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  • Great information. Our library has done some newspaper digitization, via a 3rd party vendor. Now thinking of digitizing a collection of photos and artifacts. Need all the information one can gather.
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  1. 1. Getting Started with Digital Collections Erin Logsdon Consultant, Digital Solutions NELINET, Inc.
  2. 2. Details <ul><li>AM & PM Break </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10:45 & 2:15 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lunch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12:00 to 1:00PM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Questions anytime </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introductions <ul><li>Name & organization/role </li></ul><ul><li>What do you already know? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you want to learn? </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is a Digital Library?
  5. 5. Define: Digital Library “ Digital libraries are organizations that provide the resources, including specialized staff, to select, structure, offer intellectual access to, interpret, distribute, preserve the integrity of, and ensure the persistence over time of collections of digital works so that they are readily and economically available for use by a defined community or set of communities.” Digital Library Federation Annual Report ,(1998-1999) 1.
  6. 6. Components “ Digital libraries are organizations that provide the resources , including specialized staff , to select , structure , offer intellectual access to, interpret , distribute , preserve the integrity of, and ensure the persistence over time of collections of digital works so that they are readily and economically available for use by a defined community or set of communities.” Digital Library Federation Annual Report ,(1998-1999) 1.
  7. 7. Digitization ≠ Preservation
  8. 8. Six Methods of Digital Preservation <ul><li>Technology preservation </li></ul><ul><li>Technology emulation </li></ul><ul><li>Data migration </li></ul><ul><li>Enduring care </li></ul><ul><li>Refreshing </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Archaeology </li></ul>
  9. 9. Why should we create a digital collection?
  10. 11. Sustainability
  11. 12. First Step
  12. 13. Audience
  13. 14. http:// /
  14. 15. http:// /
  15. 16. http:// /
  16. 17. Stakeholders
  17. 18. What should we choose?
  18. 19. Selection Committee
  19. 20. Selection Criteria
  20. 22. Selection Process HANDBOOK FOR DIGITAL PROJECTS: A Management Tool for Preservation and Access NEDCC
  21. 23. Should, May, Can <ul><li>Should it be digitized? </li></ul><ul><li>May it be digitized? </li></ul><ul><li>Can it be digitized? </li></ul>
  22. 24. Intellectual Property Rights <ul><li>Do you have the right rights? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fair use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain clearance from copyright holders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restrict access to comply with licensing and/or privacy stipulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Donor concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Check with an expert </li></ul><ul><li>See also: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// / </li></ul></ul>
  23. 25. Other Considerations <ul><li>Right of Publicity </li></ul><ul><li>Right of Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Defamation: Libel and slander </li></ul><ul><li>Obscenity and pornography </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitivity to content </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of Information Act </li></ul><ul><li>Linking </li></ul>
  24. 27. MONEY
  25. 28. Operational Costs
  26. 29. Organizational Costs
  27. 30. Staffing Costs
  28. 31. Breakdown <ul><li>1/3 the cost is digital conversion (32% overall) </li></ul><ul><li>Slightly less than 1/3 the cost is in metadata creation--cataloguing, description, and indexing (29% overall) </li></ul><ul><li>Slightly more than 1/3 the cost is in other activities, such as administration and quality control (39% overall) </li></ul>From Robin Crumri, Indiana University-Purdue University, 2003
  29. 32. Cost Factors <ul><li>Costs can vary considerably from project to project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of collection / number of items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uniformity of collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Books, photos, newspaper articles, sound clips, videos </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age and condition of originals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation of originals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptions/cataloging </li></ul></ul>
  30. 33. Cost Factors <ul><li>Imaging requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Illustrations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charts, tables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post-processing of digital files </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Text conversion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optical Character Recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keying </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Markup/encoding costs (HTML, XML) </li></ul>
  31. 34. Sample Digitization Costs * *From: “Digitization: is it worth it?” by Stuart D. Lee in Computers in Libraries , vol. 21, no. 5, May 2001, pp. 28-31. $2.34 $3.21 $4.82 $1.31 $0.18 Average unit cost per item 2700 dpi 8-bit Grayscale 2700 dpi 24-bit Color 600 dpi 24-bit Color 300 dpi 8-bit Color 300 dpi 1-bit B&W Suggested digitization specs Unmounted negative film, B&W 35 mm color slides Color Photos, 5” x 4” Printed Letter, Color Printed Letter, B&W
  32. 35.
  33. 36. Funding Research <ul><li>Mission / goals of agency </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>Subject focus </li></ul><ul><li>Type of support (capital funds, research, programs, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Type of institutions supported </li></ul><ul><li>Populations served </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate with potential funders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Letter of inquiry / pre-proposal </li></ul></ul>
  34. 37. Funding Trends
  35. 38. Out-house vs. In-house
  36. 39. Acquire <ul><li>Gather and prepare source materials </li></ul><ul><li>Digitally capture originals </li></ul><ul><li>Process images </li></ul><ul><li>Store files </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain files - quality control </li></ul>
  37. 40. Standards
  38. 41. Establish Quality Benchmarks
  39. 42. Image Processing <ul><li>Image capture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bit depth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>File formats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TIFF, GIF, JPEG, PDF ... </li></ul></ul>
  40. 43. Image Processing: Resolution
  41. 44. Image Resolution - Low
  42. 45. Image Resolution - High(er)
  43. 49. Archival Images/Master Files <ul><li>Scanned at highest possible resolution - 600 dpi or higher </li></ul><ul><li>High resolution scans allow for multiple uses (print, zoom, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Large file size </li></ul><ul><li>Often stored on CDs, DVDs, external drives, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>TIFF file format </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain over time: refresh/migrate </li></ul>
  44. 50. Derivative Images <ul><li>Access image (JPG, GIF, PNG, PDF) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller file size for display/delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compressed and reduced resolution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires less disk space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faster download times </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thumbnail (JPG, GIF, PNG) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even smaller files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference image of sufficient quality to determine further usefulness </li></ul></ul>
  45. 54. Image Storage and Presentation <ul><li>File naming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a system to keep track of the multiple files associated with one source object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Original object </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Archival TIFF </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>JPEGs (access and thumbnail) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Backup/storage copy on CD or tape </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Print copy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Link to description/metadata </li></ul></ul>
  46. 56. Starting a new Family northwest of West Union, Nebraska. =/award/nbhips/lca/103&topImages=10358r.jpg&topLinks=10358v.jpg&displayProfile=0&title=Starting%20a%20new%20Family%20northwest%20of%20West%20Union,%20Nebraska.&m856s=$dnbhips$f10358&dir= ammem&itemLink =r?ammem/psbib:@field(DOCID+@lit(p10358))
  47. 57. New Insights
  48. 58. What is metadata?
