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Digitisation Overview

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This is a presentation delivered at a Leadership Academy and aim at providing the audience with a broad overal on digitisation

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Digitisation Overview

  1. 1. Ria Groenewald Department of Library Services University of Pretoria
  2. 2. You cannot teach a man anything; you can only help him find it within himself Galileo Galilei
  3. 3. Simplified definition of digitisation Digitisation is the managed conversion of analogue material to a digital format for ongoing access by electronic devices during the intended life cycle of the digital object
  4. 4. 1. Kodak / Minolta 1. 3. Microfiche • Kodak / scanner Minolta Microfiche scanner 3. i2S DigiBook 2. •i2S DigiBook bookscanner book scanner •Nikon 9000 5. Nikon Coolscan 9000 Coolscan •USB Turntable •Tapedeck - 7. iTTUSB Turntable ripper •Epson 1640X 6. 4. 5. 9. PlusDeck 2c 11. Epson A3 flatbed
  5. 5. The library needs to use technology effectively in reaching out to users. In the academy, this means bringing innovation to our thinking http://www.llrx.com/node/2177/print Stuart Basefsky, 16 June 2009
  6. 6. Following benchmarks and best practices that are not a good fit for your [university] or its culture can be counterproductive. The most effective way of using benchmarks and best practices is as a creative mechanism for raising questions about your own [situation]. Following what others do is rarely a form of good leadership.” Leadership & The Role of Information: Making The Creatively Informed Questioner By Stuart Basefsky, Published on October 29, 2008 http://www.llrx.com/features/leadershipandroleofinformation.htm
  7. 7. Identify a project • Know your collections – what is valuable – what others need to “see” – core business of institution – what is used often – benefit of such a project (collection as well as stakeholders)
  8. 8. Project planning As part of a digitisation project planning, you’ll have to decide on the scanning and format specifications such as the: • bit depth (bitonal, greyscale or 24-bit colour) • scanning resolution (400 dpi, etc.) • image manipulation options (deskewing, etc.) • file format (TIFF, etc.)
  9. 9. Cost • Hard to provide a general price range, variation in collections and requirements for digitisation • Digitisation projects, services and costs can be as unique as the collections selected for digitisation • Projects have fundamental similarities (dpi selection, derivative file creation, source material format, etc.) other characteristics can make apparently similar projects completely different
  10. 10. Policy making Institutions should be able to define and defend their choices related to digitisation in terms of their institutional mission of teaching and research, and to avoid the distraction of commercialising their products
  11. 11. Think – don’t tumble • Will digital assets increase access to information that is hard to obtain otherwise? • Will digital assets increase the information value of the physical material?
  12. 12. Questions • Does digitisation fit the organisation’s mission? • Is there a known potential audience for the materials that are planned to be digitised? • Will digitisation increase access, functionality or intellectual control?
  13. 13. Questions • Will digitising these materials fill a need that is currently unmet? • Are the materials in the public domain or can proper rights be secured? • Is funding in place for the digitisation program?
  14. 14. Workflow • Identify a project • Selection criteria • Copyright • Basic preservation on physical material • Scanning • Manipulation • Web ready • Submit or hand over
  15. 15. Selection criteria • know the history and rationale behind selection of sources • start with collection items that are often used • embrittled material • published between a certain time-line • materials have to be Africana • language limitations • forming part of a certain collection • make sure no doubles are included
  16. 16. Copyright • stay clear of copyright • try to avoid material still in copyright • where necessary start with copyright clearance first – may take long to sort out • note every step along the way – keep the evidence
  17. 17. Physical preservation • Basic cleaning of material – dust – tears / broken corners – mould – remove selotype / glue / pritt – remove staplers, gem clips, anything that can cause rust marks – store in acid free containers if possible
  18. 18. QA QA Unique URI created for Metadata Editor object UPSpace I R QA QA Send to submitters via • email • external hard drive Reviewer • DVD/CD/Flash drive • baseline submission UPSpace I R QA QA •Copy from AS •Quality Control •Scan directly to •Deskew/cleaning/ archival server derivation/filter Archival server •Safe web ready
  19. 19. Selection criteria of material Lecturer / Vet library Preparation of material Lecturer/Vet library personnel Baseline metadata Copyright clearance Service Unit Staff Jacob Access rights Scan material Lecturer Digitization office/EI Baseline metadata Conversion of image + OCR* Service Unit Staff Digitization office Webready process Store master image Digitization office + VET library Cataloguing on UPSpace Amelia/Cataloguer add LCSH subjects Link images Digitization office/Amelia *OCR of books – only Preface/Contents/Index UPSpace Administrator Amelia Breytenbach (Vet) 13 Apr 2005
