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A Survey of Augmented Reality
Mark Billinghurst
mark.billinghurst@hitlabnz.org
April 21st 2014
mark.billinghurst@hitlabnz.org
Highlights from:
M. Billinghurst, A. Clark, and G. Lee. A Survey
of Augmented Reality, Foundations and
Trends in Human-Computer Interaction.
Vol. 8, No. 1 (2015) 1–202, 2015
http://www.nowpublishers.com/article/Details/HCI-049
Introduction
1977 – Star Wars
Augmented Reality Definition
!  Defining Characteristics [Azuma 97]
! Combines Real and Virtual Images
-  Both can be seen at the same time
! Interactive in real-time
-  The virtual content can be interacted with
! Registered in 3D
-  Virtual objects appear fixed in space
Azuma, R. T. (1997). A survey of augmented reality. Presence, 6(4), 355-385.
2008 - CNN
!  Put AR pictures here
Augmented Reality Examples
Virtual Reality
!  Immersive VR
!  Head mounted display, gloves
!  Separation from the real world
AR vs VR
Making Interfaces Invisible
Rekimoto, J. and Nagao, K. 1995. The world through the computer: computer augmented
interaction with real world environments. In Proceedings of the 8th Annual ACM Symposium on
User interface and Software Technology. UIST '95. ACM, New York, NY, 29-36.
From Reality to Virtual Reality
Ubiquitous Computing Augmented Reality Virtual Reality
Milgram’s Reality-Virtuality continuum
Mixed Reality
Reality - Virtuality (RV) Continuum
Real
Environment
Augmented
Reality (AR)
Augmented
Virtuality (AV)
Virtual
Environment
"...anywhere between the extrema of the virtuality continuum."
P. Milgram and A. F. Kishino, Taxonomy of Mixed Reality Visual Displays
IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems, E77-D(12), pp. 1321-1329, 1994.
Metaverse
!  Neal Stephenson’s “SnowCrash”
!  The Metaverse is the convergence of:
!  1) virtually enhanced physical reality
!  2) physically persistent virtual space
!  Metaverse Roadmap
!  http://metaverseroadmap.org/
Summary
!  Augmented Reality has three key features
!  Combines Real and Virtual Images
!  Interactive in real-time
!  Registered in 3D
!  AR can be classified alongside other technologies
!  Invisible Interfaces
!  Milgram’s Mixed Reality continuum
!  Stephenson’s MetaVerse
History
Pepper’s Ghost (1862)
!  Dates back to Giambattista della Porta (1584)
Early HMDs and HUDs (1960’s)
Sutherland / Sproull’s see-
through HMD (1965)
Bucaneer HUD (1958)
AR History
!  1960’s – 80’s: Early Experimentation
•  Military, Academic labs
!  1980’s – 90’s: Basic Research
•  Tracking, Displays
!  1995 – 2005: Tools/Applications
•  Interaction, Usability, Theory
!  2005 - : Commercial Applications
•  Games, Medical, Industry, Mobile
Important Milestones
!  1992: T. Caudell coined term “AR” (Boeing)
!  1996: First collaborative AR systems
!  1999: ARToolKit released – tracking library
!  1997: Feiner First outdoor AR system
!  1997 – 2001: Mixed Reality Systems Lab (Japan)
!  1999 – 2003: ARVIKA project (Germany)
!  2002: ISMAR conference started
AR Enters Mainstream (2007 -)
!  Magazines
!  MIT Tech. Review (Mar 2007)
-  10 most exciting technologies
!  Economist (Dec. 2007)
-  Reality, only better
!  Games
!  Sony “Eye of Judgement”
-  300,000+ units shipped
!  Broadcast TV
!  Sports broadcasting
Google Searches for AR
Browser Based AR (2008 - )
!  Flash + Camera + 3D graphics
!  High impact
!  High marketing value
!  Large potential install base
!  1.6 Billion web users
!  Ease of development
!  Lots of developers, mature tools
!  Low cost of entry
!  Browser, web camera
Mobile AR (2005 - )
!  Mobile Phones
!  Camera, processor, display
!  Computer vision based AR
!  Advertising
!  HIT Lab NZ (2007)
!  AR print advertisement
!  Txt to download app
Mobile Outdoor AR (2009 - )
!  Mobile phones with GPS
!  Tag real world locations
!  GPS + Compass input
!  Overlay graphics data on live video
!  Applications
!  Travel guide, Advertising, etc
!  Wikitude, Layar, Junaio, etc..
