Medieval power point


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Chapters 12-13 from THE ENJOYMENT OF MUSIC: LISTENING EDITION are highlighted

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Medieval power point

  1. 1. Medieval/Middle Ages Dark Ages c.500-1000 Late Middle Ages c.1000-1450
  2. 2. Music of Greek and Rome providedfoundation for music of laterages• very few documented works exist.• Most documents of music were destroyedduring the fall of the Roman Empire (c.476)
  3. 3. Dark Ages (c.500-1000) Ascent and Development Secular music learned by oral transmission Sacred music preserved earliest examples of notated music
  4. 4. Late Middle Ages (c. 1000-1450) (c. 1000-1450)developed cathedrals & universitiesmany great literary works shaped language: Chanson do Roland (1100) Divine Comedy (1307) Canterbury Tales (1386)Crusades (c. 200 years)males dominated: idealized the figure of the fearless warriorstatus of women was raised by universal cult of Mary (mother ofChrist)promoted concepts of chivalry and adornment by knights.women and love become popular topics in poetry and song
  5. 5. Church & State 2 centers of power 2 centers of powerSTATE: newly developedgovernments led by a kingCHARLEMANGNE (742-814)emperor of the Franks developed modern government encouraged education
  6. 6. Roman Catholic Church PATRONAGE: church is largest patron of music men/women preserved & performed music monastaries develop code of conduct monophonic PLAINCHANT or “Gregorian chant” dominates
  7. 7. Gregorian Chant Named after Pope Gregory the Great (540-604) Single line (monophonic) Latin text Functional music for LITURGY (church services) Uses MODES for melodies (special scales) Notated by NEUMES (asc./dec. symbols)
  8. 8. 3 types of Chant syllabic: 1 note per syllable neumatic: small groups of notes (2-6) per syllable melismatic: long groups of notes for each syllableChant dominated until REFORM movement ofCouncil of Trent (1545-1563)
  9. 9. Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179) •nun, playwright, poet, musician, naturalist, pharmacologist, visionary •wrote 77 chants •many songs praise Virgin Mary •composed Alleluia: o virga mediatrix
  10. 10. ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH SERVICES Daily Offices: series of services throughout the day Mass most solemn ritual of church Reenactment of the sacrifice of Christ Latin texts Proper: texts that varied from day to day Ordinary: texts remained the sameCloister - men and women served the church which was a heavy daily work schedule
  11. 11. Rise of Polyphony Organum - earliest form of polyphony developed by Notre Dame Cathedral composers added interval of 4th or 5th toexisting chant (new ideas founded onold) Fixed melody (called tenor) upper part freely composed above Rhythmic modes (patterns) Motet - added new text to highly melismatic organum
  12. 12. Secular musicMostly instrumental dance music Triple meter, binary forms embellishments are added upon repeatsVocal music Minstrels: versatile traveling entertainers, lower class Troubadours and Trouvères: French poet-musicians, court musicians and members of aristocracy, songs about chivalry, unrequited love, political and war songs Minnesingers: German counterpart to Troubadours