal: It’s a typical Spanish festival where people dress up and parade the streets  Valencia Fallas: The fallas are a Valencian traditional celebration in praise of Saint Joseph in Valencia.  Tomatina: La Tomatina is a food fight festival held at the last Wednesday of August each year. It is a funny battle where more than one hundred metric tons of over ripe tomatoes are thrown in the streets. Tomatina Valencia Fallas  Saint Fermin: The running of the bull, the biggest day is 7 July, when thousands of people accompany a replica of the statue of Saint Fermin along the street in the old part of Pamplona. Saint Fermin is accompanied by dancer and street entertainer. Cadiz Carnival Saint Fermin Page 15
    • “SPAIN-CULTURE, FESTIVAL, SPORTS, LANGUAGE & LITERATURE”SPAIN SPORTSSport in Spain in the second half of 20th century has always been dominated byfootball. Other popular sport activities include basketball, tennis, cycling,handball, motorcycling, Formula One, water sports, golf, and skiing. Spain has alsohosted a number of international events such as the 1992 Summer Olympics inBarcelona and the 1982 FIFA World Cup. With Rafael Nadals Wimbledonchampionships in 2008 and 2010, the 2006 World Basketball Championship, the2009 Basketball Euro cup, the 2008 Tennis Davis Cup, Atletico Madrid UEFAEuropa League 2010, FC Barcelona European success in 2006, 2009 and 2011, thefootball team bringing home the Euro 2008 trophy & the 2010 FIFA World Cuptrophy and Carlos Sastres Tour de France triumph more recently, several papershave looked beyond Sastres win to claim that Spain is enjoying something of asporting "Golden Age"-similar to the Spanish 17th century domination in paintingand literature.  Football: In Spain football is one of the most popular sports. It has got some very good teams, like Real Madrid and FC Barcelona  Basketball: Basketball is a popular sport in Spain. The ACB league is one of the major European basketball leagues.  Tennis: Spain has produced number of tennis champions, excelling in tournaments held in clay courts such as Roland Garros tournament. Rafael Nadal is considered one of the greatest Spanish tennis player of all tennis Page 16
    • “SPAIN-CULTURE, FESTIVAL, SPORTS, LANGUAGE & LITERATURE”  Cycling: Cycling is also very popular in Spain. Alberto Contador is the double winner of the Tour of France. He’s also won the Tour of Spain and the Tour of Italy  Moto racing: Bike racing is popular among the young. Lorenzo and Deni Pedrosa are currently racing in the Top GP category.  Rugby Union: There are currently over 20,000 registered rugby union players in Spain, and the game dates back over a century. Actor Javier Bardem is a notable former Spanish rugby player.  Handball: The Spanish Liga ASOBAL is one of the best club competitions. A number of Spanish teams such as BM Ciudad Real, FC Barcelona Handball, and Portland San Antonio have won or were finalists in the EHF Champions League. Since the 1990s the mens national team has won eight medals in top class international tournaments, with three bronze medals at the Olympics, three second and a third place at the European Championship and a World Championship.  Basque and Valencian pelota: Basque pelota and Valencian pilota are traditional Spanish sports. Tournaments includes trinquete, Trofeu Individual Bancaixa, Circuit Bancaixa, raspall singles championship, andraspall team championship.  Skiing: Skiing is a popular sport. In the past, the sport was under development for economic reasons. However the improvement of the economy of Spain, helped skiing become an active sport event. It has become popular, and the skiing sites have been modernized in recent years. In Spain is the southernmost ski resort of Europe, Sierra Nevada. Skiing is one of the favorite sports of the Spanish Royal Family. Page 17
    • “SPAIN-CULTURE, FESTIVAL, SPORTS, LANGUAGE & LITERATURE”INDIA-SPAIN RELATION  Political relationsRelations between India and Spain are cordial, particularly since theestablishment of democracy in Spain in 1978. Diplomatic relations between thetwo countries were established in 1956 with the opening of the Spanish Embassyin New Delhi followed in 1958 by the concurrent accreditation of Indian HighCommissioner in London as Ambassador to Spain. A Mission headed by a Charged’Affaires opened in Madrid the same year. The first resident Ambassador wasappointed in 1965.Other recent visits from India included those by Shri P. Chidambaram, FinanceMinister (May 2008); Dr. Anbumani Ramadoss, Minister of Health and FamilyWelfare (May 2008); Shri Murli Deora, Minister for Petroleum & Natural Gas(June-July 2008); Smt. Ambika Soni, Minister of Tourism & Culture (Oct 2008);Prof. K.V. Thomas, MOS for Agriculture, Food & Public Distribution (Sept 2009);Dr. Shashi Tharoor, MOS, External Affairs (Jan 2010); Ms. . Kumari Selja, Ministerof Tourism & HUPA (Jan 2010); Dr. Farooq Abdullah, Minister for New andRenewable Energy (May 2010); Shri Anand Sharma, Minister for Commerce andIndustry (June 2010); Shri Sachin Pilot, Minister of State for Communications andInformation Technology (February 2011); Shri. Sam Pitroda, Adviser to the PrimeMinister on Public Information Infrastructure and Innovation (May 2011) and Dr CP Joshi, Minister for Road Transport and Highways (May 2011). Such visits fromthe Spanish side were by Ms. Esperanza Aguirre, President of the Community ofMadrid (Nov 2008), Mr. Miguel Sebastian, Minister of Industry, Trade and Tourism(Dec 2008) and Ms. Maria Teresa Fernandez de la Vega, Deputy Prime Minister(Jan 2009).Bilateral Agreements and TreatiesIndia has signed the following treaties/agreements/MoUs with Spain:• Agreement on Trade and Economic Cooperation (1972) Page 18