!  Android/iOS based, Public API released
Motorola Droid
AR Today
! Key Technologies Available
-  Robust tracking (Computer Vision, GPS/sensors)
-  Display (Handheld, HMDs)
-  Input Devices (Kinect, etc)
-  Developer tools (Qualcomm, Metaio, Wikitude)
! Commercial Business Growing
-  Gaming, GPS/Mobile, Online Advertisement
•  >$5 Billion USD by 2016 (Markets andMarkets)
•  >$1.5 Billion USD in Mobile AR by 2014 (Juniper Research)
AR Business Today
!  Marketing
!  Web-based, mobile
!  Mobile AR
!  Geo-located information and service
!  Gaming
!  Mobile, Physical input (Kinect, PS Move)
!  Upcoming areas
!  Manufacturing, Medical, Military
Summary
!  Augmented Reality has a long history going
back to the 1960’s
!  Interest in AR has exploded over the last few
years and is being commercialized quickly
!  AR is growing in a number of areas
!  Mobile AR
!  Web based AR
!  Marketing experiences
Technology
Augmented Reality Definition
!  Defining Characteristics
! Combines Real and Virtual Images
-  Display Technology
! Interactive in real-time
-  Interaction Technology
! Registered in 3D
-  Tracking Technology
Display
Display Technologies
" Types (Bimber/Raskar 2003)
" Head attached
•  Head mounted display/projector
" Body attached
•  Handheld display/projector
" Spatial
•  Spatially aligned projector/monitor
Display Taxonomy
Types of Head Mounted Displays
Occluded
See-thru
Multiplexed
Optical see-through HMD
Virtual images
from monitors
Real
World
Optical
Combiners
Epson Moverio BT-200
▪  Stereo see-through display ($700)
▪  960 x 540 pixels, 23 degree FOV, 60Hz, 88g
▪  Android Powered, separate controller
▪  VGA camera, GPS, gyro, accelerometer
Strengths of optical see-through
!  Simpler (cheaper)
!  Direct view of real world
!  Full resolution, no time delay (for real world)
!  Safety
!  Lower distortion
!  No eye displacement
!  see directly through display
Video see-through HMD
Video
cameras
Monitors
Graphics
Combiner
Video
Vuzix Wrap 1200DXAR
▪  Stereo video see-through display ($1500)
■ Twin 852 x 480 LCD displays, 35 deg. FOV
■ Stereo VGA cameras
■ 3 DOF head tracking
Strengths of Video See-Through
!  True occlusion
!  Block image of real world
!  Digitized image of real world
!  Flexibility in composition
!  Matchable time delays
!  More registration, calibration strategies
!  Wide FOV is easier to support
!  wide FOV camera
Multiplexed Displays
!  Above or below line of sight
!  Strengths
!  User has unobstructed view of real world
!  Simple optics/cheap
!  Weaknesses
!  Direct information overlay difficult
•  Display/camera offset from eyeline
!  Wide FOV difficult
Google Glass
▪  Monocular see-through multiplexed display
▪  640 x 360 microprojector, 15 degree FOV
▪  5 MP camera, gyro, accelerometer
Display Technology
!  Curved Mirror
!  off-axis projection
!  curved mirrors in front of eye
!  high distortion, small eye-box
!  Waveguide
!  use internal reflection
!  unobstructed view of world
!  large eye-box
See-through thin displays
!  Waveguide techniques for thin see-through displays
!  Wider FOV, enable AR applications
!  Social acceptability
Opinvent Ora
Lumus DK40
Spatial Augmented Reality
!  Project onto irregular surfaces
!  Geometric Registration
!  Projector blending, High dynamic range
!  Book: Bimber, Rasker “Spatial Augmented Reality”
Projector-based AR
Examples:
Raskar, MIT Media Lab
Inami, Tachi Lab, U. Tokyo
Projector
Real objects
with retroreflective
covering
User (possibly
head-tracked)
Example of projector-based AR
Ramesh Raskar (MIT Media Lab)
Head Mounted Projector
!  NVIS P-50 HMPD
!  1280x1024/eye
!  Stereoscopic
!  50 degree FOV
!  www.nvis.com
HMD vs. HMPD
Head Mounted Display Head Mounted Projected Display
CastAR - http://technicalillusions.com/
!  Stereo head worn projectors
!  Interactive wand
!  Rollable retro-reflective sheet
!  Designed for shared interaction
Video Monitor AR
Video
cameras Monitor
Graphics Combiner
Video
Stereo
glasses
Examples
Handheld Displays
!  Mobile Phones
!  Camera
!  Display
!  Input
Tracking
Objects Registered in 3D
!  Registration
!  Positioning virtual object wrt real world
!  Tracking
!  Continually locating the users viewpoint
-  Position (x,y,z), Orientation (r,p,y)
Tracking Technologies
!  Active
•  Mechanical, Magnetic, Ultrasonic
•  GPS, Wifi, cell location
!  Passive
•  Inertial sensors (compass, accelerometer, gyro)
•  Computer Vision
•  Marker based, Natural feature tracking
!  Hybrid Tracking
•  Combined sensors (eg Vision + Inertial)
Tracking Types
Magnetic
Tracker
Inertial
Tracker
Ultrasonic
Tracker
Optical
Tracker
Marker-Based
Tracking
Markerless
Tracking
Specialized
Tracking
Edge-Based
Tracking
Template-Based
Tracking
Interest Point
Tracking
Mechanical
Tracker
Example: Marker tracking
!  Available for more than 10 years
!  Several open source solutions exist
!  ARToolKit, ARTag, ATK+, etc
!  Fairly simple to implement
!  Standard computer vision methods
!  A rectangle provides 4 corner points
!  Enough for pose estimation!
