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Digitisation workshop pres 2009(v1)


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Slides from a half day workshop that I gave a couple of times in 2009. Better late than never I suppose. You need to read my blog post here: …

Slides from a half day workshop that I gave a couple of times in 2009. Better late than never I suppose. You need to read my blog post here: for an explanation about some slides and for references.

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  • 1. Managing DigitisationPrograms
    16 July 2009
    Mal Booth – DERSU
  • 2. My background?The Australian War Memorial’s Research Centre functions as a library and an archive. It develops, manages and provides public access to Australia’s official, personal, & published records of war.
  • 3. Global trends in digitisation
    • Faster, better, cheaper equipment & storage
    • 4. Better DAMS & CMS software
    • 5. Institutional & shared repositories
    • 6. More audio & film
    • 7. Collaboration
    • 8. Shared collections (eg. Picture Australia)
    • 9. Mass digitisation programs: Google, Microsoft, Yahoo, Open Content Alliance (OCA), Internet Archive
    • 10. Pressure for online access & pressures on real storage space
  • I’m not sure what these are, but they are important!
    • Dynamism
    • 11. Preservation (as a benefit & obligation where necessary)
    • 12. Playing
    • 13. Management & planning
    • 14. Compromise
    • 15. Access
  • Recent Examples - AWM
    WW1, WW2, Korea & Vietnam unit war diaries
    260k+ images of our collections
    Official histories (published works)
    Digitisation on demand
  • 16. Digitisation for Accessc90,000 ppper year
  • 17. Recent Examples – UTS Library
    Supporting Teaching & Learning
    • Digital Resource Register
    • 18. Alternative Format Service
    • 19. Exam Papers
    Access only
    Supporting Research
    • eScholarship (UTS ePress, iResearch, eData)
    • 20. Australian Digital Theses Collection
    Access & Preservation (data curation)
  • 21. About one fifth of these images
  • 22. What we will cover today
    a. Why and what to digitise?
    b. How (preservation/access) & Principles
    c. Copyright and IP considerations (briefly)
    d. Resources needed; in-house or outsource?
    e. Process outline: from planning to long term maintenance (life-cycle)
    a. Production: file formats & standards, scanners & cameras, software
    b. Output: indexing, access, search optimisation, delivery options
    c. Storage, ongoing maintenance & management requirements
    d. Just doing it, lessons learned & key issues
  • 23. Why and what to digitise?
    Increase & broaden access (remote & 24/7)
    Fragile, valuable &/or unique materials (loss or damage would be catastrophic)
    Support research & education
    Anticipating future use or re-use
    Improved search, retrieval & storage
    Promoting knowledge, understanding & recognition of collections
    Relationships to other collections
    Preservation of at-risk collections by risk reduction & conservation
    WHAT: popular collections; fragile/unique; at-risk; significant priorities; relationships (corporate or collaborative); & what you have the right to digitise!
  • 24. How: some Principles* - Collections
    (organised groups of objects)
    Agreed collection development policy
    Sound description
    Lifecycle curation
    Broad access to all
    Respect for IP
    Evaluation for use & usefulness
    Integration of staff & user workflows
    Sustainability & continued usability
    * NISO Framework of Guidance for the Building of Good Digital Collections
  • 25. How: some Principles - Objects
    (digital assets)
    Production ensures collection priorities & maintains interoperability and re-use
    Preservability: persistence & accessibility over time; across evolving media, software & formats
    Meaningful outside its context: portable, reusable, interoperable
    Persistent identifiers: URLs or URIs
    Authentication: veracity, accuracy & authenticity
    Inclusion of associated metadata: descriptive, administrative & structural
  • 26. How: some Principles - Metadata
    (selection and implementation of information about objects: descriptive; administrative; technical; structural; & preservation)
    Appropriate to materials, users and use
    Support for interoperability: mappings & crosswalks between schemes
    Use of authority control and content standards
    Includes a clear statement on conditions of use for the objects (eg. fair use)
    Support for long term management, eg. PREMIS
    Metadata records are treated as digital objects
    RUBRIC overview:
  • 27. How: some Principles - Initiatives
    (the creation & management of collections)
    A substantial design and planning component
    Appropriate staffing and expertise
    Best practice project management
    An evaluation plan
    A project report that documents the process & outcomes
    Consideration of the entire lifecycle (ongoing management)
  • 28. Copyright & Intellectual Property (1)
    What sort of items are protected by copyright?