  49. 59. Why is metadata important? <ul><li>Legal issues </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation </li></ul><ul><li>System improvement and economics </li></ul>
  50. 60. Why is metadata UNimportant? <ul><li>Seven insurmountable obstacles to reliable metadata: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People lie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People are lazy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People are stupid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mission Impossible: know thyself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schemas aren't neutral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metrics influence results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There's more than one way to describe something </li></ul></ul>Cory Doctorow - Metacrap http://
  51. 61. Metadata Types <ul><li>Descriptive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where is it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is it about? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structural </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How many files are there? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which file is on page one? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Administrative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do I need to know to manage it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who can access it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What needs to be preserved? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the resolution of the image? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What compression format was used? </li></ul></ul>
  52. 62. Metadata Standards <ul><li>Metadata format standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>XML </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metadata element sets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MARC, MODS, DC, EAD, TEI, ONIX </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metadata content standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AACR/RDA, DACS, CCO </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transmission standards and protocols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OAI </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controlled vocabularies / Thesauri </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LCSH, Getty Art and Architecture </li></ul></ul>
  53. 63. Element Set Overview
  54. 64. Metadata Requirements <ul><li>Metadata requirements for project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine metadata needs up front </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documentation, guidelines, and training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OPAC = MARC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff skills / training </li></ul></ul>
  55. 65. Deciding on a scheme It is very important to decide what the material is, what needs to be described, who it is intended for, how it will be retrieved, and how it will be processed and used before deciding on a scheme for its description. - Dr. Peter Noerr Digital Library Toolkit – Sun Microsystems
  56. 66. Metadata Content Standards <ul><li>In other words, rules for how we describe things </li></ul><ul><li>May include punctuation, format, etc. </li></ul>
  57. 67. Metadata Content Standards <ul><li>Rules and guidelines for metadata content </li></ul><ul><li>Choice usually driven by type of content being described </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anglo American Cataloging Rules (AACR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describing Archives: A Content Standard (DACS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cataloging Cultural Objects (CCO) </li></ul></ul>
  58. 68. Relationships: content standard + element set <ul><li>AACR + MARC </li></ul><ul><li>CCO + CDWA/VRA Core </li></ul><ul><li>DACS + EAD </li></ul>
  59. 70. What data structure(s) do staff use to create metadata?
  60. 72. Metadata du Jour <ul><li>Description vs. discovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full description is important for collection inventory and management - less so for discovery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Basic and shallow or deep and sophisticated? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic discovery metadata supports broad, cross-domain searching that can lead users to more complete search mechanisms and descriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will your descriptions be adequate outside your institution’s environment? </li></ul></ul>
  61. 73. Interoperability <ul><li>Allows different systems to make use of the same data </li></ul><ul><li>Usually achieved by following standards </li></ul><ul><li>In general, an increase in specialization results in a decrease in interoperability </li></ul><ul><li>Important feature of metadata in today’s world </li></ul>
  62. 74. Interoperability <ul><li>National Initiative for a Networked Cultural Heritage (NINCH) Guide to Good Practice first two of its six core principles: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Optimize interoperability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enable broadest use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>IMLS Leadership Grant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Project design should demonstrate the use of existing standards and best practices for digital material where applicable, and products should be interoperable with digital content.” </li></ul></ul>
  63. 75. Shareable Metadata <ul><li>Six C’s: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coherence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conformance </li></ul></ul>
  64. 76. Information R/evolution http:// =-4CV05HyAbM
  65. 77. Technology
  66. 78. Technical Considerations <ul><li>Storage of metadata and digital files </li></ul><ul><li>Database software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores and organizes metadata for each digital file </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes link from metadata to resource </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Servers – storage and access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandwidth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>User interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usability testing </li></ul></ul>
  67. 79. Database Software <ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Library automation software (ILS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital content management software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database software and Web tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared repository </li></ul></ul>
  68. 80. Database Software <ul><li>Options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Off the shelf” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CONTENTdm, Luna Insight, DigiTool, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DSpace, Greenstone, Fedora </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design your own </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Access, MySQL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared repositories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Commonwealth, Maine Memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outsourced hosting </li></ul></ul>
  69. 81. Database Software <ul><li>Which product is right for you? </li></ul><ul><li>Considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functionality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meet goals for access to collections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software already in use at institution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IT Dept recommendations / support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul>
  70. 82. User Interface <ul><li>Intuitive </li></ul><ul><li>Provide access to multiple file formats: PDF, HTML, Word </li></ul><ul><li>Allow resource manipulation by user </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure adequate information and options for appropriate use of the collection </li></ul>
  71. 83. Security?
  72. 85. Another Way
  73. 91. Questions? Source: Contact Info : Erin Logsdon [email_address] 508.597.1946