Marker Based Tracking: ARToolKit
http://artoolkit.sourceforge.net/
Coordinate Systems
Tracking challenges in ARToolKit
False positives and inter-marker confusion
(image by M. Fiala)
Image noise
(e.g. poor lens, block coding /
compression, neon tube)
Unfocused camera,
motion blur
Dark/unevenly lit
scene, vignetting
Jittering
(Photoshop illustration)
Occlusion
(image by M. Fiala)
Markerless Tracking
Magnetic Tracker Inertial
Tracker
Ultrasonic
Tracker
Optical
Tracker
Marker-Based
Tracking
Markerless
Tracking
Specialized
Tracking
Edge-Based
Tracking
Template-Based
Tracking
Interest Point
Tracking
!  No more Markers! #Markerless Tracking
Mechanical
Tracker
Natural Feature Tracking
!  Use Natural Cues of Real Elements
!  Edges
!  Surface Texture
!  Interest Points
!  Model or Model-Free
!  No visual pollution
Contours
Features Points
Surfaces
Texture Tracking
Edge Based Tracking
!  RAPiD [Drummond et al. 02]
!  Initialization, Control Points, Pose Prediction (Global Method)
Line Based Tracking
!  Visual Servoing [Comport et al. 2004]
Model Based Tracking
!  OpenTL - www.opentl.org
!  General purpose library for model based visual tracking
Marker vs. natural feature tracking
!  Marker tracking
!  ++ Markers can be an eye-catcher
!  ++ Tracking is less demanding
!  -- The environment must be instrumented with markers
!  -- Markers usually work only when fully in view
!  Natural feature tracking
!  -- A database of keypoints must be stored/downloaded
!  ++ Natural feature targets might catch the attention less
!  ++ Natural feature targets are potentially everywhere
!  ++ Natural feature targets work also if partially in view
Example: Outdoor Hybrid Tracking
!  Combines
!  computer vision
-  natural feature tracking
!  inertial gyroscope sensors
!  Both correct for each other
!  Inertial gyro - provides frame to frame
prediction of camera orientation
!  Computer vision - correct for gyro drift
Robust Outdoor Tracking
!  Hybrid Tracking
!  Computer Vision, GPS, inertial
!  Going Out
!  Reitmayr & Drummond (Univ. Cambridge)
Reitmayr, G., & Drummond, T. W. (2006). Going out: robust model-based tracking for outdoor augmented
reality. In Mixed and Augmented Reality, 2006. ISMAR 2006. IEEE/ACM International Symposium on (pp.
109-118). IEEE.
Handheld Display
Interaction
!  Interface Components
! Physical components
! Display elements
-  Visual/audio
! Interaction metaphors
Physical
Elements
Display
ElementsInteraction
MetaphorInput Output
AR Interface Elements
AR Design Space
Reality Virtual Reality
Augmented Reality
Physical Design Virtual Design
Interface Design Path
1/ Prototype Demonstration
2/ Adoption of Interaction Techniques from other
interface metaphors
3/ Development of new interface metaphors
appropriate to the medium
4/ Development of formal theoretical models for
predicting and modeling user actions
Desktop WIMP
Virtual Reality
Augmented Reality
Interaction Development
!  Information Browsing
!  Camera movement
!  Limited interaction
!  3D AR Interaction
!  HMD, hand tracking
!  3D UI/VR techniques
!  Specialized input devices
Tangible User Interfaces (Ishii 97)
!  Augmented Surfaces
!  Rekimoto 1998
!  Multiple projection surfaces
!  Tangible prop interaction
!  i/O Brush (2004)
!  Ryokai, Marti, Ishii
!  Sensor enhanced real brush
Other Examples
!  Triangles (Gorbert 1998)
!  Triangular based story telling
!  ActiveCube (Kitamura 2000-)
!  Cubes with sensors
Lessons from Tangible Interfaces
!  Benefits
!  Physical objects make us smart (affordances)
!  Objects aid collaboration
!  Objects increase understanding (cognitive artifacts)
!  Limitations
!  Difficult to change object properties
!  Limited display capabilities (2D surface)
!  Separation between object and display
Orthogonal Nature of AR Interfaces
Tangible AR Interaction
!  AR overcomes limitation of TUIs
!  enhance display possibilities
!  merge task/display space
!  provide public and private views
!  TUI + AR = Tangible AR
!  Apply TUI methods to AR interface design
Tangible AR Design Principles
!  Tangible AR Interfaces use TUI principles
!  Physical controllers for moving virtual content
!  Support for spatial 3D interaction techniques
!  Support for multi-handed interaction
!  Match object affordances to task requirements
!  Support parallel activity with multiple objects
!  Allow collaboration between multiple users
VOMAR - Tangible AR Interface
!  Use of natural physical object
to control virtual objects
!  Physical objects
!  Catalog book:
-  Turn over the page
!  Paddle operation:
-  Push, shake, incline, hit, scoop
Kato, H., Billinghurst, M., Poupyrev, I., Imamoto, K., & Tachibana, K. (2000). Virtual object manipulation on
a table-top AR environment. In Augmented Reality, 2000.(ISAR 2000). Proceedings. IEEE and ACM
International Symposium on (pp. 111-119). Ieee.
