COSC 426 Lect. 1 - Introduction to AR


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COSC 426 Lect. 1 - Introduction to AR

  1. 1. COSC 426: Augmented Reality 426 A d R li Mark Billinghurst July 2011 Lecture 1
  2. 2. Mark BillinghurstPhD Electrical Engineering University of WashingtonInteraction Design Museum experiences Tools for designersAugmented Reality Mobile AR, Evaluation AR Evaluation, Multimodal Interfaces, CollaborativeCollaboration Enhanced FtF and remote collaboration Social networking
  3. 3. OverviewOne tow hour lectures week Friday 9 – 11amYou will learn Introduction to Augmented Reality Augmented Reality technology AR Interaction techniques Interaction Design AR authoring tools Research directions in ARComplete a simple project
  4. 4. Course Outline C O lWk 1 (July 15th): Introduction to AR (J y )Wk 2 (July 22nd): AR TechnologyWk 3 (July 29th): AR Developer Tools (J y ) pWk 4 (Aug 5th): AR Interaction TechniquesWk 5 (Aug 12th): AR ApplicationsWk 6 (Aug 19th): Outdoor and Mobile ARWk 7,8 (Aug 26th, Sept 2nd): HolidaysWk 9 (Sept 9th): Collaborative ARWk 10 (Sept 16th): Usability TestingWk 11 (Sept 23rd): AR research DirectionsWk 12 (Sept 30th): Final Project Presentations
  5. 5. Assessment - UpdateResearch project – 40% Group work (2-4 people) Due Sept 30thTwo Class Assignments – 20 % Programming assignments, individual work g g g ,Final Exam – 40% Exam week Oct 3rd – 14th E kO d
  6. 6. Introduction
  7. 7. A Brief History of TimeTrendT d smaller, cheaper, more functions, more intimateTechnology bT h l becomes invisible bl Intuitive to use Interface over internals I f i l Form more important than function Human centered design H t dd i
  8. 8. A Brief History of Computing B fH fCTrend smaller, cheaper, faster, more intimate, intelligent objectsComputers need to become invisible hide the computer in the real world - Ubiquitous / Tangible Computing put the user inside the computer - Vi Virtual R li l Reality
  9. 9. Invisible Interfaces Jun Rekimoto, Sony CSL
  10. 10. Virtual Reality1989…1989
  11. 11. Cheap HMDs
  12. 12. Virtual RealityImmersive VR Head mounted display, gloves Separation from the real world
  13. 13. VR Today$3-5 Billion VR business (+ > $150 Billion Graphics Industry) Visualization, simulation, gaming, CAD/CAE, multimedia, graphics arts
  14. 14. 1977 – Star Wars
  15. 15. 2008 - CNN
  16. 16. Augmented Reality DefinitionDefining Characteristics [Azuma 97]D f Ch [A Combines Real and Virtual Images - Both can be seen at the same time Interactive in real-time - The virtual content can be interacted with Registered in 3D g - Virtual objects appear fixed in space
  17. 17. Augmented Reality Examples Put AR pictures here
  18. 18. AR vs VRVirtual Reality: Replaces Reality Scene Generation: requires realistic images q g Display Device: fully immersive, wide FOV Tracking and Sensing: low accuracy is okayAugmented Reality: Enhances Reality Scene Generation: minimal rendering okay Display Device: non-immersive small FOV non immersive, Tracking and Sensing: high accuracy needed
  19. 19. Milgram’s Reality-Virtuality continuum Mixed Reality Real Augmented Augmented VirtualEnvironment Reality (AR) Virtuality (AV) Environment Reality - Virtuality (RV) Continuum
  20. 20. MetaverseNeal Stephenson’s “SnowCrash”The Metaverse is the convergence of: 1) virtually enhanced physical reality 2) physically persistent virtual space h ll lMetaverse Roadmap p
  21. 21. Metaverse Dimensions• Augmentation technologies that layer information onto our perception of the physical environment.• Simulation refers to technologies that model reality• Intimate technologies are focused inwardly, on the identity and actions of the individual or object;• External technologies are focused outwardly, towards outwardly the world at large;
  22. 22. Metaverse ComponentsFour Key Components Virtual Worlds Augmented Reality Mirror Worlds Lifelogging
  23. 23. Mirror WorldsMirror worlds are informationally-enhancedvirtual models of the physical world. p y Google Earth, MS Street View, Google Maps
  24. 24. LifeLoggingTechnologies record and report the intimatestates and life histories of objects and users j Nokia LifeBlog, Nike+, FitBits
  25. 25. Steve Mann - LifeLogging gg g
  26. 26. Gordon Bell: LifeLogging1 TB to store 65 years of data
