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  1. 1. “ Isms:” Reactions to the Industrial Revolution
  2. 2. Social and Economic Strains => New philosophies to fix society <ul><li>Social Strains: </li></ul><ul><li>Massive Population Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Tension between “haves” and “have-nots” </li></ul><ul><li>Overpopulation and poor living, working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialization changes family roles and relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialization changes work habits </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Strains: </li></ul><ul><li>Widening gap between rich and poor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty seen as a character flaw </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wages don’t grow as quick for working classes </li></ul><ul><li>Workers don’t have much job security or benefits </li></ul>
  3. 3. MALTHUS’S THEORY Food supply increases arithmetically Population increases geometrically STARVATION!
  4. 4. MALTHUS’S CYCLE Population Increase GOOD TIMES Good Food Supply BAD TIMES Food Shortages Population Decline
  5. 5. MALTHUS’S CHECKS ON POPULATION GROWTH Growth of population can not be stopped without “misery or vice”! <ul><li>NEGATIVE CHECKS </li></ul><ul><li>LATE MARRIAGES </li></ul><ul><li>CELIBACY/ RESTRAINT </li></ul><ul><li>CONTRACEPTION </li></ul><ul><li>POSITIVE CHECKS </li></ul><ul><li>WAR </li></ul><ul><li>FAMINE </li></ul><ul><li>DISEASE </li></ul>
  6. 6. Reaction: David Ricardo’s “Iron Law of Wages” Population Increase GOOD TIMES Higher Wages BAD TIMES Lower Wages Population Decline
  7. 7. Reaction: Ricardo’s “Iron Law of Wages” <ul><li>Wages should remain low (near subsistence levels) </li></ul><ul><li>Suffering among lower classes unavoidable </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts to provide assistance to poor would only hurt them in the long run (you’re stringing them along!) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Other Economic “Isms”…
  9. 9. LIBERALISM SOCIALISM CLASSICAL LIBERALISM (CAPITALISM) UTOPIAN SOCIALISM SCIENTIFIC SOCIALISM (MARXISM) UTILITARIANISM Karl Marx Adam Smith Thomas Malthus David Ricardo Jeremy Bentham John Stuart Mill Friedrich Engels Robert Owen Charles Fourier Henri Saint-Simon
  10. 10. Capitalism <ul><li>Adam Smith </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth of Nations (1776) </li></ul><ul><li>Laissez-Faire! </li></ul><ul><li>Allow Men to Pursue Economic Self-Interest </li></ul><ul><li>The “Invisible Hand” Will Provide Best for All </li></ul>
  11. 11. Utopian Socialism <ul><li>Established plans for ideal, cooperative societies </li></ul><ul><li>Members of each society shared in decision-making and the fruits of their labor </li></ul><ul><li>Consider: communes </li></ul>Robert Owen Charles Fourier Henri Saint-Simon
  12. 12. Utilitarianism <ul><li>Seeks “the greatest good for the greatest number” of people </li></ul><ul><li>Judges laws & policies based upon whether they produce economic & social justice </li></ul><ul><li>Provided basis for greater government intervention in free market </li></ul>Jeremy Bentham John Stuart Mill
  13. 13. Karl Marx 1818-1883 Friedrich Engels 1820-1895 Communism (Marxism)
  14. 14. Marxism <ul><li>Karl Marx: </li></ul><ul><li>German </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote Kapital , where he defined much of philosophies </li></ul><ul><li>With Frederich Engels (son of industrialist), wrote The Communist Manifesto , 1848 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Communist Beliefs ( From each according to his abilities,to each accordingto his needs.) <ul><li>Society’s institutions are ALL designed to support interests of the dominant economic class. </li></ul><ul><li>Historically : Slave Societies (Pharaohs), Feudalism (Lords and Kings), Capitalism (Bourgeoisie) </li></ul><ul><li>Fierce business competition would cause the bourgeoisie to consume and absorb each other and increase suffering among workers (low wages, unemployment, & poor working conditions). </li></ul><ul><li>Workers (the proletariat) would eventually gain “class consciousness,” overthrow the bourgeoisie, and create a society w/o class or private property. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Communism vs. Capitalism The Communist Manifesto Wealth of Nations Book Karl Marx/Frederick Engels Adam Smith Founders Communism Capitalism
  17. 17. Communism vs. Capitalism Communism Capitalism <ul><li>Everything owned by government </li></ul><ul><li>Government closely regulates economy (sets prices, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Government should not interfere with economy – laissez faire </li></ul>View of gov’t
  18. 18. Communism vs. Capitalism <ul><li>People should cooperate to obtain success, eliminating competition </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone should have an equal share of the available wealth/property </li></ul><ul><li>People become wealthy because they offer something – a product or service, that others want </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone has the opportunity to succeed </li></ul>View on people
  19. 19. Communism vs. Capitalism <ul><li>Government ownership of the economy will end unemployment, poverty, hunger, and slave-like working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Through hard work people can lift themselves out of poverty </li></ul>Social Conditions Communism Capitalism
  20. 20. Communism vs. Capitalism <ul><li>Government determines job placement </li></ul><ul><li>Religion considered a burden </li></ul><ul><li>Sacrifice freedom for security </li></ul><ul><li>People are free to choose their own careers </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of religion </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom is more important than security </li></ul>Individual Freedom Communism Capitalism
  21. 21. Communism vs. Capitalism <ul><li>Capitalism is self-destructive </li></ul><ul><li>Workers will eventually rise up in a violent revolution and take power </li></ul><ul><li>The future of the world is communism </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism is the only efficient economic system </li></ul>Future of the World