Father of “Romanticism” Jean-Jacques RousseauFrench writer & philosopher (1712-1778) “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains”“I am different from all the men I have seen. If I am not better, at least I am different.”
FRENCH REVOLUTION “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” 1789-1799Sympathy for the oppressed More than ever, there was an appreciationEarly 19th century: The lasting effect for the individual, simple folk/childrentriggered a change of power from the Faith in humankind and its destiny; outcryhereditary land-holding aristocracy to for equality. Optimism overshadowed bythe middle class doubt.
Industrial Revolution early 18th-19th centuries The root of the middle-class uprising due tomajor changes in agriculture, manufacturing,mining, transportation, and technology Intellectual and artistic hostility arose outof the newly developed industry New found freedoms were a double-edged sword Artists/poets/musicians felt more cut off from society skepticism of the “monstrous machines and factories” stressed the importance of “nature”
Romantic Writers ✦ Hugo’s “Les Miserables” was✦ Emerging poets/writers rebelled dedicated “to the unhappy ones against the conventional of the earth” concerns of their predecessors ✦ great theme of conﬂict between✦ Attracted to the picturesque, the individual and society fanciful, and passionate ✦ Inspired countless adaptations✦ Wrote with INTENSELY including the musical of the same EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION name Edgar Allen Poe’s Mary Shelley’s “Frankenstein” “the Raven” social commentary regarding presented bleak and the industrial revolution dreary landscapes
Industrial Revolution’s Positive impact on MusicInstruments more affordable & responsive with better intonation, new timbres ✦Brass instruments now had valves (horns/trumpets) ✦Piano built with cast iron frames and thicker strings = louder capabilities ✦New instruments emerged: Tuba, Saxophone (invented in 1840) ✦ Percussion instruments: celesta, tubular bells, glockenspielBroadened educational opportunities for the study of music. ✦ The chief cities in Europe established conservatories: specialized colleges for the study of advanced musicianship ✦ Great composers were also expected to help educate musicians ✦Felix Mendelssohn founded the Leipzig Conservatory in 1843 ✦Richard Wagner directed his own theater at Bayreuth in Germany ✦Robert Schumann was also a widely read music critic
Musical Society in the 19th century✦ The emerging democratic society liberated composers and musicians.✦ Romantic composers who were very popular for their Romantic techniques include Giuseppe Verdi, Hector Berlioz, Peter Tchaikovsky, Richard Wagner, Robert Schumann, Franz Schubert, Frédéric Chopin.✦ Supported by middle/upper class audience of public concert halls✦ Solo performers dominate the concert hall = “stars” idolized by the public✦ Women encouraged to play, sing, and/or play piano as a sign of “class” ✦More women composers emerge: Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel, Clara Schumann, and American Amy Cheney Beach ✦Some women were also important patrons to composers (novelist George Sand=Chopin)
Rise of public concert halls: as opposed to palaces and churches ✦To accommodate the growing orchestra (now with english horn, piccolo, tuba, and various percussion) and to heighten the greater contrast in dynamics (ppp - fff) ✦ Growth of orchestras called for greater use of orchestration the art of arranging the music of an orchestra. ✦ Wider palette of timbres ✦ Central ﬁgure to the orchestra is the conductor who is necessary to keep the large groups together.Wide interest in folklore resulted in Nationalism ✦ National idioms emerge as extensions of melodies from composers’ native landsExoticism: ﬁrst arose from northern European composers longing for the soundscharacteristic in the southern countries. ✦Interest in melodies from the East (Asia) and further south (Egypt and Middle East)
