Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
Wireless Gesture Controlled Robot (FYP Report)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Wireless Gesture Controlled Robot (FYP Report)

  • 13,100 views
Published

 

Published in Education , Technology , Business
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • hey hie i have done with hardware can u plz send me code for it???
    thanks in abvance.
    reply on harshit95goel@gmail.com
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • I first started with HT12D and HT12E but those didn't work for me. I was experiencing a lot of lag/missing whenever I moved my hand. So I switched to PT2262 and PT2272 and they worked like a charm. Did not face any kind if issues with them.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • i have already buy circuit components but ic for encoder and decoder is ht12d & ht12e and using different circuit diagram will the programming code given here will work for me??
    plzzz reply vishalp1997@outlook.com
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
13,100
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
1,120
Comments
3
Likes
8

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT MUHAMMAD AHKAM KHAN MUHAMMAD WAQAR SESSION 2009 - 2013 SUPERVISED BY MR. ASIF IQBAL 2009-2013 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF COMPUTER & EMERGING SCIENCES, PESHWAR CAMPUS (JUNE 2013)
  • 2. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT MUHAMMAD AHKAM KHAN MUHAMMAD WAQAR SESSION 2009 – 2013 SUPERVISED BY MR. ASIF IQBAL DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF COMPUTER & EMERGING SCIENCES, PESHWAR CAMPUS
  • 3. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT FINAL YEAR PROJECT REPORT MUHAMMAD AHKAM KHAN MUHAMMAD WAQAR EE-09-6394 EE-09-6391 SESSION 2009 – 2013 THE PROJECT REPORT IS PREPARED FOR DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF COMPUTER & EMERGING SCIENCES IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR BACHELOR OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING BS (EE) DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF COMPUTER & EMERGING SCIENCES, PESHAWAR CAMPUS (JUNE 2013)
  • 4. Dedicated to our parents and teachers for their guidance and prayers and to our friends who helped us out in every possible manner. iv
  • 5. FINAL APPROVAL This is to certify that we have read the project title submitted by Muhammad Ahkam Khan and Muhammad Waqar as mentioned on the title page. It is our judgment that this project is of standard to warrant its acceptance by National University of Computer and Emerging SciencesFAST Peshawar, for the degree of BS (EE). Examination Committee: 1. Project Supervisor: _____________________ Mr. Asif Iqbal Lecturer Department of Electrical Engineering National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences-FAST 2. FYP Coordinator: _____________________ Mr. Ahmed Saeed Qazi Assistant Professor Department of Electrical Engineering National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences-FAST 3. Head of Department of Electrical Engineering: _____________________ Mr. Ahmed Saeed Qazi National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences-FAST v
  • 6. STUDENT’S DECLARATION I declare that this project entitled “WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT”, submitted as requirement for the award of BS (EE) degree, does not contain any material previously submitted for a degree in any university; and that to the best of my knowledge it does not contain any material previously published or written by another person except where due reference is made in the text. Muhammad Ahkam Khan (p09-6394) SIGNATURE__________________ Muhammad Waqar (p09-6391) SIGNATURE__________________ vi
  • 7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Thanking ALLAH for His Blessings, Mercy & Favors. We would like to acknowledge our Parents and all Teachers, who supported us both morally and technically, especially our supervisor Mr. Asif Iqbal who helped us at every step in the making of our project, helped us in the clarification of our queries related to our project and technical problems. Also our special thanks to all class fellows and seniors, who helped us in clarification of any issue as well as implementation and in documentation. vii
  • 8. ABSTRACT Gesture Controlled Robot is a robot which can be controlled by simple gestures. The user just needs to wear a gesture device which includes a sensor. The sensor will record the movement of hand in a specific direction which will result in the movement of the robot in the respective direction. The robot and the Gesture device are connected wirelessly via radio waves. The wireless communication enables the user to interact with the robot in a more friendly way. viii
  • 9. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1: INTRODCUTION........................................................................... 1 1.1 Robot ................................................................................................................. 1 1.2 Human Machine Interaction ............................................................................. 1 1.2 Gesture .............................................................................................................. 2 1.1 Motivation For Project ...................................................................................... 2 1.2 Objective Of Project ........................................................................................ 2 CHAPTER 2: GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT .......................................... 