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Chp 4 Training & Development

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  • 18
  • Transcript

    • 1. Chapter 4 TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    • 2. Introduction
      • Need for organizations to build and sustain competencies that would provide them with competitive advantage.
      • Knowledge era Human assets are valued highly.
      • Growth oriented organizations value training as a response to changing environment
      • Continues learning process in human development
      • Helps in development of one’s personality, sharpens skills and enhances effectiveness
      • It is an important and integral part of organizational renewal process
      Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    • 3. Training and development
      • Training is a process through which a person enhances and develops his efficiency, capacity, and effectiveness at work by improving and updating his knowledge and understanding the skills relevant to his or her job.
      • Training and development
      • Training Vs. education
      • Training at different levels
      • Purpose of training
      • Learning curve
      • Transfer of learning
      Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    • 4. Functions of a training program
      • Acquiring knowledge
      • Change in attitudes
      • Helping to put theory into practice
      • Helps to evaluate abilities, competencies
      • Enhances problem solving and decision making ability
      • Improves performance
      Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    • 5. Importance & Need of training
      • Aids in new entrants attaining role clarity
      • Promotions
      • Prevents skill obsolescence
      • Improves quality and productivity
      • Meet organizational objectives
      • Improves organizational climate
      • Prevent accidents
      • To support personal growth and development
      Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    • 6.
      • Intention to learn from the participant
      • Reinforcement provided to the learner
      • Developing the potential from an individual’s point of view
      • Active participation of the trainee
      • Providing opportunities for practice
      • Transfer of learning to take place from a training program
      Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    • 7. What deficiencies, if any, does job holder have in terms of skills, knowledge, abilities, and behaviours? What behaviours are necessary? Is there a need for training? What are the strategic goals of the organization? What tasks must be completed to achieve goals? Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    • 8.
      • Phase I – Needs assessment
      • Phase II – Design & delivery of T&D
      • Phase III - Evaluation
      Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    • 9.
      • Phase I – Needs assessment
        • Determines the organization’s true needs and the training programs necessary to meet them
        • Organisational analysis
        • Operations analysis
        • Individual analysis
          • Advisory committees, Assessment centres, Attitude survey, Group discussions, Questionnaires, Skills test, Observations of behaviour, Performance appraisals, Performance documents, Exit interviews
      Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    • 10.
      • Phase II – Design & delivery of T&D
        • Training design principles of learning
          • Motivation
          • Participation
          • Feedback
          • Organisation
          • Repetition
          • Application
        • Training delivery
        • On-the-job training (OJT)
        • Away-from-the-job training
        • A T&D plan & implementation
      Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    • 11.
      • Phase III – Evaluation
        • Levels of evaluation:
          • How did participants react?
          • What did participants learn?
          • How did participants’ behaviour change?
          • What organisational goals were affected?
        • Applying evaluation strategies
      Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    • 12. Training methods on the job /off the job
      • On the job training methods are:
      • Job instruction training
      • Vestibule training
      • Training by supervisors
      • Coaching on the job/Simulation
      • Apprenticeship
      • Job rotation
      Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    • 13.
      • Off the job training methods:
      • Lectures
      • Conferences
      • Case studies
      • Role play
      • Programmed instruction training
      • T group/Sensitivity training
      Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    • 14.
      • Criteria for evaluation are:
      • Objectives of the program
      • Cost-benefit analysis
      • Results obtained
      • Areas of improvement
      • Resources/ staff required
      • Methods of evaluation would be:
      • Questionnaires, projects, tests, interviews, observations or participation and discussions.
      Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    • 15.
      • Cross cultural approaches
      • Maintenance of standards
      • Interaction with learners
      • Use of technology – CD ROMs, WAN, CBT, WBT
      • E-learning – types
      • Informal learning, self-paced, leader lead learning and performance support tools
      Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    • 16.
      • Learning at ones own pace
      • Accessibility
      • Active learning
      • Cost effectiveness
      • Collaborative learning
      • Personalized learning environment
      Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    • 17.
      • Shift of focus to the learner
      • Data over load
      • Data unreliability
      • Net work/ hardware unreliability
      • Access control
      • Less theory
      Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    • 18.
      • Quality improvement programmes
      • Technological change-related programmes
      • Customer service T&D programmes
      Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    • 19.
      • Training is not equally distributed to all employees
      • Expenditure allocated to training is inadequate
      • Mismatch between theory and practice
      • Benefits of training are not immediately realized
      • Supporting contextual systems needs to be provided in organizations
      • Top management needs to support the philosophy of training in spirit
      Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    • 20. Chapter 5 B Executive Development Programs
    • 21. Organizational environment Organizational strategy/objectives Conduct of the training program Training needs assessment Identifying competency gaps Training plan
    • 22.
      • Decision making skills
      • Interpersonal skills
      • Job knowledge
      • Organizational knowledge
      • Specific individual meets
      • General knowledge
    • 23. Factors in designing an EDP
      • Learning characteristics and its applicability to design
      • Knowledge of results
      • Reward mechanism
      • Individual difference of the learners
      • Application to the work environment
      • Meeting organizational goals thru content design
    • 24. Methods of EDP
    • 25.
      • Evaluation of EDP is important for the following reasons:
      • Improving the quality of training and development process
      • Improving the efficiency and competency of trainers
      • Make improvements in the system to make it more responsive
      • Aligning the training objectives to organizational objectives
      • Evaluating the ROI on account of training and development
      • Changing the perception of the management as to regard training as an investment
      Evaluation

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