Romantic Style Traits ✦ Instrumental music longed for LYRICISM :“singing” melodies ✦ Highly expressive harmonic devices (chromaticism and dissonant chords) ✦ Symphonies became more grand ✦ Performance time is anywhere from a half hour to an hour ✦ Classical Symphony performance time = approx. 20 min ✦ Closer connection to the current painters and literary ﬁgures.Richard Wagner Johannes Brahms Frédéric Chopin Franz Schubert
VIDEO Hector Berlioz’sSymphonie Fantastique: 4th movement March to the Scaffold
The Romantic MiniatureThroughout the 19th century miniature forms rose in popularity partially due to the risein popularity of pianos in homesSong structures Through composed = no repetition in sections; music follows the story line. Strophic = same melody for each stanza (or strophe) of a poem found in: Hymns, carols, folk, and popular songs Modiﬁed Strophic form = Same melody for each stanza with liberties of adding new material as the poem requires it (typically at the song’s climax) This combines strophic and through-composed forms Lied (pl. Lieder)= GERMAN art song. solo vocal song with piano accompaniment; German text a song cycle is a group of Lieder that are all uniﬁed by a single narrative Grew from the outpouring of German lyric poets like Goethe and Heine who favored short, personal, lyric poems Composers of Lied: Schumann, Brahms, Schubert Franz Schubert p. 197 (1797-1828) - composed 600+ Lieder. At age 18, his 1st and most famous Lied (Erlking) is based on a legend (whoever is touched by the king of the elves must die)
Short Lyric Piano Literature The instrumental equivalent to the art song were short piano pieces✤Piano - Mainstream instrument, the most popular and important keyboard instrumentof the Romantic era ✤piano virtuosos emerged (not always a composer as well)✤Used fanciful names to describe the nature of the piece. ✤Examples: Prelude, Intermezzo (interlude), Impromptu (spur of moment), Nocturne (night piece), Etudes (studies, meant for students)✤Dance music inspired uptempo pieces. Ex: Mazurka, Polonaise, Waltz✤Important piano composers: Franz Liszt, Felix Mendelssohn and sister FannyMendelssohn Hensel, Robert and wife Clara Schumann, andFrédéric François Chopin p. 201 (1810-1849) “poet of piano” - composed almost exclusively for piano Expressed a tempo rubato style where the tempo is “robbed of time”; played freely with passages that slow down and speed up according to the nature of the music
VIDEOPolonaise in A Major, Op. 40, No.1 (Military) follow along with listening guide p.202
Romantic Program Music Composer provides a literary or pictorial association (opposite of absolute music) 1. Concert overture - single movement work with a literary connection 2. Symphonic poem or Tone Poem -arose because of the popularity of opera overtures -single movement work that expressed -to be played in concert settings a poetic idea, mood, or landscape -uses traditional forms (rondo, ternary, etc) -freer formEx: Romeo and Juliet by Tchaikovsky Ex: My Country by Smetana 3. Incidental music - music included in a play-overture and series of pieces performed between acts of a play and during important scenes-Very important today, where it is used in movies and T.V. shows (background music)Ex: Mendelssohn’s music set to Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream. 4. Program symphony- Multimovement orchestral work with a story.Ex: Symphonie Fantastique by Berlioz (see pg. 205) uses an idée ﬁxe (ﬁxed idea) a melody that represented an important character (in this case, the love interest).