3 2.1 Gesture Controlled Robot ................................................................................. 3 2.2 Applications ...................................................................................................... 4 CHAPTER 3: LITERATURE REVIEW .............................................................. 5 3.1 Accelerometer (ADXL335) .............................................................................. 7 3.2 Comparator IC (LM324) ................................................................................... 8 3.3 Encoder IC (PT2262) ...................................................................................... 10 3.4 RF Module (Rx/Tx) ........................................................................................ 12 3.5 Decoder IC (PT2272)...................................................................................... 14 3.6 Microcontroller (AT89C51) ........................................................................... 15 3.7 Motor Driver IC (L293D) ............................................................................... 17 3.8 DC Motors ...................................................................................................... 19 3.8.1 DC Gear Motor ..................................................................................... 20 CHAPTER 4: IMPLEMENTATION .................................................................. 21 4.1 Simulation ....................................................................................................... 26 ix
  • 10. CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION, LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE WORK ..... 27 5.1 Conclusion ...................................................................................................... 27 5.2 Limitations and Future Work.......................................................................... 33 CHAPTER 6: FEASIBILITY OF THE PROJECT .......................................... 34 6.1 Software .......................................................................................................... 34 6.2 Hardware ......................................................................................................... 34 6.1 Economic ........................................................................................................ 34 Microcontroller Code ............................................................................................ 37 List of Figures & Tables ....................................................................................... 39 References ............................................................................................................. 41 x
  • 11. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION Recently, strong efforts have been carried out to develop intelligent and natural interfaces between users and computer based systems based on human gestures. Gestures provide an intuitive interface to both human and computer. Thus, such gesture-based interfaces can not only substitute the common interface devices, but can also be exploited to extend their functionality. 1.1 ROBOT A robot is usually an electro-mechanical machine that can perform tasks automatically. Some robots require some degree of guidance, which may be done using a remote control or with a computer interface. Robots can be autonomous, semi-autonomous or remotely controlled. Robots have evolved so much and are capable of mimicking humans that they seem to have a mind of their own. 1.2 HUMAN MACHINE INTERACTION An important aspect of a successful robotic system is the Human-Machine interaction. In the early years the only way to communicate with a robot was to program which required extensive hard work. With the development in science and robotics, gesture based recognition came into life. Gestures originate from any bodily motion or state but commonly originate from the face or hand. Gesture recognition can be considered as a way for computer to understand human body language. This has minimized the need for text interfaces and GUIs (Graphical User Interface). Page | 1
  • 12. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT 1.3 GESTURE A gesture is an action that has to be seen by someone else and has to convey some piece of information. Gesture is usually considered as a movement of part of the body, esp. a hand or the head, to express an idea or meaning. 1.4 MOTIVATION FOR PROJECT Our motivation to work on this project came from a disabled person who was driving his wheel chair by hand with quite a lot of difficulty. So we wanted to make a device which would help such people drive their chairs without even having the need to touch the wheels of their chairs. 1.5 OBJECTIVE OF PROJECT Our objective is to make this device simple as well as cheap so that it could be mass produced and can be used for a number of purposes Page | 2
  • 13. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT CHAPTER 2: GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT 2.1 GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT Gesture recognition technologies are much younger in the world of today. At this time there is much active research in the field and little in the way of publicly available implementations. Several approaches have been developed for sensing gestures and controlling robots. Glove based technique is a well-known means of recognizing hand gestures. It utilizes a sensor attached to a glove that directly measures hand movements. A Gesture Controlled robot is a kind of robot which can be controlled by hand gestures and not the old fashioned way by using buttons. The user just needs to wear a small transmitting device on his hand which includes a sensor which is an accelerometer in our case. Movement of the hand in a specific direction will transmit a command to the robot which will then move in a specific direction. The transmitting device includes a Comparator IC for assigning proper levels to the input voltages from the accelerometer and an Encoder IC which is used to encode the four bit data and then it will be transmitted by an RF Transmitter module. At the receiving end an RF Receiver module will receive the encoded data and decode it by using a decoder IC. This data is then processed by a microcontroller and passed onto a motor driver to rotate the motors in a special configuration to make the robot move in the same direction as that of the hand. Page | 3