Wrap-up
!  Browsing Interfaces
!  simple (conceptually!), unobtrusive
!  3D AR Interfaces
!  expressive, creative, require attention
!  Tangible Interfaces
!  Embedded into conventional environments
!  Tangible AR
!  Combines TUI input + AR display
Typical Applications
!  Web based AR
!  Flash, HTML 5 based AR
!  Marketing, education
!  Outdoor Mobile AR
!  GPS, compass tracking
!  Viewing Points of Interest in real world
!  Eg: Junaio, Layar, Wikitude
!  Handheld AR
!  Vision based tracking
!  Marketing, gaming
!  Location Based Experiences
!  HMD, fixed screens
!  Museums, point of sale, advertising
Typical AR Experiences
CityViewAR Application
!  Visualize Christchurch before the earthquakes
User Experience
!  Multiple Views
!  Map View, AR View, List View
!  Multiple Data Types
!  2D images, 3D content, text, panoramas
Demo: Warp Runner
!  Puzzle solving game
!  Deform real world terrain
Demo: colAR
!  Turn colouring books pages into AR scenes
!  Markerless tracking, use your own colours..
!  Try it yourself: http://www.colARapp.com/
What Makes a Good AR Experience?
!  Compelling
!  Engaging, ‘Magic’ moment
!  Intuitive, ease of use
!  Uses existing skills
!  Anchored in physical world
!  Seamless combination of real and digital
Research Opportunities
Previous Research Themes
!  Zhou et. al. (2008) analyzed all ISMAR papers
Zhou, F., Duh, H. B. L., & Billinghurst, M. (2008). Trends in augmented reality tracking, interaction and display:
A review of ten years of ISMAR. In Proceedings ISMAR 2008, (pp. 193-202). IEEE Computer Society.
Possible Research Directions
!  Tracking
!  Wide area, Reliable indoor, Ubiquitous tracking
!  Interaction
!  Intelligent systems, Gesture, Collaborative systems
!  Displays
!  Wide FOV, Retinal Scanning, Contact Lens
!  Social Acceptance
!  Wearable AR, Handheld AR, Social Interactions
Wide Area Tracking
!  Process
!  Combine panorama’s into point cloud model (offline)
!  Initialize camera tracking from point cloud
!  Update pose by aligning camera image to point cloud
!  Accurate to 25 cm, 0.5 degree over wide area
Ventura, J., & Hollerer, T. (2012). Wide-area scene mapping for mobile visual tracking.In Mixed
and Augmented Reality (ISMAR), 2012 IEEE International Symposium on (pp. 3-12). IEEE.
Gesture Based Interaction
!  Use free hand gestures to interact
!  Depth camera, scene capture
!  Multimodal input
!  Combining speech and gesture
HIT Lab NZ Microsoft Hololens
Meta SpaceGlasses
Wide FOV Displays
!  Wide FOV see-through display for AR
!  LCD panel + edge light point light sources
!  110 degree FOV
Maimone, A., Lanman, D., Rathinavel, K., Keller, K., Luebke, D., & Fuchs, H. (2014). Pinlight displays: wide
field of view augmented reality eyeglasses using defocused point light sources. In ACM SIGGRAPH 2014
Emerging Technologies (p. 20). ACM.
