Training & Development

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  • Increasing importance of product and service quality
    Flexibility
    New technology
    Globalization and speed of change
    Downsizing and de-layering
    Role and career flexibility
    Skills and labor shortages
    New appraisal techniques
    Organizational structure - new orientation
    Composition of workforce - increase in KBWs
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  • Make the learning meaningful
    Knowing the overall picture facilitates the learning
    Use a variety of familiar examples
    Organize the information so that you can present it logically
    Use terms and concepts that are familiar to the trainee
    Make skills transfer easy
    Maximize the similarity between the training situation and the work situation
    Provide adequate practise
    Direct the trainees’ attention to important aspects of the job
    Motivation principles for trainers
    Try to provide as much realistic practice as possible
    Trainees learn best when the trainers immediately reinforce correct responses(for e.g., well done)
    If possible let the trainees learn at their own ways
    The full day raining is not as effective as half the day or three fourth of the day training.
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  • LIFO – development strategies for performance improvement
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  • Book: Human Resource Management
    Edition: 5th
    Publisher: Tata McGraw- Hill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi
    Author: k. Aswathappa
    <number>
  • Book: Human Resource Management
    Edition: 5th
    Publisher: Tata McGraw- Hill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi
    Author: k. Aswathappa
    <number>
  • MU provides emplyees with instruction tuned with organisational goal like to reduce the product cycle, university will develop curriculum for this, then course is taught to employees internal & external to it.
    SDL: employees set their own learning goals & pace of learning
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  • MU provides emplyees with instruction tuned with organisational goal like to reduce the product cycle, university will develop curriculum for this, then course is taught to employees internal & external to it.
    SDL: employees set their own learning goals & pace of learning
    Implement training plan:
    Partly during working hours & partly in their own time.
    Min. 40 hrs/day was compulsory
    <number>
  • MU provides emplyees with instruction tuned with organisational goal like to reduce the product cycle, university will develop curriculum for this, then course is taught to employees internal & external to it.
    SDL: employees set their own learning goals & pace of learning
    Implement training plan:
    Partly during working hours & partly in their own time.
    Min. 40 hrs/day was compulsory
    <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • Ice breakersGames to get team members know each other
    Leadership gamesExercise to teach different styles of leadership
    Skill gamesTest to develop analytical skills
    Communication gamesExercise to build bias- free learning and talking
    Team- building gamesGames requiring collaborative efforts
    Role reversalExercise to teach plurality of views
    Doubling Brings out ideas that are not often expressed
    Tag teamsOne role played alternately by two participants
    MirroringTraining with an external perspective
    Shifting physical positionsHighlighting of communication problems
    Structured role playingRole play with predetermined objectives
    Built- in tensionsTeaching the importance of resolving matters
    ShadowingWork under a senior to watch and learn
    Outward- bound trainingAdventure sports for teams
    Lateral thinkingThinking randomly to come up with new ideas
    Cross- cultural trainingPrograms to teach specifics of varied culture
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  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • Training & Development

    1. 1. TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT Presented By: Neelima Roy Neha Agrawal Department of Management Studies Pondicherry University
    2. 2. TRAINING DEFINITION • A learning process and a task oriented activity. • The process of teaching new employees the basic skills they need to perform their jobs.
    3. 3. AIM OF TRAINING • Aim is to develop the knowledge, skills and attitude necessary for effective performance of the work.
    4. 4. DEVELOPMENT • It’s a knowledge oriented activity • Development refers to the learning opportunities designed to help employees grow.
    5. 5. NATURE OF TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT Training & Development need = Standard performance - Actual performance
    6. 6. Reasons for Training New technolo gy Cost control Role and career flexibility Increase in KBWs Orientati onNew appraisal techniqu es Skills and labor shortage s Globaliza tion and speed of change Product and service quality Turnover
    7. 7. TRAINING LEARNING & MOTIVATION • Training is futile if the trainee lacks the ability or motivation to benefit from it. • Make the learning meaningful • Make skills transfer easy • Motivation principles for trainers
    8. 8. AREAS OF TRAINING • Knowledge • Technical skills • Social skills • Techniques
    9. 9. CASE: DIVERSITY TRAINING - TOYS ‘R’ US INC. LIFO Training workshop (Life Orientation) • Discussion about the communication style of peers, sub-ordinates & superiors. • Videos are used to display the unwritten rules, stereotype & cultural differences of managers. • Discussion of issues that affect performance of women & minorities. • Learning imparted - Every employee is responsible for his/her performance.