    • “SPAIN-CULTURE, FESTIVAL, SPORTS, LANGUAGE & LITERATURE”• Agreement on Cultural Cooperation (1982). The CEP for the period 2005-08 wassigned in March 2005,• Civil Aviation Agreement (1986).• Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement (1993).• Bilateral Investment Protection and Promotion Agreement (1997).• Extradition Treaty (2002)• MoU on Institutionalization of Political Dialogue (2006)• Mutual Legal Assistance treaty on Criminal Matters (2006).• MoU between Technology Development Board (TDB) and the Centre forDevelopment of Industrial Technology (2006).• MoU of cooperation in the field of S&T (2007)• MoU on Cooperation in Agriculture and Allied Fields (April 2009)• MoU on Tourism Cooperation (April 2009)• MoU on Renewable Energy (April 2009)  Cultural relationsA Cultural Agreement between India and Spain was signed in 1982. There hasbeen considerable amount of cultural activity between the two countries. At theinitiative of the Embassy of India in Madrid, Casa de la India, Casa Asia and theMinistries of Foreign Affairs of both countries, a Civil Society Dialogue in the formof an India–Spain Tribune was instituted in 2005. Five sessions of the Tribunehave been held so far alternately in Spain and in India. The 5th Session was held inMadrid in October, 2010. A Mini Festival of Indian classical music was held inJune, 2010. Page 19
    • “SPAIN-CULTURE, FESTIVAL, SPORTS, LANGUAGE & LITERATURE”  Indian CommunityThe total Indian community in Spain is estimated to be roughly 30,000. SeveralIndian businessmen and traders migrated to Canary Islands after World War II,when the Islands were declared free port following the imposition of import andforeign exchange restrictions in Spain. The rough estimate of such PIOs is about15,000 and approximately an equal number of Indian nationals reside here.  Commercial relationsBilateral trade between India and Spain has increased significantly in the last fewyears. It grew to more than five times from US $900 million in 2000 to US$ 4.59billion in 2008. The trade statistics for the last few years are given below:Though some major Spanish companies - Roca, Duro Fulguera, Cipsa, Isolux,Acciona, Simon, Banco Popular have entered in India, it is felt that Spanishinvestment in India (around USD 820 million so far) is not commensurate with thepotential that exists in sectors such as tourism, infrastructure, food processing,energy, both renewable and non-renewable, and the automobile industries.Indian investment in Spain has been growing and presently stands at € 692million.Several Indian Companies including Telco, TCS, Ranbaxy and Infosys have apresence in Spain. The 9th Session of the Joint Economic Commission (JEC) washeld in Madrid in June, 2010 at the Ministerial level. Page 20
    • “SPAIN-CULTURE, FESTIVAL, SPORTS, LANGUAGE & LITERATURE”Music and DanceSpanish music is often considered abroad to be synonymous with flamenco, aWest Andalusia musical genre, which, contrary to popular belief, is notwidespread outside that region. Various regional styles of folk music abound inAragon, Catalonia, Valencia, Castile, the Basque Country, Galicia and Asturias.Pop, rock, hip hop and heavy metal are also popular.In the field of classical music, Spain has produced a number ofnoted composers such as Isaac Albeniz, Manuel de Falla and EnriqueGranados and singers and performers such as Plácido Domingo, JoséCarreras, Montserrat Caballé, Alicia de Larrocha, Alfredo Kraus, PabloCasals, Ricard Viñes, José Iturbi, Pablo de Sarasate, Jordi Savall and TeresaBerganza. In Spain there are over forty professional orchestras, includingthe Orquestra Simfònica de Barcelona, Orquesta National de España andthe Orquesta Sinfónica de Madrid. Major opera houses include the Teatro Real,the Gran Teatre del Liceu, Teatro Arriaga and the El Palau de les Arts Reina Sofía.Thousands of music fans also travel to Spain each year for internationallyrecognized summer music festivals Sonar which often features the top up andcoming pop and techno acts, and Benicàssim which tends to feature alternativerock and dance acts. Both festivals mark Spain as an international music presenceand reflect the tastes of young people in the country.The most popular traditional musical instrument is the guitar, which originated inSpain. Also typical of the northern bands of bagpipers (gaiteros), mainly in Galiciaand the Principality of Asturias. Page 21
    • “SPAIN-CULTURE, FESTIVAL, SPORTS, LANGUAGE & LITERATURE”References:  www.google.com  http://www.idealspain.com  http://spanishunlimited.com  http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/39249000/jpg/_39249664_bullfight ap203.jpg  http://www.all-creatures.org/anex/cattle-bf-21.jpg  http://www.world-guides.com/images/ibiza/ibiza_nightclubs3.jpg  http://www.nerjarentals.info/nerja/img/nerja-nightlife.jpg  http://www.travelinstyle.com/spain/Copy%20of%20spain2/EspanaImageSm l/Flamenco.jpg Page 22