Chp 4 Training & Development


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  • Chp 4 Training & Development

    1. 1. Chapter 4 TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Need for organizations to build and sustain competencies that would provide them with competitive advantage. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge era Human assets are valued highly. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth oriented organizations value training as a response to changing environment </li></ul><ul><li>Continues learning process in human development </li></ul><ul><li>Helps in development of one’s personality, sharpens skills and enhances effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>It is an important and integral part of organizational renewal process </li></ul>Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    3. 3. Training and development <ul><li>Training is a process through which a person enhances and develops his efficiency, capacity, and effectiveness at work by improving and updating his knowledge and understanding the skills relevant to his or her job. </li></ul><ul><li>Training and development </li></ul><ul><li>Training Vs. education </li></ul><ul><li>Training at different levels </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of training </li></ul><ul><li>Learning curve </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer of learning </li></ul>Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    4. 4. Functions of a training program <ul><li>Acquiring knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Change in attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Helping to put theory into practice </li></ul><ul><li>Helps to evaluate abilities, competencies </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances problem solving and decision making ability </li></ul><ul><li>Improves performance </li></ul>Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    5. 5. Importance & Need of training <ul><li>Aids in new entrants attaining role clarity </li></ul><ul><li>Promotions </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents skill obsolescence </li></ul><ul><li>Improves quality and productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Meet organizational objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Improves organizational climate </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent accidents </li></ul><ul><li>To support personal growth and development </li></ul>Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    6. 6. <ul><li>Intention to learn from the participant </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement provided to the learner </li></ul><ul><li>Developing the potential from an individual’s point of view </li></ul><ul><li>Active participation of the trainee </li></ul><ul><li>Providing opportunities for practice </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer of learning to take place from a training program </li></ul>Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    7. 7. What deficiencies, if any, does job holder have in terms of skills, knowledge, abilities, and behaviours? What behaviours are necessary? Is there a need for training? What are the strategic goals of the organization? What tasks must be completed to achieve goals? Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    8. 8. <ul><li>Phase I – Needs assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Phase II – Design & delivery of T&D </li></ul><ul><li>Phase III - Evaluation </li></ul>Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    9. 9. <ul><li>Phase I – Needs assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines the organization’s true needs and the training programs necessary to meet them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisational analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operations analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advisory committees, Assessment centres, Attitude survey, Group discussions, Questionnaires, Skills test, Observations of behaviour, Performance appraisals, Performance documents, Exit interviews </li></ul></ul></ul>Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    10. 10. <ul><li>Phase II – Design & delivery of T&D </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Training design principles of learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Participation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organisation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Repetition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On-the-job training (OJT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Away-from-the-job training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A T&D plan & implementation </li></ul></ul>Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    11. 11. <ul><li>Phase III – Evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Levels of evaluation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How did participants react? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What did participants learn? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How did participants’ behaviour change? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What organisational goals were affected? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applying evaluation strategies </li></ul></ul>Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    12. 12. Training methods on the job /off the job <ul><li>On the job training methods are: </li></ul><ul><li>Job instruction training </li></ul><ul><li>Vestibule training </li></ul><ul><li>Training by supervisors </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching on the job/Simulation </li></ul><ul><li>Apprenticeship </li></ul><ul><li>Job rotation </li></ul>Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    13. 13. <ul><li>Off the job training methods: </li></ul><ul><li>Lectures </li></ul><ul><li>Conferences </li></ul><ul><li>Case studies </li></ul><ul><li>Role play </li></ul><ul><li>Programmed instruction training </li></ul><ul><li>T group/Sensitivity training </li></ul>Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    14. 14. <ul><li>Criteria for evaluation are: </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives of the program </li></ul><ul><li>Cost-benefit analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Results obtained </li></ul><ul><li>Areas of improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Resources/ staff required </li></ul><ul><li>Methods of evaluation would be: </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaires, projects, tests, interviews, observations or participation and discussions. </li></ul>Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    15. 15. <ul><li>Cross cultural approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of standards </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction with learners </li></ul><ul><li>Use of technology – CD ROMs, WAN, CBT, WBT </li></ul><ul><li>E-learning – types </li></ul><ul><li>Informal learning, self-paced, leader lead learning and performance support tools </li></ul>Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    16. 16. <ul><li>Learning at ones own pace </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Active learning </li></ul><ul><li>Cost effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative learning </li></ul><ul><li>Personalized learning environment </li></ul>Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    17. 17. <ul><li>Shift of focus to the learner </li></ul><ul><li>Data over load </li></ul><ul><li>Data unreliability </li></ul><ul><li>Net work/ hardware unreliability </li></ul><ul><li>Access control </li></ul><ul><li>Less theory </li></ul>Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    18. 18. <ul><li>Quality improvement programmes </li></ul><ul><li>Technological change-related programmes </li></ul><ul><li>Customer service T&D programmes </li></ul>Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    19. 19. <ul><li>Training is not equally distributed to all employees </li></ul><ul><li>Expenditure allocated to training is inadequate </li></ul><ul><li>Mismatch between theory and practice </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of training are not immediately realized </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting contextual systems needs to be provided in organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Top management needs to support the philosophy of training in spirit </li></ul>Prof.Sujeesha Rao
    20. 20. Chapter 5 B Executive Development Programs
    21. 21. Organizational environment Organizational strategy/objectives Conduct of the training program Training needs assessment Identifying competency gaps Training plan
    22. 22. <ul><li>Decision making skills </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal skills </li></ul><ul><li>Job knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Specific individual meets </li></ul><ul><li>General knowledge </li></ul>
    23. 23. Factors in designing an EDP <ul><li>Learning characteristics and its applicability to design </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of results </li></ul><ul><li>Reward mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>Individual difference of the learners </li></ul><ul><li>Application to the work environment </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting organizational goals thru content design </li></ul>
    24. 24. Methods of EDP
    25. 25. <ul><li>Evaluation of EDP is important for the following reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>Improving the quality of training and development process </li></ul><ul><li>Improving the efficiency and competency of trainers </li></ul><ul><li>Make improvements in the system to make it more responsive </li></ul><ul><li>Aligning the training objectives to organizational objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating the ROI on account of training and development </li></ul><ul><li>Changing the perception of the management as to regard training as an investment </li></ul>Evaluation