    10. 10. CONTD…. Results: • Growth & advancement of minorities & women from several quarters. • Less attrition rate due to diversity program • Work environment based on understanding, trust & co- operation. • Unity in diversity along with improved performance. • Competitive advantage in selling because of diversity.
    11. 11. TRAINING PROCESS The five step Training & Development process – Needs Analysis – Instructional Design – Validation – Implementation – Evaluation
    12. 12. NEEDS ASSESSMENT A. ORGANIZATION SUPPORT B. ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS C. TASK & KSA ANALYSIS D. PERSON ANALYSIS INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES DEVELOPMENT OF CRITERIA SELECTING AND DESIGN OF INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS TRAINING VALIDITY TRANSFER VALIDITY INTRAORGANIZATI ONAL VALIDITY INTERORGANIZATIO NAL VALIDITY TRAINING USE OF EVALUATION MODELS TRANINGPROCESS
    13. 13. DESIGNING OF TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM WHO ARE THE TRAINEES? WHO ARE THE TRAINERS? WHAT METHODS & TECHNIQUES ? WHAT SHOULD BE THE LEVEL OF TRAINING? WHAT PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING? WHERE TO CONDUCT THE PROGRAM?
    14. 14. OVERVIEWOFTRAINING PROGRAMINCOGNIZANT
    15. 15. COGNIZANT ACADEMY ON THE JOB OFF THE JOB CERTIFICATIONS INTERNAL VENDORS INTERNAL VENDORS EXTERNALINTERNAL EMPLOYEE S FROM PROJECTS NEW JOINEES FROM POOL ENTRY LEVEL TRAINING TESTS ASSESSMENT FEEDBACK
    16. 16. on the job ORIENTATION TRAINING JOB-INSTRUCTION TRAINING APPRENTICE TRAINING INTERNSHIP & ASSISTANTSHIP JOB ROTATION COACHING OFF THE JOB VESTIBULE LECTURE & SPECIAL STUDY FILMS & TELEVISION CONFERENCE OR DISCUSSION CASE STUDY ROLE PLAYING SIMULATION PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION LABORATORY TRAINING OTHERS COMPUTER BASED TRAINING DISTANCE & INTERNET BASED TRAINING ACTION LEARNING JOB ROTATION MANAGEMENT GAMES CORPORATE UNIVERSITIES EXECUTIVE COACH METHODSOFTRAINING
    17. 17. E-LEARNINGATMOTOROLA • Motorola – model organization in corporate world of employee T & D • Establishment of Motorola University(MU) in 1989 • Development of Self Directed Learning(SDL) into training strategy • In 2000, Motorola incorporated e-learning
    18. 18. IDENTIFY TRAINING NEEDS BY EMPLOYEES EVALUATE SDL READINESS OF EMPLOYEES MOTIVATE EMPLOYEES FOR SDL FORMULATE LEARNING OBJECTIVES DEVELOP & ACQUIRE TRAINING RESOURCES SDLPROCESS IMPLEMENT TRAINING PLAN EVALUATE LEARNING EFFECTIVENESS
    19. 19. SDLPROCESS • Cost Advantage: – Classroom training – $13.34/hour – SDL mode - $ 7.76/hour • Extensive use of tools in SDL – Audio tapes – Video workshops – Interactive videos – CD based training – Satellite communication
    20. 20. IDENTIFICATION OF SKILL GAPS & TRAINING REQUIRED CHECKING THE AVAILABILITY OF ONLINE COURSES ENROLLMENT CHARGING OF FEES & INFORMING MANAGER REGARDING REGISTRATION ACTUAL TRAINING STEPSINE-TRAININGPROGRAM RESULTS
    21. 21. 1 •Justintimelectures(JITL) 2 •I-cubedsession 3 •Communitiesofpractice 4 •Learningguides OTHERE-TRAININGMETHODS 5 • m-learning
    22. 22. TECHNIQUES OF TRAINING Ice breakers Leadership games Skill games Communication games Team- building games Role reversal Doubling Tag teams Mirroring Shifting physical positions Structured role playing Built- in tensions Shadowing Outward- bound training Lateral thinking Cross- cultural training
    23. 23. CONDUCT OF TRAINING • At the job itself • On site but not the job • Off the site
    24. 24. IMPLEMENTATION OF TRAINING PROGRAMS • Deciding the location and organizing training and other facilities • Scheduling the training programs • Conducting the program • Monitoring the progress of trainees
    25. 25. EVALUATIONOFTHEPROGRAM
    26. 26. NEED FOR EVALUATION • To identify the program’s strengths and weaknesses. • To assess the content, organization, and administration of the program. • To identify which trainees benefited most or least from the program. • To gather data. • To determine the financial benefits and costs of the programs. • To compare the costs and benefits.. • To compare the costs and benefits.