Social Acceptance
!  People don’t want to look silly
!  Only 12% of 4,600 adults would be willing to wear AR glasses
!  20% of mobile AR browser users experience social issues
!  Acceptance more due to Social than Technical issues
!  Needs further study (ethnographic, field tests, longitudinal)
Conclusions
Conclusion
!  AR seamlessly blends real and virtual imagery
!  Interactive in real time, fixed in space
!  AR has developed into a mass market technology
!  Education, engineering, entertainment
!  The technologies to create AR are available
!  Display, tracking, interaction
!  There are opportunities for significant research
Gartner Hype Cycle (2014)
Market Forecast
Up to $120B by 2020 – 5 x VR market
User Forecast
More Information
•  Mark Billinghurst
–  Email: mark.billinghurst@hitlabnz.org
–  Twitter: @marknb00
•  Website
–  http://www.hitlabnz.org/

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A Survey of Augmented Reality

  • 1. A Survey of Augmented Reality Mark Billinghurst mark.billinghurst@hitlabnz.org April 21st 2014 mark.billinghurst@hitlabnz.org
  • 2. Highlights from: M. Billinghurst, A. Clark, and G. Lee. A Survey of Augmented Reality, Foundations and Trends in Human-Computer Interaction. Vol. 8, No. 1 (2015) 1–202, 2015 http://www.nowpublishers.com/article/Details/HCI-049
  • 5. Augmented Reality Definition !  Defining Characteristics [Azuma 97] ! Combines Real and Virtual Images -  Both can be seen at the same time ! Interactive in real-time -  The virtual content can be interacted with ! Registered in 3D -  Virtual objects appear fixed in space Azuma, R. T. (1997). A survey of augmented reality. Presence, 6(4), 355-385.
  • 7. !  Put AR pictures here Augmented Reality Examples
  • 8. Virtual Reality !  Immersive VR !  Head mounted display, gloves !  Separation from the real world
  • 10. Making Interfaces Invisible Rekimoto, J. and Nagao, K. 1995. The world through the computer: computer augmented interaction with real world environments. In Proceedings of the 8th Annual ACM Symposium on User interface and Software Technology. UIST '95. ACM, New York, NY, 29-36.
  • 11. From Reality to Virtual Reality Ubiquitous Computing Augmented Reality Virtual Reality
  • 12. Milgram’s Reality-Virtuality continuum Mixed Reality Reality - Virtuality (RV) Continuum Real Environment Augmented Reality (AR) Augmented Virtuality (AV) Virtual Environment "...anywhere between the extrema of the virtuality continuum." P. Milgram and A. F. Kishino, Taxonomy of Mixed Reality Visual Displays IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems, E77-D(12), pp. 1321-1329, 1994.
  • 13. Metaverse !  Neal Stephenson’s “SnowCrash” !  The Metaverse is the convergence of: !  1) virtually enhanced physical reality !  2) physically persistent virtual space !  Metaverse Roadmap !  http://metaverseroadmap.org/
  • 14.
  • 15. Summary !  Augmented Reality has three key features !  Combines Real and Virtual Images !  Interactive in real-time !  Registered in 3D !  AR can be classified alongside other technologies !  Invisible Interfaces !  Milgram’s Mixed Reality continuum !  Stephenson’s MetaVerse
  • 17. Pepper’s Ghost (1862) !  Dates back to Giambattista della Porta (1584)
  • 18. Early HMDs and HUDs (1960’s) Sutherland / Sproull’s see- through HMD (1965) Bucaneer HUD (1958)
  • 19. AR History !  1960’s – 80’s: Early Experimentation •  Military, Academic labs !  1980’s – 90’s: Basic Research •  Tracking, Displays !  1995 – 2005: Tools/Applications •  Interaction, Usability, Theory !  2005 - : Commercial Applications •  Games, Medical, Industry, Mobile
  • 20. Important Milestones !  1992: T. Caudell coined term “AR” (Boeing) !  1996: First collaborative AR systems !  1999: ARToolKit released – tracking library !  1997: Feiner First outdoor AR system !  1997 – 2001: Mixed Reality Systems Lab (Japan) !  1999 – 2003: ARVIKA project (Germany) !  2002: ISMAR conference started
  • 21. AR Enters Mainstream (2007 -) !  Magazines !  MIT Tech. Review (Mar 2007) -  10 most exciting technologies !  Economist (Dec. 2007) -  Reality, only better !  Games !  Sony “Eye of Judgement” -  300,000+ units shipped !  Broadcast TV !  Sports broadcasting
  • 23. Browser Based AR (2008 - ) !  Flash + Camera + 3D graphics !  High impact !  High marketing value !  Large potential install base !  1.6 Billion web users !  Ease of development !  Lots of developers, mature tools !  Low cost of entry !  Browser, web camera
  • 24. Mobile AR (2005 - ) !  Mobile Phones !  Camera, processor, display !  Computer vision based AR !  Advertising !  HIT Lab NZ (2007) !  AR print advertisement !  Txt to download app
  • 25. Mobile Outdoor AR (2009 - ) !  Mobile phones with GPS !  Tag real world locations !  GPS + Compass input !  Overlay graphics data on live video !  Applications !  Travel guide, Advertising, etc !  Wikitude, Layar, Junaio, etc.. !  Android/iOS based, Public API released Motorola Droid
