Neoclassic Period• Neoclassicism Greek: ‘neos’ ; Latin: ‘classicus’ ; Greek: ‘ismos’.• It began in France by the writings of Italian scholars in 15th century, then to the theatre.• Mid 17th to early 18th centuries.• It is signed by grandiosity (greatness), intricate scenery, and elaborated drama (melodrama).• Neoclassic believes that the main reason of a play were enjoyment and to teach a lesson.
Neoclassic Period (Cont..)• Neoclassic focuses on decorum (appropriateness), dignified behavior, and realism.• The stage was signed by the dramatic, elaborated, and rich scenery.• It then developed by the redesigned stage; the creation of pulley system to help moving the stage faster, the lighting and sound effects.
Neoclassic Period (Cont..)Two main types of play in Neoclassic period: 1. Comedy It focused on the lower levels of society. 2. Tragedy It portrayed the complex and fateful lives of the upper classes and royals.
The Characteristics ofNeoclassic • Verisimilitude • rules: reality, morality & generality Unity of time, place and action Ethical and philosophical framework within the play Creating characters that are identifiable as good and proper French citizens
The Characteristics ofNeoclassic •No mixing of genres (comedy and tragedy) • Plays must be five acts • The costumes and scenery were intricate and elaborate. • The acting is characterized by large gestures and melodrama.
PlaywrightJean Racine Jean-Baptiste Racine (22 December 1639 – 21 April 1699) He was a French dramatist, one of the three great playwrights of 17th-century France
PlaywrightRacine’s plays• Phèdre• Andromaque• Athalie• Les Plaideurs• Esther
PlaywrightJean-Baptiste Poquelin (Molière) (January 15, 1622 – February 17, 1673) He was a French playwright and actor who is considered to be one of the greatest masters of comedy in Western literature
PlaywrightMolière’s Plays• Le Misanthrope (The Misanthrope)• LÉcole des femmes (The School for Wives)• Tartuffe ou LImposteur (Tartuffe or the Imposter)• LAvare (The Miser)• Le Malade imaginaire (The Imaginary Invalid), and• Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme (The Bourgeois Gentleman).
PlaywrightPierre CorneilleThe father of french tragedian• Pierre Corneille was born in Rouen in 1606 and died in 1684• He was raised in the Jesuit tradition and studied law• A significant part of his life was spent as a member of parliament• During his time in parliament, and for years afterward, he was the playwright who established the Neoclassical Ideal in French theatre.
Playwright• Although he is most famous as a writer of tragedy,• his first eight plays were comedies and first works Mélite (1629), .• In both tragedy and comedy, he achieved success writing great plays that strictly adhered to the Neoclassical doctrines of verisimilitude and the unities.
Playwright• While the play adhered to the unities of time, place, and action, the decision of the lovers to marry so quickly after the death of Chimene’s father was seen as a violation of decorum.• In addition, the play did not seem to fit any of the recognized dramatic types; it was neither comedy nor tragedy.• After the pause in his work, he wrote four more plays, all of excellent worth within the Neoclassical Ideal.
Example of pierre work’s• (tragedy) Le Cid – The play begins in the evening. The hero, Roderigue, and the heroine, Chimene, are engaged to be married. Roderigue’s father, Don Diegue, is insulted by Chimene’s father, Don Gomez, when they quarrel over the king’s favor. The elder general, Don Diegue is unable to defend his honor, and so he sends his son (Roderigue) against Chimene’s father in a duel. Roderigue succeeds in killing Don Gomez, but it costs him the love of Chimene. While Chimene sues to the king for vengeance, word arrives of an invasion from a Moorish fleet. Roderique leads 500 soldiers in a surprise attack against the Moors, and he succeeds in thwarting the invasion and saving the kingdom. The king cannot act against his newest hero, but, the next morning, Chimene offers herself in marriage to whoever will challenge Roderigue to avenge the death of her father. Don Sancho volunteers and Chimene quickly accepts. The king determines that Chimene will wed whoever wins the duel. Roderigue privately informs Chimene that he will not defend himself – he would rather die with honor than live without her love. Chimene reveals her love for Roderique and orders him to defend himself. Roderique is successful, but Chimene cannot marry the man who killed her father so quickly after his death. The king grants Chimene one year to mourn for her father while Roderigue is ordered to lead the army against the Moors, until their love can be united.
Proscenium TheaterProscenium is from a Greek word:Pro in frontSkene hut-ion diminutive suffix