  27. 27. SummaryAugmented Reality has three key features Combines Real and Virtual Images g Interactive in real-time Registered in 3DAR can be classified alongside other technologies Milgrams Mixed Reality continuum MetaVerse
  28. 28. AR History
  29. 29. A Brief History of AR (1)1960’s: Sutherland Sproull’s1960’ S h l d / S ll’first HMD system was see-through
  30. 30. A Brief History of AR (2)1960 - 70’s: US Air Force helmet mounted displays (T. Furness) (T
  31. 31. A Brief History of AR (3)1970 - 80’s: US Air Force Super Cockpit ( Furness) p p (T. )
  32. 32. A Brief History of AR (4)Early 1990’s: Boeing coined the term “AR.” Wire harness 990’ “A ”assembly application begun (T. Caudell, D. Mizell).Early tE l to mid 1990’s: UNC ultrasound visualization project id 1990’ lt d i li ti j t
  33. 33. A Brief History of AR (5)1994: Motion stabilized display [Azuma]1995: Fiducial tracking in video see-through [Bajura / Neumann]1996: UNC hybrid magnetic-vision tracker y g
  34. 34. A Brief History of AR (6)1996: MIT Wearable Computing efforts1998: Dedicated conferences beginLate 90’s: Collaboration, outdoor, iL 90’ C ll b i d interaction iLate 90’s: Augmented sports broadcasts1998 - 2001: Mixed Reality Systems Lab
  35. 35. History Summary1960’s – 80’s: Early Experimentation1980 s 90 s:1980’s – 90’s: Basic Research Tracking, displays1995 – 2005: Tools/Applications Interaction, usability, theory y y2005 - : Commercial Applications Games, M di l Industry G Medical, I d
  36. 36. Gartner Hype Cycle
  37. 37. 2007 - AR Reaches MainstreamMIT Technology Review March 2007 list of the 10 most exciting technologiesEconomist Dec 6th 2007 Reality, only better
  38. 38. Gartner’s top 10 disruptive technologies 2008-2012: Multicore and hybrid processors Virtualisation and fabric computing Social S i l networks and social software k d i l f Cloud computing and cloud/Web platforms Web mash s mashups User Interface Ubiquitous computing Contextual computing Augmented reality Semantics
  39. 39. 2009 - AR in MagazinesEsquire Magazine Dec 2009 issue 12 pages AR contentMany OthersM Oth Wired Colors Red Bull Etc
  40. 40. Google Searches for AR
  41. 41. 2008 - Browser Based ARFlash + camera + 3D graphicsHigh impact g p High marketing valueLarge potential install base 1.6 Billion web usersEase of development Lots of developers, mature toolsLow cost of entryL f Browser, web camera
  42. 42. Impact of Web-based ARBoffswana Living Sasquatch p pIn first month 100K unique visits 500K page views 6 minutes on page
  43. 43. Mobile Phone ARMobile Phones camera processor display d lAR on Mobile Phones Simple graphics Optimized computer vision Collaborative Interaction
  44. 44. AR Advertising (HIT Lab NZ 2007)TxtT message to d download AR application (200K) l d li iSee virtual content popping out of real paper advertTested May 2007 by Saatchi and Saatchi
  45. 45. 2008: Location Aware PhonesMotorola Droid Nokia Navigator
  46. 46. 2009 - Outdoor Information OverlayMobile hM bil phone based b dTag real world locations g GPS + Compass input Overlay graphics data on live videoApplications Travel guide, Advertising, etcWikitude, Layar, Junaio, etc.. , y ,J , Android based, Public API released
  47. 47. Layar ( based data GPS + compass location p Map + camera viewAR Layers on real world L l ld Customized data Audio, 3D, 2D contentEasy authoringAndroid, iPhone
  48. 48. $784 million USD in 2014
  49. 49. Some Commercial AR CompaniesARToolworks (http://www artoolworks com/) ( ARToolKit, FLARToolKit, SDKsMetaio ( Marketing, Industry, SDKsTotal Immersion ( Marketing, Theme Parks, AR ExperiencesQua coQualcomm( Mobile AR QCAR SDK AR,
  50. 50. FLARToolKit (ARToolworks)Flash version of ARToolKitFLARToolKit + Papervison3D = AR on the webExample - GE Ecomagination Website 1.2 million views on YouTube p g g g g y
  51. 51. Software Platform (Metaio)Unifeye software platform Modular platform for building AR applications p g pp
  52. 52. Markerless Tracking (Total Immersion)D’Fusion markerless tracking platform Turn key solution yExample - Topps baseball cards AR characters on top of real baseball cards h f l b b ll d
