Spread Am Democracy


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Spread Am Democracy

  1. 1. The Spread of American Democracy
  2. 2. Key Things to Remember <ul><ul><li>Democracy is Hard Work! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We still struggle with making democracy work! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Just because something works in one place, it doesn’t mean that it will work elsewhere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You need to understand history and conditions in other places </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People don’t decide to do random and “crazy” things for no reason </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Background <ul><ul><li>US first country founded as democracy since Athens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US borrowed ideas from others: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Athens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Romans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Judeo-Christian Tradition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enlightenment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Early Problems <ul><ul><li>Strength of a Federal Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State Rights vs. Federal Rights </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inconsistency in trade, currency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US was flat broke </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Resolution <ul><ul><li>1787 - Articles of Confederation replaced by Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clear limits on power of Federal Government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>States given specific rights </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>National currency and defense </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Exporting American Democracy - Middle East <ul><li>Understand the Following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social: Patriarchal Society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many ethnic groups! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political: Many empires over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalism! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion : Mostly Islam, but also Jews and Christians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sects: Sunni and Shia </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Exporting American Democracy - Middle East <ul><ul><li>Intellectual: Islam has VERY strong sense of Justice, rule of law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological: We most associate oil with the region, but SUPER-IMPORTANT location on trade routes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic: Oil has brought great wealth to some nations, but others extremely poor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems in Middle East are several centuries in the making = no quick fix !!! </li></ul>
  8. 8. Exporting American Democracy - Iraq <ul><li>Iraq: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Until 1918: In Province of Mesopotamia, Ottoman Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1918: WWI ends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British promised independence after war </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British and France betray region, make them mandates (fancy word for colony) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 11. Iraq, Cont’d <ul><ul><li>Oil! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WWII: Germans promise independence if Middle East countries help them - Germany loses war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1960s: “Democratic” Baath Party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secular Gov’t </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively stable </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 12. Iraq, Cont’d <ul><ul><li>Saddam, 1970s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>War with Iran, 1980s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kurdish Rebellion, early 1980s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of poison gas in mass slaughter of Kurds </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In huge debt, invaded Kuwait 1991 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operation Desert Storm puts Iraq back in place </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>9/11: US take proactive approach in ME </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sees Saddam as a threat </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2003, Invades and “liberates” Iraq from Saddam </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Goal to build democracy in Iraq </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 13. Democracy-Building in Iraq <ul><li>Potentials: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil = $ to rebuild </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People want peace and stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most hated Saddam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US has made commitment to Iraq </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenges: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sectarian violence (Sunni and Shia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kurds want own state, or better representation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Country is broke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some neighbors not keen on US-style democracy (and culture) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrorists are NOW a problem here </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Democracy-Building in Afghanistan <ul><ul><li>Afghanistan: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used to be on Silk Road </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Little- to no natural resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic location in Central/Southern Asia </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 16. Afghanistan - Recent History <ul><li>WAR! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1800s: British Meddling in region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1970s: Soviet Invasion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cold War: US training and arming of Mujahideen (Islamic “freedom fighters”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Osama bin Laden </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Late 1980s: Soviets withdraw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No effective government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mujahideen turn on each other (and US) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 17. Afghanistan <ul><ul><li>1990s: Rise of Taliban </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taliban are extreme fundamentalists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely strict control on society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide haven to Islamic terrorist orgs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economy financed by production of opium (use to make heroin, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is a narcostate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9/11: US invades, overthrows Taliban </li></ul></ul>
  15. 18. Democracy-Building in Afghanistan <ul><li>Potentials: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People want peace </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenges: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beyond broke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle of nowhere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taliban making comeback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No infrastructure at all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geography is rugged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very delicate balance between tradition and progress </li></ul></ul>