Professionalism               Chapter 1Labensky, et al.                                                                   ...
After studying this unit       You will be able to:              Discuss the development of the modern food             ...
Culinary TimelinePast to the Present          In the 1500s, culinary guilds were         developed to dictate and monopoli...
Culinary GuildsThe Guild                                                       The Product Rotisseurs                    ...
The First Restaurant1765       Monsieur Boulanger opened the first         free-standing restaurant in Paris.        Boula...
The French Revolution1789-1799  The social structure in France changed.              The aristocracy, guilds and their    ...
Haute CuisineEarly 19th Century                  Antonin Carême (1783-1833)                  “The Cook of Kings and the Ki...
Marie-Antonin CarêmeLabensky, et al.                                                                       © 2007 Pearson ...
Cuisine ClassiqueLate 19th Century                   Auguste Escoffier (1846-1935)                     “Emperor of the Wor...
Auguste EscoffierLabensky, et al.                                                                       © 2007 Pearson Edu...
20th Century                      Fernand Point (1897-1955)      Refined and modernized classical cuisine and laid the    ...
American Culinary Revolution               Charles Ranhofer (1836-1899)  The first internationally renowned chef of an Ame...
Fusion Cuisine American cuisine has always been influenced by    cuisines from other countries. This is most   evident in ...
Influences on Modern Food ServiceOperations          New technologies                  Food storage                  Tr...
The Brigade     A system of staffing a kitchen so that each       worker is assigned a set of specific tasks              ...
Classical                                         Chef de cuisine                                        Sous-chef/aboyeur...
Front of the HouseAmerican                                                        FrenchDining room manager               ...
The Modern Kitchen      Master chef      Executive chef      Sous-chef      Line cook      Pastry chef      Short-or...
The Professional ChefWhat does it take?        Knowledge          Lifelong learning        Skill          Experience ...
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Ch 01 Professionalism

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Ch 01 Professionalism

  1. 1. Professionalism Chapter 1Labensky, et al. © 2007 Pearson EducationOn Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
  2. 2. After studying this unit You will be able to:  Discuss the development of the modern food service industry  Name the key historical figures responsible for developing food service professionalism  Explain the organization of the classic and modern kitchen brigades  Appreciate the role of the professional chef in modern food service operations  Understand the attributes a student chef needs to become a professionalLabensky, et al. © 2007 Pearson EducationOn Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
  3. 3. Culinary TimelinePast to the Present In the 1500s, culinary guilds were developed to dictate and monopolize the preparation of certain food items. Each guild governed the production of a set of specific types of food.Labensky, et al. © 2007 Pearson EducationOn Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
  4. 4. Culinary GuildsThe Guild The Product Rotisseurs  Main cuts of meat Patissiers  Poultry, pies, tarts Tamisiers  Breads Vinaigriers  Sauces and stews Traiteurs  Ragouts Porte-chapes  CaterersLabensky, et al. © 2007 Pearson EducationOn Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
  5. 5. The First Restaurant1765 Monsieur Boulanger opened the first free-standing restaurant in Paris. Boulanger’s contribution to the food service industry was to serve a variety of foods prepared on premises to customers whose primary interest was dining.Labensky, et al. © 2007 Pearson EducationOn Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
  6. 6. The French Revolution1789-1799 The social structure in France changed. The aristocracy, guilds and their monopolies were abolished. A budding restaurant industry emerged. Chefs could cater to the growing middle class.Labensky, et al. © 2007 Pearson EducationOn Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
  7. 7. Haute CuisineEarly 19th Century Antonin Carême (1783-1833) “The Cook of Kings and the King of Cooks” His stated goal was to achieve “lightness, grace, order and perspicuity in the preparation and presentation of food.”  As a saucier he standardized the use of roux and devised a system to classify sauces  As a garde-manger he popularized cold cuisine  As a culinary professional he designed kitchen tools, equipment and uniforms  As an author he wrote and illustrated important texts on culinary artsLabensky, et al. © 2007 Pearson EducationOn Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
  8. 8. Marie-Antonin CarêmeLabensky, et al. © 2007 Pearson EducationOn Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
  9. 9. Cuisine ClassiqueLate 19th Century Auguste Escoffier (1846-1935) “Emperor of the World’s Kitchens” Defined French cuisine and dining during La Belle Époque Simplified food preparation and dining Classified the five families of sauces He wrote:  Le Livre des menus – a guide to planning meals  Ma cuisine – a survey of cuisine bourgeoisie (middle class cuisine)  Le Guide Culinaire – still in use today, a collection of classical cuisine recipes and garnishesLabensky, et al. © 2007 Pearson EducationOn Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
  10. 10. Auguste EscoffierLabensky, et al. © 2007 Pearson EducationOn Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
  11. 11. 20th Century Fernand Point (1897-1955) Refined and modernized classical cuisine and laid the groundwork for nouvelle cuisine Gaston Lenôtre (1920-) Father of modern French pastry Began a culinary school, L’École Lenôtre Developed innovations in Bavarians, charlottes and mousses Mastered techniques of freezing baked productsLabensky, et al. © 2007 Pearson EducationOn Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
  12. 12. American Culinary Revolution Charles Ranhofer (1836-1899) The first internationally renowned chef of an American restaurant, Delmonico’s in New York City Published:  The Epicurean, which contains 3500 recipes Alice Waters Launched the New American cuisine Her goal was to serve fresh, seasonal and locally grown produce in simple preparations that preserved and emphasized the foods’ natural flavors.Labensky, et al. © 2007 Pearson EducationOn Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
  13. 13. Fusion Cuisine American cuisine has always been influenced by cuisines from other countries. This is most evident in fusion cuisine, which began in the mid-1980s. In fusion cuisine, ingredients or preparation methods associated with one ethnic or regional cuisine are combined with those of another.Labensky, et al. © 2007 Pearson EducationOn Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
  14. 14. Influences on Modern Food ServiceOperations  New technologies  Food storage  Transportation  New foods  Hybridization  Genetic engineering  New concerns  Health issues  Public safety  New consumers  The global communityLabensky, et al. © 2007 Pearson EducationOn Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
  15. 15. The Brigade A system of staffing a kitchen so that each worker is assigned a set of specific tasks Classical Front of the House ModernLabensky, et al. © 2007 Pearson EducationOn Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
  16. 16. Classical Chef de cuisine Sous-chef/aboyeur Chefs de partie Saucier Poissonier Grillardin Friturier Rôtisseur Potager Légumier Entremetier Garde Manger Tournant Pâtissier CommisLabensky, et al. © 2007 Pearson EducationOn Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
  17. 17. Front of the HouseAmerican FrenchDining room manager Maître DhotelWine steward SommelierHeadwaiter Chef de salleCaptains Chefs d’étageFront waiters Chefs de rangBack waiters Commis de rangLabensky, et al. © 2007 Pearson EducationOn Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
  18. 18. The Modern Kitchen Master chef Executive chef Sous-chef Line cook Pastry chef Short-order cook Institutional cook ApprenticeLabensky, et al. © 2007 Pearson EducationOn Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
  19. 19. The Professional ChefWhat does it take?  Knowledge  Lifelong learning  Skill  Experience  Taste  Judgment  Dedication  PrideLabensky, et al. © 2007 Pearson EducationOn Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
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