  53. 53. SummaryAugmented Reality has a long history goingback to the 1960’sInterest in AR has exploded over the last twoyears and is being commercialized quicklyAR is growing in a number of areas Mobile AR Web based AR Advertising experiences
  54. 54. Sample AR Applications
  55. 55. ApplicationsMedicineManufacturingInformation overlayArchitectureMuseumMarketingGaming
  56. 56. Applications: medical“X-ray vision” for surgeonsAid visualization, minimally-invasive operations. minimally invasiveTraining. MRI, CT data. Ultrasound project, UNC Ch l Hill Ul d j Chapel Hill. Courtesy UNC Chapel Hill
  57. 57. Medical AR Trials Sauer et al. 2000 at Siemens Corporate Research, NJ Stereo video see throughF. Sauer, Ali Khamene, S. Vogt: An Augmented Reality Navigation System with aSingle CameraSingle-Camera Tracker: System Design and Needle Biopsy Phantom Trial, MICCAI 2002
  58. 58. Assembly and maintenance © 1996 S. Feiner, B. MacIntyre, & A. Webster, Columbia University © 1993 S F i S. Feiner, B M I t B. MacIntyre, & D. Seligmann, Columbia University
  59. 59. PS3 - Eye of Judgment (2007)Computer Vi i T kiC t Vision TrackingCard based battle gameCollaborativeC ll b ti AROctober 24th 2007
  60. 60. AR Books – Markerless Tracking
  61. 61. AR Jam story book
  62. 62. AR A Annotations t ti Columbia University© 1993 S. Feiner, B. MacIntyre, © 1997 S. Feiner, B. MacIntyre,M. Haupt, & E. Solomon, T. Höllerer, & A. Webster, , ,Columbia U iC l bi University i Columbia University HRL
  63. 63. Applications: Annotating Environment Public d i P bli and private annotations i Aid recognition, “extended memory” g , y
  64. 64. The World = Your User Interface (Feiner) Everyone, Everywhere, Always E E h Al © 2002, Scientific American
  65. 65. Application: Broadcast AugmentationAdding virtual content to live sports broadcasts “First down” line in American football First down Hockey puck trails, virtual advertisements National flags in swimming lanes in 2000 OlympicsCommercial application Princeton Video Image is one company -
  66. 66. Broadcast Examples
  67. 67. Interactive Museum Experiences BlackMagic Virtual America’s Cup 410,000 people in six months MagicPlanet TeManawa science museum Virtual Astronomy Collaborative AR experience AR Volcano Interactive AR kiosk Scienceworks museum, Melbourne
  68. 68. Museum ArcheologyLifePlus (2002-2004) Natural feature tracking g Virtual characters Mobile AR systemArcheoguide (2000-2002) Cultural heritage on-site guide Hybrid tracking Virtual overlay
  69. 69. SummaryAR technology can b used to develop a wide h l be d d l drange of applicationsPromising application areas include Games Education Engineering Medicine Museums M Etc..
  70. 70. AR Experience Design
  71. 71. “The product is no longer The the basis of value The value. experience is ” is. Venkat Ramaswamy The Future of Competition.
  72. 72. Gilmore + Pine: Experience Economy experiences Emotion E ti services products components Function Sony CSL © 2004
  73. 73. The Value of Good User Experience 50c 50 $3.50 20c
  74. 74. Good Experience Design Reactrix Top down projection Camera based input Reactive Graphics No instructions No training
  75. 75. Using the N-gage
  76. 76. SideTalking
  77. 77. Interaction Design “Designing interactive products to support people in their everyday and working lives” lives Preece, J., (2002). Interaction Design Design of User Experience with Technology Higher in the value chain than product design
  78. 78. Interaction Design involves answering three questions: What do you do? - How do you affect the world? What do you feel? – What do you sense of the world? What do you know? – What do you learn?
  79. 79. Interaction Design Process
  80. 80. Who are your Users? Everyone! y
  81. 81. Designing for EveryoneDesigning for Everyone pleases No one
  82. 82. Understanding Specific Needs
  83. 83. Interaction Design is All About You Users should be involved throughout the Design Process Co s de all the eeds Consider a t e needs of the user
  84. 84. Building Compelling AR ExperiencesB ildi C lli E i experiences Usability applications Interaction tools Authoring components Tracking, Display
  85. 85. SummaryIn order to build AR applications you need to pfocus on the user experienceGreat user experience is based on Low l l AR component technology L level h l Authoring tools Application/Interaction design User experience texting