  • 14. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT 2.2 APPLICATIONS  Through the use of gesture recognition, remote control with the wave of a hand of various devices is possible.  Gesture controlling is very helpful for handicapped and physically disabled people to achieve certain tasks, such as driving a vehicle.  Gestures can be used to control interactions for entertainment purposes such as gaming to make the game player's experience more interactive or immersive. Page | 4
  • 15. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT CHAPTER 3: LITERATURE REVIEW Our gesture controlled robot works on the principle of accelerometer which records hand movements and sends that data to the comparator which assigns proper voltage levels to the recorded movements. That information is then transferred to a encoder which makes it ready for RF transmission. On the receiving end, the information is received wirelessly via RF, decoded and then passed onto the microcontroller which takes various decisions based on the received information. These decisions are passed to the motor driver ic which triggers the motors in different configurations to make the robot move in a specific direction. The following block diagram helps to understand the working of the robot: Accelerometer Decoder MCU Comparator RF Receiver Motor Driver Encoder RF Transmitter Motors Figure 3-1 Block Diagram Page | 5
  • 16. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT We divided our task into two parts to make the task easy and simple and to avoid complexity and make it error free. The first is the transmitting section which includes the following components:  Accelerometer  Comparator IC  Encoder IC  RF Transmitter Module The second is the receiving end which comprises of following main components:  RF Receiver Module  Decoder IC  Microcontroller  Motor Driver IC  DC Geared Motors Page | 6
  • 17. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT 3.1 ACCELEROMETER (ADXL335) An Accelerometer is an electromechanical device that measures acceleration forces. These forces may be static, like the constant force of gravity pulling at your feet, or they could be dynamic – caused by moving or vibrating the accelerometer. It is a kind of sensor which record acceleration and gives an analog data while moving in X,Y,Z direction or may be X,Y direction only depending on the type of the sensor. Figure 3-2 ADXL335 Accelerometer PIN NO. SYMBOL FUNCTION 1 ST Sets the sensitivity of the accelerometer 2 Z Records analog data for Z direction 3 Y Records analog data for Y direction 4 X Records analog data for X direction 5 GND Connected to ground for biasing 6 VCC +3.3 volt is applied Table 3-1 Pin description for Accelerometer Page | 7
  • 18. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT 3.2 COMPARATOR IC (LM324) The comparator ic compares the analog voltage received from the accelerometer and compares it with a reference voltage and gives a particular high or low voltage. The received signal is quite noisy and of various voltage levels. This ic compares those levels and outputs in the form of 1 or 0 voltage level. This process is called signal conditioning. The figure shown below is comparator IC. The pins 1, 7, 8 and 14 are output pins. A reference voltage is connected to the negative terminal for high output when input is high or positive terminal for high output when input is low from the LM324 IC. Figure 3-3 LM324 IC Page | 8
  • 19. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT PIN NO. SYMBOL FUNCTION 1 Output 1 Output of 1st Comparator 2 Input 1- Inverting Input of 1st Comparator 3 Input1+ Non-Inverting Input of 1st Comparator 4 VCC Supply Voltage; 5V (up to 32V) 5 Input 2+ Non-Inverting Input of 2nd Comparator 6 Input 2- Inverting Input of 2nd Comparator 7 Output 2 Output of 2nd Comparator 8 Output 3 Output of 3rd Comparator 9 Input 3- Inverting Input of 3rd Comparator 10 Input 3+ Non-Inverting Input of 3rd Comparator 11 Ground Ground (0V) 12 Input 4+ Non-Inverting Input of 4th Comparator 13 Input 4- Inverting Input of 4th Comparator 14 Output 4 Output of 4th Comparator Table 3-2 Pin description for LM324 Page | 9
  • 20. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT 3.3 ENCODER IC (PT2262) PT2262 is a remote control encoder paired with PT2272 utilizing CMOS technology. It encodes data and address pins into serial coded waveform suitable for RF or IR modulation. PT2262 has a maximum of 12 bits of tri-state address pins providing up to 312 address codes; thereby, drastically reducing any code collision and unauthorized code scanning possibilities. The pin description is shown below. It has 4 input while 1 output pin. The address pins can also be utilized as data pins. Figure 3-4 PT2262 IC Page | 10
  • 21. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT PIN NO. SYMBOL FUNCTION 1-8 A0-A7 Address pins 9 Vss Ground pin 13-10 D0-D3 Output pins 14 TE Enables the transmission 15-16 Osc1-Osc2 Rosc of 470K ohm is connected 17 Dout Output for transmission 18 Vcc 5V supply voltage Table 3-3 Pin description for PT2262 Page | 11