  20. 20. Scanning • Start with the easy part – photo collection – black and white documents • Phase it • Reward yourself when finished
  21. 21. Guidelines to digital imaging
  22. 22. Imaging requirements • Printed text Resolution Bit depth Enhancements allowed 400-600 dpi Bitonal Sharpening, descreening, cropping, deskewing, and despeckling
  23. 23. Imaging requirements • Rare/damaged printed text Resolution Bit depth Enhancements allowed 400-600 dpi 8-gray or Contrast stretching 24 colour Minimal adjustments for tone and colour
  24. 24. Imaging requirements • Book illustrations Resolution Bit depth Enhancements allowed 400 dpi - 8-gray or Contrast stretching 600 dpi with 24 colour Minimal adjustments enhancement for tone and colour
  25. 25. Image manipulation • Less is more – don’t fiddle just do the necessary amendments – get it ready for web display – remember the technical metadata – note everything
  26. 26. Redaction • Identify material for redaction – Once redactions have been identified and agreed upon, decisions need to be recorded – Do not remove a whole sentence or paragraph if only one or two words are non- disclosable – be consistent throughout the collection
  27. 27. Storage • Archival image – each image need its own unique identifier – keep apart – do not work on archival image make a COPY – save the copy apart from archival image – note every step in database
  28. 28. Storage • More is better – archival image – at least one TIFF original on DVD/ hard disk / external hard disk – at least one derivate copy on DVD/ hard disk/ external hard disk – store apart, if possible keep a copy in another building
  29. 29. Codex Sinaiticus is one of the world's outstanding manuscripts. Together with Codex Vaticanus, it is one of the earliest extant Bibles, containing the oldest complete New Testament. This treasured codex is indispensable for understanding the earliest text of the Greek Bible, the transmission of its text, the establishment of the Christian canon, and the history of the book. Over 400 leaves survive and are held across four institutions http://www.codexsinaiticus.org/en/project/digitisation.aspx
  30. 30. Test image of a Codex Sinaiticus Test image of a Codex Sinaiticus page on a white background page on a black background Through testing, the decision was made to opt for a compromise colour. A light brown background was chosen that was close enough to the colour of the parchment to give a sense of its warmth, while reducing the show-through to a point where it rarely makes reading the page difficult. http://www.codexsinaiticus.org/en/project/digitisation.aspx
  31. 31. Measuring for scanner set-up
  32. 32. Quality Control on scanned images
  33. 33. Make a copy of the original scanned image to work with
  34. 34. File Renaming
  35. 35. BookRestorer - derivation process
  36. 36. Black and white compressed image
  37. 37. Optical Character Recognition MR. GLADSTONE ON FAIR T: AD'. AND RUNT JUC Puctios-jTHE nkxt I.IIiKt.AI. LRADKk? LORD ?AKIINOTON's NEW ATTITUDE AND WHAT MR. CHAMBERLAIN THINKS OF IT? MR. RI.AINK AND LOUIS KOSSUTH? AX ANARCHIST CARDINAL BISMARCK AND BROWNING ??ART AND LITERA? RY NOT I 8. fBT CABLR TO THIS TRIBUNE.|
  38. 38. http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83030214/1888-01-01/ed-1/seq-1/%3Bwords%3D/
  39. 39. PDF
  40. 40. Newspaper digitisation
  41. 41. Microfiche
  42. 42. Risk analysis for digital objects • Hard drive failure • URL error – linked broken • Storage medium failure • Loss of information/data • Human error and memory • Hackers www.fotosearch.com
  43. 43. Preservation • Preservation strategies should enable subsequent users to work with digital resources in the same way that they would be able to continue to work with older, analogue materials. • Can we afford to scan at a low resolution, or make other compromises in the digitisation life-cycle
  44. 44. Digital preservation • budget for a possible migration strategy • consider digital formats carefully • metadata standards (technical and preservation) • the organisation must be committed to the program • follow best practices and international standards • IT must adapt to long-term needs of digital preservation • develop a technology infrastructure plan
  45. 45. PREMIS MODEL Agent: •The role of the person undertaking the event (name/organization) Intellectual entity (photo) •Software name and version no. •OS type Converted to digital object Preserve for interoperability, access and readability TIFF image file Object: Rights: Rights = Object - •File size •License agreement instructed user what it represent •Date created •Exact permissions •File format granted over Transform to JPEG •Creating preservation of the for web display application object
  46. 46. Ria Groenewald Digitization Coordinator Department of Library Services University of Pretoria Email: ria.groenewald@up.ac.za Tel: 012 x 420-3792

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