    What is the duration of copyright protection?
    What sorts of activities infringe copyright?
    When is a copyright licence required?
    Understanding the “exceptions” to copyright infringement
    See: Copyright and Cultural Institutions: Short Guidelines for Digitisation by Emily Hudson and Andrew Kenyon
    & ACC’s Special case exception: education, libraries, collections(deals with the new section 200AB)
  • 29. IFLA/IPA Statement on Orphaned Works
  • 30.
  • 31.
  • 32.
  • 33. Resources required (1)
    Hardware – scanners, cameras, computers, monitors, digital storage, memory & processing power
    Software – scanning, OCR, office apps, image editing & management, DAM?, video/audio capture, metadata capture?, file conversion, calibration
    Furnishings – for staff, computers, scanners, storage
    Facility space – scanning, preparation & storage, QA
    Specialist staff – curatorial, cataloguers, IT/DBA, web, scanning, project management, conservators
    Training needs
    Conservation needs – archival supplies & consultancies
    Budget funds – salaries, hardware/software purchases & lease, licenses, running/ongoing costs, contingency
    Corporate support – context within corporate or other priorities and strategies
  • 34. WW1 Diaries scanning facilities
    Approximately 200,000 high res. images per year
  • 35. Outsource or Inhouse?
    Contractor responsible for capital equipment, training and technology obsolescence costs costs
    No need to find scanning space
    Less need for digitisation knowledge
    Economies of scale (& capability for large volumes & throughput)
    The bureau may be able to achieve a better quality result & have a broader range of services
    A better fix on costs and timescales (but these can vary widely)
    • Better institutional knowledge, understanding & capacity
    • 36. Less risk than working with external parties
    • 37. Better ability to meet specific needs and deadlines?
    • 38. Cheaper costs for oversized or non-standard materials?
    • 39. QA may be more efficient
    • 40. Saving on transport and insurance and less risk with onsite scanning
    • 41. Assured staff and expertise
  • Dealing with an external bureau
    • Clear contracts are important
    • 42. Choosing a bureau – check with reference sites
    • 43. Range and scope of material - non-standard materials
    • 44. Collaboration with others to achieve further economies of scale may be possible
    • 45. QA can be a project killer
    • 46. Metadata – what will the bureau record?
    • 47. Consider partial outsourcing or bringing a specialist partner onsite
  • Some funding options
    • Program funding – dependent on corporate priorities
    • 48. User pays – but will they?
    • 49. Grants - eg.
    • 50. Donors or sponsors -from or associated with a web presence
    • 51. Collection Depreciation – depends on valuation and an accounting standard
    • 52. As a training activity – can be viable learning experience for a small team & project
    • 53. New policy proposals
  • “Investing in an Intangible Asset”
    The benefits of long term preservation of digital assets are difficult to value (reliably and objectively), but the costs of not doing so are high if action isn’t taken. More information on costs and benefits is needed.
    Digital preservation is still new, so there is scope for market creation & development, research and experimentation.
    Information managers know why such programs are important, but find it hard to communicate this to those who control our finances. Business cases based on empirical evidence need something like the balanced scorecard approach to bridge the gap between us and decision makers.
    Digital preservation is still an organisational innovation and must be managed effectively as it is dependent on independently driven technological developments.