  • 22. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT 3.4 RF MODULE (Rx/Tx) Radio frequency (RF) is a rate of oscillation in the range of about 3 KHz to 300 GHz, which corresponds to the frequency of radio waves, and the alternating currents which carry radio signals. Although radio frequency is a rate of oscillation, the term "radio frequency" or its abbreviation "RF" are also used as a synonym for radio – i.e. to describe the use of wireless communication, as opposed to communication via electric wires The RF module is working on the frequency of 315 MHz and has a range of 50-80 meters. Figure 3-5 RF Transmitter PIN FUNCTION VCC 5V supply GND Ground pin Data Input from pin 17 of PT2262 for data transmission Ant A wire attached here works as an antenna Table 3-3 Pin description for RF Tx Page | 12
  • 23. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT Figure 3-6 RF Receiver PIN FUNCTION VCC 5V supply GND Ground pin Data Output to pin 14 of PT2272 for data transmission Ant A wire attached here works as an antenna Table 4-1 Pin description for RF Rx Page | 13
  • 24. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT 3.5 DECODER IC (PT2272) PT2272 is a remote control decoder paired with PT2262 utilizing CMOS Technology. It has 12 bits of tri-state address pins providing a maximum of 312 address codes; thereby, drastically reducing any code collision and unauthorized code scanning possibilities. The input data is decoded when no error or unmatched codes are found. It has 1 input while 4 output pins. The address pins can also be utilized as data pins. Figure 3-7 PT2272 IC PIN NO. SYMBOL FUNCTION 1-8 A0-A7 Address pins 9 Vss Ground pin 13-10 D0-D3 Output pins 14 Din Input from RF 15-16 Osc1-Osc2 Rosc of 470K ohm is connected 17 VT Indicates valid transmission 18 Vcc 5V supply voltage Table 4-2 Pin description for PT2272 Page | 14
  • 25. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT 3.6 MICROCONTROLLER (AT89C51) The processing is the most important part of the robot. Till now we get the data from the decoder. Based on that data decisions have to be made. So here the role of microcontroller comes up. We used a microcontroller for our robot to give it a decision capability. Our microcontroller is made up by Atmel and the product name is AT89C51. Port 1 works as an input port while Port 2 is working as output port for our program. Figure 3-8 AT89C51 Microcontroller Page | 15
  • 26. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT A crystal oscillator is attached to the pins 18 and 19 of the microcontroller. The oscillator creates an electrical signal of a very precise frequency which is used to keep track of time. Two capacitors are connected in parallel with the oscillator to remove unwanted frequencies. Figure 3-9 Crystal Oscillator Page | 16
  • 27. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT 3.7 MOTOR DRIVER IC (L293D) It is also known as H-Bridge or Actuator IC. Actuators are those devices which actually gives the movement to do a task like that of a motor. In the real world there are different types of motors available which work on different voltages. So we need a motor driver for running them through the controller. The output from the microcontroller is a low current signal. The motor driver amplifies that current which can control and drive a motor. In most cases, a transistor can act as a switch and perform this task which drives the motor in a single direction. Figure 3-10 L293D IC Turning a motor ON and OFF requires only one switch to control a single motor in a single direction. We can reverse the direction of the motor by simply reversing its polarity. This can be achieved by using four switches that are arranged in an intelligent manner such that the circuit not only drives the motor, but also controls its direction. Out of many, one of the most common Page | 17
  • 28. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT and clever design is a H-bridge circuit where transistors are arranged in a shape that resembles the English alphabet "H". Figure 3-11 H-Bridge As seen in the image, the circuit has four switches A, B, C and D. Turning these switches ON and OFF can drive a motor in different ways.  When switches A and D are on, motor rotates clockwise.  When B and C are on, the motor rotates anti-clockwise.  When A and B are on, the motor will stop.  Turning off all the switches gives the motor a free wheel drive.  Turning on A & C at the same time or B & D at the same time shorts the entire circuit. So, never try to do it. Page | 18
  • 29. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT 3.8 DC MOTORS A machine that converts DC power into mechanical power is known as a DC motor. Its operation is based on the principle that when a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, the conductor experiences a mechanical force. DC motors have a revolving armature winding but non-revolving armature magnetic field and a stationary field winding or permanent magnet. Different connections of the field and armature winding provide different speed/torque regulation features. The speed of a DC motor can be controlled by changing the voltage applied to the armature or by changing the field current. Figure 3-12 DC Motor Page | 19
