0135108985 pp1a


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0135108985 pp1a

  1. 2. After studying this unit <ul><li>You will be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss the development of the modern food service industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name the key historical figures responsible for developing food service professionalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain the organization of the classic and modern kitchen brigades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appreciate the role of the professional chef in modern food service operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand the attributes a student chef needs to become a professional </li></ul></ul>
  2. 3. Culinary Timeline Past to the Present <ul><li>In the 1500s, culinary guilds were developed to dictate and monopolize the preparation of certain food items. </li></ul><ul><li>Each guild governed the production of a set of specific types of food. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Culinary Guilds <ul><li>The Guild </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rôtisseurs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pâtissiers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tamisiers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vinaigriers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traiteurs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Porte-chapes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Product </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main cuts of meat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poultry, pies, tarts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sauces and stews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ragouts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caterers </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. The First Restaurant - 1765 <ul><li>Monsieur Boulanger opened the first free-standing restaurant in Paris. </li></ul><ul><li>Boulanger’s contribution to the food service industry was to serve a variety of foods prepared on premises to customers whose primary interest was dining. </li></ul>
  5. 6. The French Revolution 1789-1799 <ul><li>The social structure in France changed. </li></ul><ul><li>The aristocracy, guilds and their monopolies were abolished. </li></ul><ul><li>A nascent restaurant industry emerged. </li></ul><ul><li>Chefs could cater to the growing middle class. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Haute Cuisine Early 19 th Century <ul><li>Antonin Carême (1783-1833) </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Cook of Kings and the King of Cooks” </li></ul><ul><li>His stated goal - to achieve “lightness, grace, order and perspicuity” in the preparation and presentation of food. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As a saucier he standardized the use of roux and devised a system to classify sauces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a garde-manger he popularized cold cuisine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a culinary professional he designed kitchen tools, equipment and uniforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As an author he wrote and illustrated important texts on culinary arts </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Marie-Antonin Carême
  8. 9. Cuisine Classique Late 19 th Century <ul><li>Auguste Escoffier (1846-1935) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Emperor of the World’s Kitchens” </li></ul><ul><li>Defined French cuisine and dining during La Belle Époque </li></ul><ul><li>Simplified food preparation and dining </li></ul><ul><li>Classified the five families of sauces </li></ul><ul><li>He wrote: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Le Livre des menus – a guide to planning meals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ma cuisine – a survey of cuisine bourgeoisie (middle class cuisine) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Le Guide Culinaire – still in use today, a collection of classic cuisine recipes and garnishes </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Auguste Escoffier (1846-1935)
  10. 11. Charles Ranhofer (1836-1899) <ul><li>The first internationally renowned chef of an American restaurant, Delmonico’s in New York City </li></ul><ul><li>Published: The Epicurean, which contains 3500 recipes </li></ul>
  11. 12. 20 th Century – Lighter Foods, Simplification of Techniques <ul><li>Fernand Point (1897-1955) </li></ul><ul><li>Refined and modernized classic cuisine and laid the groundwork for nouvelle cuisine </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired and trained influential chefs: Paul Bocuse, Jean and Pierre Troisgros and Alain Chapel, among others </li></ul><ul><li>Gaston Lenôtre (1920-) </li></ul><ul><li>Father of modern French pastry </li></ul><ul><li>Began a culinary school, L’École Lenôtre </li></ul><ul><li>Developed innovations in Bavarians, charlottes and mousses </li></ul><ul><li>Mastered techniques of freezing baked products </li></ul>
  12. 13. American Culinary Revolution 1960’s - present <ul><li>Broad changes are influencing cuisine today. </li></ul><ul><li>Consumers and chefs seek authentic ethnic cuisines inspired by the arrival of diverse immigrant groups, particularly those from Asian and Latin American countries </li></ul>
  13. 14. Alice Waters (1944 - <ul><li>Launched New American cuisine </li></ul><ul><li>Opened Chez Panisse in Berkeley, California in 1971. </li></ul><ul><li>Her goal is to serve fresh, seasonal and locally grown produce in simple preparations that preserved and emphasized the foods’ natural flavors. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Fusion Cuisine <ul><li>American cuisine has always been influenced by cuisines from other countries. This is most evident in fusion cuisine, which began in the mid-1980s. </li></ul><ul><li>In fusion cuisine, ingredients or preparation methods associated with one ethnic or regional cuisine are combined with those of another. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Farm-To-Table-Movement <ul><li>Although chefs look to incorporate global flavors and ingredients, they also seek locally-grown foods. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotes agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus is on foods served in season </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects heirloom varieties </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Influences on Modern Food Service Operations <ul><li>New technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stoves replace fireplace cooking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food storage, canning and freezing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation, train then air shipping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The study of chemistry and physics of food preparation resulted in a contemporary culinary movement often referred to as molecular gastronomy. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Molecular Gastronomy <ul><li>Ferran Adrìa (1962 – </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Salvador Dali of the kitchen” </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish chef trained in French nouvelle cuisine </li></ul><ul><li>Committed to “reinventing cuisine” as we know it </li></ul><ul><li>Credited with advancing the culinary science movement </li></ul><ul><li>His food engages all senses, using fresh ingredients </li></ul><ul><li>Small tasting plates of as many as 35 courses </li></ul><ul><li>Using equipment and ingredients more common in food manufacturing </li></ul>
  18. 19. Ferran Adrìa – (1962-
  19. 20. Influences on Modern Food Service Operations <ul><li>New foods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybridization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Health issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public safety </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New consumers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The global community </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. The Kitchen Brigade <ul><li>Back-of-the-House </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A system of staffing a kitchen so that each worker is assigned a set of specific tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escoffier is credited with developing this hierarchical system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modern </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Classic </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 22. The Modern Kitchen Brigade <ul><li>Executive chef </li></ul><ul><li>Sous-chef </li></ul><ul><li>Area chefs </li></ul><ul><li>Line cook </li></ul><ul><li>Pastry chef </li></ul><ul><li>Apprentice </li></ul><ul><li>Short-order cook </li></ul>
  22. 23. The Classic Kitchen Brigade <ul><li>Chef de cuisine </li></ul><ul><li>Sous-chef/aboyeur </li></ul><ul><li>Chefs de partie </li></ul><ul><li>Saucier Poissonier </li></ul><ul><li>Grillardin Friturier </li></ul><ul><li>Rôtisseur Potager </li></ul><ul><li>Légumier Entremetier </li></ul><ul><li>Garde-Manger Tournant </li></ul><ul><li>Pâtissier Commis </li></ul>
  23. 24. The Dining Room <ul><li>Front-of-the-House </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American French </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dining room manager Maître d'hôtel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wine steward Sommelier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Headwaiter Chef de salle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Captains Chefs d’étage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Front waiters Chefs de rang </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back waiters Commis de rang </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. The Professional Chef What does it take? <ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifelong learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Skill </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develops with Experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taste </li></ul><ul><li>Judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Dedication </li></ul><ul><li>Pride </li></ul>