  • 26. AR Today ! Key Technologies Available -  Robust tracking (Computer Vision, GPS/sensors) -  Display (Handheld, HMDs) -  Input Devices (Kinect, etc) -  Developer tools (Qualcomm, Metaio, Wikitude) ! Commercial Business Growing -  Gaming, GPS/Mobile, Online Advertisement •  >$5 Billion USD by 2016 (Markets andMarkets) •  >$1.5 Billion USD in Mobile AR by 2014 (Juniper Research)
  • 27. AR Business Today !  Marketing !  Web-based, mobile !  Mobile AR !  Geo-located information and service !  Gaming !  Mobile, Physical input (Kinect, PS Move) !  Upcoming areas !  Manufacturing, Medical, Military
  • 28. Summary !  Augmented Reality has a long history going back to the 1960’s !  Interest in AR has exploded over the last few years and is being commercialized quickly !  AR is growing in a number of areas !  Mobile AR !  Web based AR !  Marketing experiences
  • 30. Augmented Reality Definition !  Defining Characteristics ! Combines Real and Virtual Images -  Display Technology ! Interactive in real-time -  Interaction Technology ! Registered in 3D -  Tracking Technology
  • 32. Display Technologies " Types (Bimber/Raskar 2003) " Head attached •  Head mounted display/projector " Body attached •  Handheld display/projector " Spatial •  Spatially aligned projector/monitor
  • 34. Types of Head Mounted Displays Occluded See-thru Multiplexed
  • 35. Optical see-through HMD Virtual images from monitors Real World Optical Combiners
  • 36. Epson Moverio BT-200 ▪  Stereo see-through display ($700) ▪  960 x 540 pixels, 23 degree FOV, 60Hz, 88g ▪  Android Powered, separate controller ▪  VGA camera, GPS, gyro, accelerometer
  • 37. Strengths of optical see-through !  Simpler (cheaper) !  Direct view of real world !  Full resolution, no time delay (for real world) !  Safety !  Lower distortion !  No eye displacement !  see directly through display
  • 39. Vuzix Wrap 1200DXAR ▪  Stereo video see-through display ($1500) ■ Twin 852 x 480 LCD displays, 35 deg. FOV ■ Stereo VGA cameras ■ 3 DOF head tracking
  • 40. Strengths of Video See-Through !  True occlusion !  Block image of real world !  Digitized image of real world !  Flexibility in composition !  Matchable time delays !  More registration, calibration strategies !  Wide FOV is easier to support !  wide FOV camera
  • 41. Multiplexed Displays !  Above or below line of sight !  Strengths !  User has unobstructed view of real world !  Simple optics/cheap !  Weaknesses !  Direct information overlay difficult •  Display/camera offset from eyeline !  Wide FOV difficult
  • 42. Google Glass ▪  Monocular see-through multiplexed display ▪  640 x 360 microprojector, 15 degree FOV ▪  5 MP camera, gyro, accelerometer
  • 43. Display Technology !  Curved Mirror !  off-axis projection !  curved mirrors in front of eye !  high distortion, small eye-box !  Waveguide !  use internal reflection !  unobstructed view of world !  large eye-box
  • 44. See-through thin displays !  Waveguide techniques for thin see-through displays !  Wider FOV, enable AR applications !  Social acceptability Opinvent Ora Lumus DK40
  • 45. Spatial Augmented Reality !  Project onto irregular surfaces !  Geometric Registration !  Projector blending, High dynamic range !  Book: Bimber, Rasker “Spatial Augmented Reality”
  • 46. Projector-based AR Examples: Raskar, MIT Media Lab Inami, Tachi Lab, U. Tokyo Projector Real objects with retroreflective covering User (possibly head-tracked)
  • 47. Example of projector-based AR Ramesh Raskar (MIT Media Lab)
  • 48. Head Mounted Projector !  NVIS P-50 HMPD !  1280x1024/eye !  Stereoscopic !  50 degree FOV !  www.nvis.com
  • 49. HMD vs. HMPD Head Mounted Display Head Mounted Projected Display
  • 50. CastAR - http://technicalillusions.com/ !  Stereo head worn projectors !  Interactive wand !  Rollable retro-reflective sheet
  • 51. !  Designed for shared interaction
  • 52. Video Monitor AR Video cameras Monitor Graphics Combiner Video Stereo glasses
  • 54. Handheld Displays !  Mobile Phones !  Camera !  Display !  Input
  • 56. Objects Registered in 3D !  Registration !  Positioning virtual object wrt real world !  Tracking !  Continually locating the users viewpoint -  Position (x,y,z), Orientation (r,p,y)
  • 57. Tracking Technologies !  Active •  Mechanical, Magnetic, Ultrasonic •  GPS, Wifi, cell location !  Passive •  Inertial sensors (compass, accelerometer, gyro) •  Computer Vision •  Marker based, Natural feature tracking !  Hybrid Tracking •  Combined sensors (eg Vision + Inertial)
  • 59. Example: Marker tracking !  Available for more than 10 years !  Several open source solutions exist !  ARToolKit, ARTag, ATK+, etc !  Fairly simple to implement !  Standard computer vision methods !  A rectangle provides 4 corner points !  Enough for pose estimation!