    From DCC’sInvestment in an Intangible Asset
  • 54. The AWM Document Digitisation Process
  • 55. Cornell’s digital imaging process map
    • Radiating out from the goals and deliverables of the project are the institutional resources
    • 56. The outer wheel represents the processes or stages of digital imaging initiatives – clockwise from Selection
  • 57. PRODUCTION: file formats and standards
    Commonly used formats:
    Contemporary & future formats:
  • PRODUCTION: file formats – how and where they are used
  • 63. PRODUCTION: scanners & cameras
    • Flatbed scanners
    • 64. Map/plan scanners
    • 65. Overhead scanners
    • 66. Digital cameras
    • 67. Book scanners
    • 68. Book-edge scanners
    • 69. Microfilm and slide scanners
  • PRODUCTION: software
    Image editing software
    • Consider: cost; hardware requirements; usability; functionality
    • 70. Options : Adobe Photoshop CS3 (expensive/best) & Photoshop Elements (cheap); Gimp (free); + prop. software for RAW files
    • 71. Derivative, OCR and pdf production: Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro; OmniPage; ImageMagick (conversion software); Ghostscript (pdf interpreter); & pdftk (pdf toolkit)
    Other useful open source software:
    • JHOVE object validation
    • 72. FedoraCommons object repository management system
    • 73. ebXML e-business suite
    • 74. Xena digital document preservation software (from NAA)
    • 75. DSpace institutional repository system
    • 76. DROID automated batch identification of file formats (from TNA UK)
    • 77. OpenEdit ; Razuna ; ResourceSpace - Open source & free DAM software
    • Most descriptive metadata will come from your MARC records
    • 78. If a separate database is needed: Access, SQL & Oracle
    Access options (also part of just doing it)
    • Collection OPACs, databases, Zoomify, EAD, DVDs, CDs
    • 79. Other: Blogs, Facebook ArtShare, Flickr, Flickr Commons, Facebook page
    Search engine optimisation
    • How can I create a Google-friendly site?
    Consider: Speed (read/write, data transfer); Capacity; Reliability (stability, redundancy); Standardization; Cost; & Fitness to task
    Management, maintenance & preservation
    • Digital preservation practices
    • 80. Preservation metadata
    • 81. Trusted digital repositories?
  • Lessons
    What we want
    What we are finding
    • Accuracy / authenticity
    • 82. Accessibility
    • 83. Searchability
    • 84. Easy navigation & download
    • 85. Cost effectiveness
    • 86. Good quality product
    • 87. Text capture and search (OCR) where poss.
    • 88. Integration
    • 89. Scalability
    • 90. Web interactivity
    • 91. Simple solutions
    • 92. Costs estimates escalate
    • 93. Technology has limits, but is improving
    • 94. You learn with new technology by doing
    • 95. There is more to copyright than owning it
    • 96. Anticipate needs & increasing expectations
    • 97. $ hard to find for access (sponsorship?)
    • 98. Better management & storage of assets
    • 99. A need to educate managers & suppliers!
    • 100. Keeping trained staff is a challenge
    • 101. Costs/benefits of new technologies (risk?)
    • 102. Importance of QA in projects!
    • 103. Need for a strategic plan(s)
    • 104. Be prepared to compromise
  • Enterprise Content Management: management, search & web facilities for digital assets and services
    Extensive digital asset management features
    Excellent electronic document & record management
    Intuitive web content management features
    Facilitate simple and complex workflow processes
    Extensive and unified searching constructs
    Compliant with all government recordkeeping requirements & emerging digital preservation standards
    Integrate easily with existing systems
    Simple to administer in terms of security, auditing & storage management
  • 105. implementing user-friendly technologies
    • make sure they are findable and useable
    • 106. pick a few “winners” & lead by example
    • 107. collaborate & network
    • 108. get involved in your core business
    • 109. don't leave it just to IT-staff (get involved)
    • 110. learn to compromise (the 80:20 rule)‏
    • 111. experiment
    • 112. start now! it is sometimes easier to seek forgiveness than gain permission
  • JISC 2007 – five key issues for digitisation
    Re-focus on the user (simple, easily found & used output)
    Aggregate and present content that can resonate with multiple communities
    Learn from Google & YouTube but keep your values
    New business models are needed, collaborating with and without the private sector
    More collaboration between publishers, curators, funders, users, vendors and standards bodies