  • 30. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT 3.8.1 DC GEAR MOTOR A geared DC Motor has a gear assembly devoted to the motor. The speed of motor is counted in terms of rotations of the shaft per minute and is termed as RPM .The gear assembly helps in increasing the torque and dropping the speed. Using the correct arrangement of gears in a gear motor, its speed can be reduced to any required figure. This concept of reducing the speed with the help of gears and increasing the torque is known as gear reduction. Reducing the speed put out by the motor while increasing the quantity of applied torque is a important feature of the reduction gear trains found in a gear motor. The decrease in speed is inversely relative to the increase in torque. This association means that, in this sort of device, if the torque were to double, the speed would decrease by one half. Small electric motors, such as the gear motor, are able to move and stand very heavy loads because of these reduction gear trains. While the speed and ability of larger motors is greater, small electric motors are sufficient to bear these loads. Figure 3-13 DC Gear Motor Page | 20
  • 31. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT CHAPTER 4: IMPLEMENTATION The accelerometer records the hand movements in the X and Y directions only and outputs constant analog voltage levels. These voltages are fed to the comparator IC which compares it with the references voltages that we have set via variable resistors attached to the IC. The levels that we have set are 1.7V and 1.4V. Every voltage generated by the accelerometer is compared with these and an analog 1 or 0 signal is given out by the comparator IC. Fig 4-1 Input and Output of Comparator IC This analog signal is the input to the encoder IC. The input to the encoder is parallel while the output is a serial coded waveform which is suitable for RF transmission. A push button is attached to pin 14 of this IC which is the Transmission Enable (TE) pin. The coded data will be passed onto the RF module only when the button is pressed. This button makes sure no data is transmitted unless we want to. The RF transmitter modulates the input signal using Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) modulation. It is the form of modulation that represents digital data as variations in the amplitude of a carrier wave. Page | 21
  • 32. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT The following figure shows the modulated output of the RF module: Fig 4-2 ASK Modulation The RF modules works on the frequency of 315MHz. It means that the carrier frequency of the RF module is 315MHz. The RF module enables the user to control the robot wirelessly and with ease. The schematic of transmitting end can be seen below: Page | 22
  • 33. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT Fig 4-3 Transmitting Circuit Page | 23
  • 34. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT This transmitted signal is received by the RF receiver, demodulated and then passed onto the decoder IC. The decoder IC decodes the coded waveform and the original data bits are recovered. The input is a serial coded modulated waveform while the output is parallel. The pin 17 of the decoder IC is the Valid Transmission (VT) pin. A led can be connected to this pin which will indicate the status of the transmission. In the case of a successful transmission, the led will blink. The parallel data from the encoder is fed to the port 1of the microcontroller. This data is in the form of bits. The microcontroller reads these bits and takes decisions on the basis of these bits. What the microcontroller does is, it compares the input bits with the coded bits which are burnt into the program memory of the microcontroller and outputs on the basis of these bits. Port 2 of the microcontroller is used as the output port. Output bits from this port are forwarded to the motor driver IC which drives the motors in a special configuration based on the hand movements. At a dead stop, a motor produces no voltage. If a voltage is applied and the motor begins to spin, it will act as a generator that will produce a voltage that opposes the external voltage applied to it. This is called Counter Electromotive Force (CEF) or Back Electromotive Force (Back EMF). If a load stops the motors from moving then the current may be high enough to burn out the motor coil windings. To prevent this, flyback diodes are used. They prevent the back emf from increasing and damaging the motors. The schematic of receiving end can be seen below: Page | 24
  • 35. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT Fig 4-4 Receiving Circuit Page | 25
  • 36. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT 4.1 SIMULATION We performed a simulation of our project in PROTEUS and the code was written in C language using KEIL MICROVISION. We wrote a code for the microcontroller to run DC motors using the H-Bridge IC (L293D). In the simulation we sent the relevant data to the Microcontroller (AT89C51) through switches. The Microcontroller processed the data and sent the information to the Actuator IC (L293D). The Actuator IC upon receiving information showed response by driving the DC motors. The simulation schematic is as follow: Figure 4-1 FYP-1 Simulation Page | 26
  • 37. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION, LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE WORK 5.1 CONCLUSION We achieved our objective without any hurdles i.e. the control of a robot using gestures. The robot is showing proper responses whenever we move our hand. Different Hand gestures to make the robot move in specific directions are as follow: Fig 5-1 Move Forward Fig 5-2 Move Backward Fig 5-3 Move Right Page | 27
  • 38. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT Fig 5-4 Move Left The robot only moves when the accelerometer is moved in a specific direction. The valid movements are as follows: DIRECTION ACCELEROMETER ORIENTATION Forward +y Backward -y Right +x Left -x Stop Rest Table 5-1 Accelerometer Orientation Page | 28