  • 60. Marker Based Tracking: ARToolKit http://artoolkit.sourceforge.net/
  • 62. Tracking challenges in ARToolKit False positives and inter-marker confusion (image by M. Fiala) Image noise (e.g. poor lens, block coding / compression, neon tube) Unfocused camera, motion blur Dark/unevenly lit scene, vignetting Jittering (Photoshop illustration) Occlusion (image by M. Fiala)
  • 63.
  • 64. Markerless Tracking Magnetic Tracker Inertial Tracker Ultrasonic Tracker Optical Tracker Marker-Based Tracking Markerless Tracking Specialized Tracking Edge-Based Tracking Template-Based Tracking Interest Point Tracking !  No more Markers! #Markerless Tracking Mechanical Tracker
  • 65. Natural Feature Tracking !  Use Natural Cues of Real Elements !  Edges !  Surface Texture !  Interest Points !  Model or Model-Free !  No visual pollution Contours Features Points Surfaces
  • 67. Edge Based Tracking !  RAPiD [Drummond et al. 02] !  Initialization, Control Points, Pose Prediction (Global Method)
  • 68. Line Based Tracking !  Visual Servoing [Comport et al. 2004]
  • 69. Model Based Tracking !  OpenTL - www.opentl.org !  General purpose library for model based visual tracking
  • 70. Marker vs. natural feature tracking !  Marker tracking !  ++ Markers can be an eye-catcher !  ++ Tracking is less demanding !  -- The environment must be instrumented with markers !  -- Markers usually work only when fully in view !  Natural feature tracking !  -- A database of keypoints must be stored/downloaded !  ++ Natural feature targets might catch the attention less !  ++ Natural feature targets are potentially everywhere !  ++ Natural feature targets work also if partially in view
  • 71. Example: Outdoor Hybrid Tracking !  Combines !  computer vision -  natural feature tracking !  inertial gyroscope sensors !  Both correct for each other !  Inertial gyro - provides frame to frame prediction of camera orientation !  Computer vision - correct for gyro drift
  • 72. Robust Outdoor Tracking !  Hybrid Tracking !  Computer Vision, GPS, inertial !  Going Out !  Reitmayr & Drummond (Univ. Cambridge) Reitmayr, G., & Drummond, T. W. (2006). Going out: robust model-based tracking for outdoor augmented reality. In Mixed and Augmented Reality, 2006. ISMAR 2006. IEEE/ACM International Symposium on (pp. 109-118). IEEE.
  • 75. !  Interface Components ! Physical components ! Display elements -  Visual/audio ! Interaction metaphors Physical Elements Display ElementsInteraction MetaphorInput Output AR Interface Elements
  • 76. AR Design Space Reality Virtual Reality Augmented Reality Physical Design Virtual Design
  • 77. Interface Design Path 1/ Prototype Demonstration 2/ Adoption of Interaction Techniques from other interface metaphors 3/ Development of new interface metaphors appropriate to the medium 4/ Development of formal theoretical models for predicting and modeling user actions Desktop WIMP Virtual Reality Augmented Reality
  • 78. Interaction Development !  Information Browsing !  Camera movement !  Limited interaction !  3D AR Interaction !  HMD, hand tracking !  3D UI/VR techniques !  Specialized input devices
  • 79. Tangible User Interfaces (Ishii 97) !  Augmented Surfaces !  Rekimoto 1998 !  Multiple projection surfaces !  Tangible prop interaction !  i/O Brush (2004) !  Ryokai, Marti, Ishii !  Sensor enhanced real brush
  • 80. Other Examples !  Triangles (Gorbert 1998) !  Triangular based story telling !  ActiveCube (Kitamura 2000-) !  Cubes with sensors
  • 81. Lessons from Tangible Interfaces !  Benefits !  Physical objects make us smart (affordances) !  Objects aid collaboration !  Objects increase understanding (cognitive artifacts) !  Limitations !  Difficult to change object properties !  Limited display capabilities (2D surface) !  Separation between object and display
  • 82. Orthogonal Nature of AR Interfaces
  • 83. Tangible AR Interaction !  AR overcomes limitation of TUIs !  enhance display possibilities !  merge task/display space !  provide public and private views !  TUI + AR = Tangible AR !  Apply TUI methods to AR interface design
  • 84. Tangible AR Design Principles !  Tangible AR Interfaces use TUI principles !  Physical controllers for moving virtual content !  Support for spatial 3D interaction techniques !  Support for multi-handed interaction !  Match object affordances to task requirements !  Support parallel activity with multiple objects !  Allow collaboration between multiple users
  • 85. VOMAR - Tangible AR Interface !  Use of natural physical object to control virtual objects !  Physical objects !  Catalog book: -  Turn over the page !  Paddle operation: -  Push, shake, incline, hit, scoop Kato, H., Billinghurst, M., Poupyrev, I., Imamoto, K., & Tachibana, K. (2000). Virtual object manipulation on a table-top AR environment. In Augmented Reality, 2000.(ISAR 2000). Proceedings. IEEE and ACM International Symposium on (pp. 111-119). Ieee.