Examples of Nationalism★All across Europe (and later in America), many composers took pride in their country and showed their appreciation by composing works inspired by their own unique culture★Use of folk melodies and popular instruments. ★Smetana’s symphonic poem My Country (Czech) ★Chopin’s Polish mazurkas and polonaises ★Liszt’s Hungarian Rhapsodies ★Scandinavian school Norway = Edvard Grieg Finland = Jean Sibelius ★Russian school “The Mighty Five” (pictured) ★National Opera Styles (p. 216)
Romantic Opera Golden Age of Opera Italy, France, and Germany were the leading countriesFrance ✤ Paris became the opera center of Europe in late 18th and 19th centuries ✤ comic opera= opéra comique - included spoken dialogue, simpler compositional style ✤ The most popular NEW genre was grand opera which focused on serious historical themes nourished by the new French leaders’ propagandist purposes.Germany ✤ comic opera= Singspiel was a light comedic drama with spoken dialogue and was the ﬁrst dominating German genre of opera (18th century) ✤ The music drama was the NEW genre created by late Romantic composer Richard Wagner ✤integrated theater and music (no seperate arias, duets, ensembles, and choruses) ✤large scale and spectacular settings (huge choruses, crowd scenes, elaborate dances and lavish scenery) ✤Orchestra was focal point ✤created a ﬂexible “endless melody” fashioned out of concise themes known as leitmotifs (leading motives) which represent characters, emotions, or ideas ✤Transformations occur throughout (variations throughout)
Italy ✤ 19th century opera seria and opera buffa continued ✤ Development of bel canto style = beautiful singing style. Featured dazzling melodies and singers with voices that were pure and agile. ✤ Ex. Rossini, Bellini, and VerdiGuiseppe Verdi (1813-1901) p. 218 ✤Master of Italian opera = developed a uniquely national style. composed 28 operas ✤Rigoletto based on Victor Hugo’s “The King’s Fool” ✤opera seria premiered in mid-19th century ✤a controversial tale of Francis I (France) which included insulting references to King Louis-Philippe. ✤showcases bel canto styleExoticism in opera ✤Desire for a picturesque atmosphere that showed off the imagination of the composer rather than the historical accuracy and authenticity ✤Elements from the South or East found their way into many operas. ✤exotic melodies, harmonies, and rhythms ✤exotic costumes and scenery Ex: Puccini’s Madame Butterﬂy (set in Asia), Verdi’s Aida (set in Africa)
VIDEOVerdi’s La donne è mobile from Rigoletto (Act III)
Other Romantic Vocal WorksPopularity of vocal genres (Lied, Opera, etc) led to a huge increase in choral musicRegarded as a sacred genre before, new secular choral part songs emerged ✤ single-movement songs for 3-4 voices generally short in length ✤ Intended for amateur/young singersSacred genres (large-scale) like Mass, Requiem Mass (Mass for the dead), and Oratoriosbecame acceptable performance pieces in the concert hall.Johannes Brahms p. 225 (1833-1897) Traditionalist (Romantic art in Classical style) - wroteabsolute music His German Requiem was performed in concert halls; performed by vocal soloists, 4-part chorus, and orchestral accompaniment. ✤7 movements ✤arranged in “arch” formation = musical connections between 1st +7th, 2nd+6th, and 3rd+5th. ✤4th movement served as the centerpiece which uses the widely known How Lovely Is Thy Dwelling Place as its melody ✤rooted in the Protestant tradition (based text from the Old and New Testaments) ✤Inspired to write it upon the passing of both his teacher Robert Schumann and his mother
VIDEOBrahms’ Symphony No. 3 in F Major Op. 90, 3rd movement
Ballet• Began in the Renaissance as entertainment for festivals and royal theatrical events• Baroque, elaborate ballets presented in French operas and entertainment events• Grew in popularity as an independent art form in 18th century and into the 19th century in France.• 1847-arrival in St. Petersburg (Russia) of choreographer Marius Petipa marked the beginning of Russian ballet as its own distinguished genre. •Through his work on over 100 works in Russia, Pepita invented the pas de deux (dance for 2) structure for staging dances •Eventually, RUSSIAN ballet impresario Serge Diagolev (1872-1929) would a huge inﬂuence in 20th century ballet •his dance company Ballets Russes opened up a new cultural life in Europe prior to WWI. •invited artists like Bakst, Braque, and Picasso to paint scenery •commissioned Igor Stravinsky to write 3 ballets that catapulted his career (The Firebird, Petrushka, Rite of Spring) •Russian composers embraced the growing interest in ballet.
Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893) p.227 ✤Studied at St Petersburg Conservatory, taught at Moscow Conservatory ✤Patron=Nadezhda von Meck (wealthy widow who commissioned many of his works) ✤Embodied some of the nationalism and pessimism of the Romantic era artists. ✤Attracted to ballet, he took inﬂuences from French ballet, Italian opera, and the German symphony to shape his style for his 3 ballets ✤ 1876- Swan Lake ✤ 1889- The Sleeping Beauty ✤ 1892- The Nutcracker✤based on the ﬁctitious story by E.T.A.Hoffman (expanded by Alexandre Dumas)✤overture and 2 Acts✤synopsis on pp 228-230