  • 39. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT Our finished product can be seen in the images below: Figure 5-5 Robot-1 Figure5-6 Robot-2 Page | 29
  • 40. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT Figure 5-7 Robot Wheel Figure 5-8 Receiving Circuit Page | 30
  • 41. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT Figure 5-9 Transmitting Circuit Figure 5-10 Hand Assembly Page | 31
  • 42. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT Figure 5-11 Robot with Hand Assembly Page | 32
  • 43. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT 5.2 LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE WORK  The on-board batteries occupy a lot of space and are also quite heavy. We can either use some alternate power source for the batteries or replace the current DC Motors with ones which require less power.  Secondly, as we are using RF for wireless transmission, the range is quite limited; nearly 50-80m. This problem can be solved by utilizing a GSM module for wireless transmission. The GSM infrastructure is installed almost all over the world. GSM will not only provide wireless connectivity but also quite a large range.  Thirdly, an on-board camera can be installed for monitoring the robot from faraway places. All we need is a wireless camera which will broadcast and a receiver module which will provide live streaming. Page | 33
  • 44. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT CHAPTER 6: FEASIBILITY OF THE PROJECT During the development of the project we researched the feasibility in different fields, especially software and hardware. The feasibility study is shown below. 6.1 SOFTWARE We targeted to choose a language that is easy to understand and program. So we chose assembly language for our project. Assembly language is the basic language of microcontrollers. Although its not user friendly in terms of programming but still one can learn it quickly. 6.2 HARDWARE We chose accelerometer as the sensing device because it records even the minute movements. We could also have completed our project using Arduino but chose microcontroller instead because its cost is low and is easily available everywhere. There are a number of dc geared motors available but the ones we chose are capable of supporting loads up to 6kgs. 6.3 EXPENSES This project is quite cost effective. The components used are easily available in the market apart from accelerometer, RF modules and the motors. These components are quite cheap as compared to the motors which are the only expensive part in our whole project. But these particular motors are capable of providing support to loads up to 6kgs which is what we wanted. Page | 34
  • 45. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT S. NO COMPONENT AMOUNT RATE (PKR) COST (PKR) 1 AN7805 Voltage regulator 2 12 24 2 LF33CV Voltage regulator 1 100 100 3 1uF Capacitor 2 5 10 4 Accelerometer (ADXL335) 1 2360 2360 5 Comparator IC (LM324) 1 15 15 6 10K Variable Resistor 4 5 20 7 Encoder IC (PT2262) 1 200 200 8 470K ohm Resistor 2 2 4 9 RF Module (Rx/Tx) 1 1013 1013 10 LED 1 2 2 11 330 ohm Resistor 1 2 2 12 Decoder IC (PT2272) 1 325 325 13 Microcontroller (AT89C51) 1 85 85 14 Crystal Oscillator (11.0592 MHz) 1 10 10 15 33pF Capacitor 2 1 2 16 Motor Driver IC (L293D) 1 110 110 17 1N4007 Diode 8 1 8 18 6V/4.5A Battery 2 490 980 19 DC Gear Motors 2 8000 16000 20 Base 300 Page | 35
  • 46. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT 21 Vero Board 2 85 170 22 Wires 3 10 30 23 Free Wheels 2 100 200 24 Hand Assembly 150 Total 22120 Table 6-1 Expenses Page | 36
  • 47. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT MICROCONTROLLER CODE ;;;;;;;;;;;;;gesture based robot;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; org 00h mov p1,#0ffh mov p2,#00h start:mov a,p1 anl a,#0fh ;;;;;;;;;;;;;For Stopping;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; cjne a,#0ch,nxt clr p2.0 clr p2.1 clr p2.2 clr p2.3 ;;;;;;;;;;;;;For moving Forward;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; nxt:cjne a,#08h,nxt1 setb p2.0 setb p2.2 clr p2.1 clr p2.3 ;;;;;;;;;;;;;For Reverse;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; nxt1:cjne a,#04,nxt2 setb p2.3 setb p2.1 clr p2.2 clr p2.0 Page | 37
  • 48. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT ;;;;;;;;;;;;;For Turning Left;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; nxt2:cjne a,#0eh,nxt3 setb p2.0 setb p2.3 clr p2.1 clr p2.2 ;;;;;;;;;;;;;For Turning Right;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; nxt3:cjne a,#0dh,nxt4 setb p2.1 setb p2.2 clr p2.0 clr p2.3 nxt4:sjmp start end Page | 38
  • 49. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT LIST OF FIGURES & TABLES Figure / Table No. Page No. Figure 3-1 Block Diagram ...............................................................................................................5 Figure 3-2 ADXL335 Accelerometer ..............................................................................................7 Figure 3-3 LM324 IC .......................................................................................................................8 Figure 3-4 PT2262 IC ....................................................................................................................10 Figure 3-5 RF Transmitter .............................................................................................................12 Figure 3-6 RF Receiver ..................................................................................................................13 Figure 3-7 PT2272 IC ....................................................................................................................14 