  • 86. Wrap-up !  Browsing Interfaces !  simple (conceptually!), unobtrusive !  3D AR Interfaces !  expressive, creative, require attention !  Tangible Interfaces !  Embedded into conventional environments !  Tangible AR !  Combines TUI input + AR display
  • 88. !  Web based AR !  Flash, HTML 5 based AR !  Marketing, education !  Outdoor Mobile AR !  GPS, compass tracking !  Viewing Points of Interest in real world !  Eg: Junaio, Layar, Wikitude !  Handheld AR !  Vision based tracking !  Marketing, gaming !  Location Based Experiences !  HMD, fixed screens !  Museums, point of sale, advertising Typical AR Experiences
  • 89. CityViewAR Application !  Visualize Christchurch before the earthquakes
  • 90. User Experience !  Multiple Views !  Map View, AR View, List View !  Multiple Data Types !  2D images, 3D content, text, panoramas
  • 91. Demo: Warp Runner !  Puzzle solving game !  Deform real world terrain
  • 92. Demo: colAR !  Turn colouring books pages into AR scenes !  Markerless tracking, use your own colours.. !  Try it yourself: http://www.colARapp.com/
  • 93. What Makes a Good AR Experience? !  Compelling !  Engaging, ‘Magic’ moment !  Intuitive, ease of use !  Uses existing skills !  Anchored in physical world !  Seamless combination of real and digital
  • 95. Previous Research Themes !  Zhou et. al. (2008) analyzed all ISMAR papers Zhou, F., Duh, H. B. L., & Billinghurst, M. (2008). Trends in augmented reality tracking, interaction and display: A review of ten years of ISMAR. In Proceedings ISMAR 2008, (pp. 193-202). IEEE Computer Society.
  • 96. Possible Research Directions !  Tracking !  Wide area, Reliable indoor, Ubiquitous tracking !  Interaction !  Intelligent systems, Gesture, Collaborative systems !  Displays !  Wide FOV, Retinal Scanning, Contact Lens !  Social Acceptance !  Wearable AR, Handheld AR, Social Interactions
  • 97. Wide Area Tracking !  Process !  Combine panorama’s into point cloud model (offline) !  Initialize camera tracking from point cloud !  Update pose by aligning camera image to point cloud !  Accurate to 25 cm, 0.5 degree over wide area Ventura, J., & Hollerer, T. (2012). Wide-area scene mapping for mobile visual tracking.In Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR), 2012 IEEE International Symposium on (pp. 3-12). IEEE.
  • 98. Gesture Based Interaction !  Use free hand gestures to interact !  Depth camera, scene capture !  Multimodal input !  Combining speech and gesture HIT Lab NZ Microsoft Hololens Meta SpaceGlasses
  • 99. Wide FOV Displays !  Wide FOV see-through display for AR !  LCD panel + edge light point light sources !  110 degree FOV Maimone, A., Lanman, D., Rathinavel, K., Keller, K., Luebke, D., & Fuchs, H. (2014). Pinlight displays: wide field of view augmented reality eyeglasses using defocused point light sources. In ACM SIGGRAPH 2014 Emerging Technologies (p. 20). ACM.
  • 100. Social Acceptance !  People don’t want to look silly !  Only 12% of 4,600 adults would be willing to wear AR glasses !  20% of mobile AR browser users experience social issues !  Acceptance more due to Social than Technical issues !  Needs further study (ethnographic, field tests, longitudinal)
  • 102. Conclusion !  AR seamlessly blends real and virtual imagery !  Interactive in real time, fixed in space !  AR has developed into a mass market technology !  Education, engineering, entertainment !  The technologies to create AR are available !  Display, tracking, interaction !  There are opportunities for significant research
  • 104. Market Forecast Up to $120B by 2020 – 5 x VR market
  • 106. More Information •  Mark Billinghurst –  Email: mark.billinghurst@hitlabnz.org –  Twitter: @marknb00 •  Website –  http://www.hitlabnz.org/