GOOD AQUACULTURE PRACTICESIntroductionGood Aquaculture Practices (GAP) can be defined as a practice or aquaculturepractices are effective and practical to avoid minimize the impact on the environmentand social. GAP include structures (such as the construction of settling ponds toremove the materials suspended solid), biological (such as crops to remove Nutrientsin effluents) in order to address the associated problems.Wikipedia define GAP as Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP), a set of farm raisedseafood standard developed by Global Aquaculture Allience (GAA). BAP standardsaddress environmental and social responsibility, animal welfare, food safety andtraceability for farms and hatcheries of shrimp, tilapia and catfish as well as seafoodprocessing plants. The BAP are organized as a tiered ranking system: certifiedcompanies with four-star rating are considered the most strictly compliant.Site selection Proper site selection takes into account environmental resources as well asaccess to industrial infrastructure such as roads, reliable electrical power and watersupply. Environmental parameters focus on water resources to supply aquacultureoperations as well as water discharge. Surface water and groundwater sources forincoming water should be analyzed for water quality and for chemistry parametersappropriate for the culture species. Organized the selection is based on the area that has been designated by thestate authorities as aquaculture development areas. Besides the derelict land andunproductive but fit can also be used. Choosing an area that will not affect the
activities of other economic sectors is also suitable as an area for aquacultureactivities. In addition, an area with complete basic infrastructure is suitable to beselected as sites for aquaculture. These areas are areas that are encouraged by thecode of practice for aquaculture. But the risk of problems such as flooding, erosion,pollution and forest reserve areas are locations which are not recommended to beused as an area for aquaculture activities. Beside topography has a significant effect on surface water, directly impactingrunoff and drainage patterns. If a facility is downhill or downstream from agriculturalor industrial activities, they may become an intermittent source of watercontamination from fertilizers, manure, pesticides, or other chemicals. In addition,specific to pond site selection is slope, soil composition, and depth. Ponds aredesigned to hold water, so unless expensive liners will be utilized, soil claycomposition should be a minimum of 20 percent to ensure water retention.FARM CONSTRUCTIONCleaning Area Felling of trees in plantations should be minimized to avoid soil erosion. Existing tree roots around the farm will be able to hold ground with strong structure. This helps to prevent erosion and reduce soil mixed rain water (mud) flows into the pool and cause the pond is shallow. Prevent erosion and pollution of water resources during the construction of the pool. Necessary services are available for cultivation zone vicinity of river or other water body.
Avoid construction means a negative impact on the environment.Farm Design Have the appropriate retention ponds. Reservoirs must be able to accommodate the needs of water for livestock ponds that are on the farm. Have a pool or area for sewage treatment in accordance with the farm size. Treatment pond is necessary to ensure that the water supplied to the livestock ponds are clean and free of negative elements such as chemicals and livestock wastes of time. Have a water system in and out separately. Management of inlet and outlet water is very important for a breeding pond. Water inlet and water outlet systems must be installed out of the net. For the installation of the water system in the net is to prevent livestock waste time and materials that do not have the access to the breeding pond. Meanwhile the net in the water system out of hand, is intended to prevent the breeding of fish out of the pool when the water flow out. In addition, the installed nets can also prevent predators from entering the pond through water channels in and water out. Shape and size of the pond should facilitate the management of water and livestock. Shape and size of an animal that fits the scale will facilitate maintenance work including when to feed livestock, harvesting and post- harvest pool clearance. Farm shall have operating facilities and skilled workers. With the availability of the facilities available in the farm, maintenance work will be able to run smoothly and quickly. Workers skilled in handling farm equipment to optimize the allocation of time for maintenance and maximize production.
Design of a farm should feature safety and hygiene. This is very important in ensuring the safety of animals, workers and the facilities are the best in your field.Fish farm designFish farm design is very important because it’s needed in a way to develop our safetyaquaculture activity. There are some factors in fish farm design need to considered: Suitable pond. Pond design provide for adequate level height and width to accommodate required production and harvest equipment. Special pond for sewage treatment based on size of fish farm. This is because; the soil will have high organic matter. For planting, high organic matter is very useful, but in aquaculture, it can create high oxygen demand and finally release toxic nitrogen compound that can. Too much nitrogen can damage aquatic organism to growth well. Water flow (inlet and outlet) are separated. Because it can control the amount of water coming in and going out of the pond correctly. Design and size of pond must be suitable for facilitate water and fish management. Complete workers and accommodation operational in farm. Farming design must be emphasis all the safety and hygienic.Livestock Management Fish livestock management is an important aspect in determining the progressof a project run. Livestock management includes preparation of ponds, maintananceof seeds, water, foods, health and waste product. During the ponds preparation,clean up base and around the pool area. The use of allowed poisons should be at the
appropriate rate is also emphasized so that it would not affect the fish. While for theseed maintanance, the seed used should be from high quality and good track record.Animal husbandry and management systems adopted must also be adapted to thesize of seed used. Seeds also need to have the same size and age in order to avoidcompetition for food or small fish fell victim to a big fish. In the management of water,if necessary, water should be treated before use. Turbid water need to beprecipitated in advance. Other than that, water exchange should also be made to suitthe animal ages. Ventilation methods used should also be compatible with livestock.Organic matter fertilizer is encouraged as water treatment materials and is used in asuitable manner. For the preparation of food, the food used is high quality foodformulations. Wet food ingredients must be consisting of material that is fresh, cleanand safe. Rate and feeding schedules should be tailored to the system and thelivestock. The use of antibiotics should also be in accordance with the date of lapseand its use is permitted. During the management of health, hygiene concern at thesystem, equipment and employees which they shall comply with the requirementsspecified cleanliness. If there is disease in the animal, report the occurrence to thenearest Department of Fisheries immediately. Final management is the managementof sewage sludge which shall be placed in the appropriate place and must be treatedbefore being discharged into public waters.The Advantages and Disadvantages of Good Aquaculture Practices (GAP)NO. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES1. Ensure product quality and safety. Require high implementation costs.
2. Ensure consistency in production and Price of the product will increase. remain competitive in global market.3. Make the industry more responsible and The costs of management will more eco-friendly. increase.4. Ensure sustainable development for the Complicated to handle. future.5. Prevent the occurrence of fish diseases and pollution.Record Keeping Of Good Aquaculture PracticeTo achieve efficient production in aquaculture, regular improvement and capabletracing for problems at certain stage of production, good data and record keeping arerequired with possible review for the improvement of production efficiency, orenhance the efficiency in the future crops or in case of production problem such asdisease outbreak. This requirement is also of great benefit to farmer for identifyingthe cause of problem and finding solution for the next crop or in case there isproduction problem such as disease outbreak. More importantly, after completion ofeach production cycle, data analysis should be conducted. Farmer should keep thosedata on farming at least 4 years since the date of recording.There are some kinds of record-keeping in livestock or livestock data such as: Activities Management Record Seed Management Record Food Management Record Use of Drugs and Chemical Record Incidence of Disease Record
Yield Record Employees Record Financing Project RecordReferences 1. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives (2009). Thai Agricultural Standard. Good a. Aquaculture Practices For Marine Shrimp Farm. The Royal Gazette, Vol.126 Section 187D 2. http://www.fishdept.sabah.gov.my/aquaculture.asp 3. http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/600/600-054/600-054.html 4. http: //www.acfs.go.com