Figure 3-8 AT89C51 Microcontroller ...........................................................................................15 Figure 3-9 Crystal Oscillator .........................................................................................................16 Figure 3-10 L293D IC ...................................................................................................................17 Figure 3-11 H-Bridge .....................................................................................................................18 Figure 3-12 DC Motor ...................................................................................................................19 Figure 3-13 DC Gear Motor ..........................................................................................................20 Figure 4-1 Input and Output of Comparator IC .............................................................................21 Figure 4-2 ASK Modulation ..........................................................................................................22 Figure 4-3 Transmitting Circuit .....................................................................................................23 Figure 4-4 Receiving Circuit .........................................................................................................25 Figure 4-5 Simulation ....................................................................................................................26 Figure 5-1 Move Forward ..............................................................................................................27 Figure 5-2 Move Backward ...........................................................................................................27 Figure 5-3 Move Right...................................................................................................................27 Figure 5-4 Move Left .....................................................................................................................28 Page | 39
  • 50. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT Figure 5-5 Robot-1 .........................................................................................................................29 Figure 5-6 Robot-2 .........................................................................................................................29 Figure 5-7 Robot Wheel.................................................................................................................30 Figure 5-8 Receiving Circuit .........................................................................................................30 Figure 5-9 Transmitting Circuit .....................................................................................................31 Figure 5-10 Hand Assembly ..........................................................................................................31 Figure 5-11 Robot with Hand Assembly .......................................................................................32 Table 3-1 Pin description for Accelerometer ...................................................................................7 Table 3-2 Pin description for LM324 ..............................................................................................9 Table 3-3 Pin description for PT2262 ............................................................................................11 Table 3-4 Pin description for RF Tx ..............................................................................................12 Table 3-5 Pin description for RF Rx ..............................................................................................13 Table 3-6 Pin description for PT2272 ............................................................................................14 Table 5-1 Accelerometer Orientation ............................................................................................28 Table 6-1 Expenses ........................................................................................................................35 Page | 40
  • 51. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT REFERENCES [1] “Gesture Controlled Robot PPT” <http://seminarprojects.com/s/hand-gesture-controlled-robot-ppt> [2] “Gesture Controlled Tank Toy User Guide” <http://www.slideshare.net/neeraj18290/wireless-gesture-controlled-tank-toy-transmitter> [3] “Embedded Systems Guide (2002)” <http://www.webstatschecker.com/stats/keyword/a_hand_gesture_based_control_interface_for_a _car_robot> [4] “Robotic Gesture Recognition (1997)” by Jochen Triesch and Christoph Von Der Malsburg <http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.37.5427> [5] “Real-Time Robotic Hand Control Using Hand Gestures” by Jagdish Lal Raheja, Radhey Shyam, G. Arun Rajsekhar and P. Bhanu Prasad [6] “Hand Gesture Controlled Robot” by Bhosale Prasad S., Bunage Yogesh B. and Shinde Swapnil V. [7]< http://www.robotplatform.com/howto/L293/motor_driver_1.html> [8]< http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gesture_interface> [9]< http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-gear-motor.htm> Page | 41
  • 52. WIRELESS GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT [10]<http://www.scribd.com/doc/98400320/InTech-Real-Time-Robotic-Hand-Control-UsingHand-Gestures> [11]< http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DC_motor> [12]<http://electronics.stackexchange.com/questions/18447/what-is-back-emf-counterelectromotive-force> [13]< http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robots> [14]<www.alldatasheet.com> [15]<www.google.com> [16]<www.wikipedia.com> Page | 42