    27. 27. PRINCIPLES OF EVALUATION • Goals and purpose of evaluation must be clear. • Evaluation must be continuous. • Evaluation must be specific. • Must provide means and focus for trainers to appraise themselves, their practices and their products. • Must be based on objective methods and standards. • Realistic target dates.
    28. 28. CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION • Training validity • Transfer validity • Intra-organizational validity • Inter-organizational validity
    29. 29. TECHNIQUES OF EVALUATION • Experimental • Longitudinal or time-series analysis • Questionnaires to the trainees
    30. 30. SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRES DailyEvaluationForm.pdf PostTrngSummaryEva.pdf TrnEvalSelfAsses.pdf
    31. 31. Levels of Evaluation Leve l Criteria Focus 1 Reactions Trainee satisfaction 2 Learning Acquisition of knowledge, skills, attitudes, behavior 3 Behavior Improvement of behavior on the job 4 Results Business results achieved by trainees
    32. 32. HOW TO MAKE TRAINING EFFECTIVE ? • Allocate major resources and adequate time to training. • Ensure that the training contributes to the strategies of the firm. • Ensure a systematic and comprehensive approach. • Make learning one of the fundamental values of the company. • Create a system to evaluate the effectiveness of the training. • Ensure that there is a proper linkage among organizational, operational and individual training needs.
    33. 33. SOME EXTERNAL TRAINING AGENCIES
    34. 34. http://softskillscoordinates.web.officelive.com/CorporateTraining.aspx
    35. 35. http://direct.safetyskills.com/safetyskills-course-list.aspx
    36. 36. http://www.cubiks.com/aspx/content.aspx?targetgroupid=6&sectionid=44
    37. 37. http://www.elementk.com/
    38. 38. http://www.mentorware.com/bhive/t/1/
    39. 39. CASE: TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT AT
    40. 40. TYPESOFTRAININGPROVIDEDIN GODREJ • TQM Workshops 1. Parivartan •. EVA training •. Gallop – Young executive board – Mentoring by business leaders – Reverse monitoring – Red and blue teams
    41. 41. CONTD…. • Spark • e-Gyan • Interpersonal effectiveness and negotiation skills • English language training for workers • BPO training
    42. 42. REFERENCES • Book: Human Resource Management – Edition: 5th – Publisher: Tata McGraw- Hill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi – Author: k. Aswathappa • Book: Human Resource Management – Edition: 11th – Publisher: Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi – Author: Garry Dessler
    43. 43. CONTD…. • Book : Case Studies in Human Resource Management, Volume III – Publisher: The ICFAI Center for Management Research, Hyderabad • http://www.cubiks.com/aspx/content.aspx?targetgroupid=6&sectionid= • http://www.elementk.com/ • http://softskillscoordinates.web.officelive.com/CorporateTraining.aspx
    44. 44. CONTD…. • http://direct.safetyskills.com/safetyskills-course-list.aspx • http://www.icohere.com/ • http://www.mentorware.com/bhive/t/1/ • www.google.com

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