C H A P T E R TEN                         STOCKS AND SAUCES                      “                 What I love about cooki...
After studying this unit                                                                                       2          ...
Stock                                                                                                          3          ...
Types of Stock                                                                                                 4          ...
Ingredients in Stock                                                                                           5          ...
Mirepoix                                                                                                    6             ...
Principles of Stock Making                                                                                     7          ...
SAFETY ALERT-Cooling and Handling Stock                                                                                   ...
White Stock                                                                                                    9          ...
Brown Stock                                                                                              10               ...
Caramelizing the Bones                                                                                11                  ...
Brown Stock (cont.)                                                                                      12               ...
Deglazing the Pan                                                                                     13                  ...
Brown Stock (cont.)                                                                                      14               ...
Caramelizing Mirepoix                                                                                 15                  ...
Fish Stock and Fumet                                                                                     16               ...
Vegetable Stock                                                                                          17               ...
Commercial Bases                                                                                         18               ...
Court Bouillon                                                                                           19               ...
Glaze                                                                                                    20               ...
Sauces                                                                                                   21               ...
Thickening Agents                                                                                        22               ...
White, Blonde and Brown Roux                                                                          23                  ...
Incorporating Roux intoLiquid                                                                                             ...
Guidelines for Using Roux                                                                                25               ...
Other Thickening Agents                                                                                  26               ...
Sauce Families                                                                                            27              ...
Béchamel Family                                                                                          28               ...
The Velouté Family                                                                                                      29...
Espagnole (Brown Sauce)                                                                                               30  ...
The Tomato Sauce Family                                                                                  31               ...
The Hollandaise Family                                                                                   32               ...
SAFETY ALERT – HandlingEmulsified Butter Sauces                                                                           ...
Butter in Sauce                                                                                          34               ...
Other Sauces                                                                                             35               ...
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Chapter 10

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On Cooking
Stocks and Sauces

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Chapter 10

  1. 1. C H A P T E R TEN STOCKS AND SAUCES “ What I love about cooking is that after a hard day, there is something comforting about the fact that if you melt butter and add flour, ” then hot stock, it will get thick! It’s a sure thing. It’s a sure thing in the world where nothing is sure! – Nora Ephron, American author and filmmaker (1941 - ) Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint]Labensky • Hause • Martel
  2. 2. After studying this unit 2 STOCK AND SAUCES You will be able to: – Prepare a variety of sauces – Recognize and classify sauces – Use thickening agents properly – Prepare a variety of classic and modern sauces Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  3. 3. Stock 3 STOCK AND SAUCES A flavored liquid A good stock is the key to a great soup, sauce or braised dish The French appropriately call a stock fond (base), as stock is the basis for many classic and modern dishes Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  4. 4. Types of Stock 4 STOCK AND SAUCES White stock – Raw bones and vegetables simmered in water with seasonings Brown stock – Bones and vegetables that have first been browned then simmered in water with seasonings Fish stock or fumet – Fish bones or crustacean shells cooked slowly with vegetables and seasonings in water Court bouillon – Vegetables and seasonings simmered in water with an acidic liquid such as vinegar or wine Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  5. 5. Ingredients in Stock 5 STOCK AND SAUCES Bones – Beef, veal, chicken, fish  Lamb, turkey, game, ham Mirepoix – Mixture of 50% onions, 25% carrots and 25% celery by weight Seasonings – Principally peppercorns, bay leaves, thyme, parsley stems and, optionally, garlic  Do not add salt Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  6. 6. Mirepoix 6 STOCK AND SAUCES Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  7. 7. Principles of Stock Making 7 STOCK AND SAUCES Start the stock in cold water Simmer the stock gently Skim the stock frequently Strain the stock carefully Cool the stock quickly Store stock properly Degrease the stock Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  8. 8. SAFETY ALERT-Cooling and Handling Stock 8 STOCK AND SAUCES A two-stage cooling method is recommended for keeping stock out of the temperature danger zone First, cool the stock from 135°to 70°F (52°C-21°C) within 2 hours Second, reduce the temperature from 70°F to below 41°F (21°C to below 5°C) in an additional 4 hours, for a total of 6 hours Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  9. 9. White Stock 9 STOCK AND SAUCES Neutral stock made from beef, veal or chicken bones Blanching bones – Wash and cut up bones, place them in a stockpot and cover with cold water – Bring the water to a boil over high heat – As soon as the water comes to a boil, skim the rising impurities; drain the water from the bones and discard – Refill the pot with cold water and proceed with the stock recipe Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  10. 10. Brown Stock 10 STOCK AND SAUCES Made from chicken, veal, beef or game bones Caramelizing – Do not blanch the bones – Place the cut up bones in a roasting pan one layer deep; it is better to roast several pans of bones than to overfill one pan – Roast the bones for approximately 1 hour in a hot oven, 375°F; stirring occasionally, brown the bones thoroughly, but do not allow them to burn – Transfer the roasted bones from the pan to the stockpot Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  11. 11. Caramelizing the Bones 11 STOCK AND SAUCES Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  12. 12. Brown Stock (cont.) 12 STOCK AND SAUCES Deglazing the pan – Place the pan on the stove top over medium heat; add enough water to cover the bottom of the pan approximately ½ inch deep – Stir and scrape the pan bottom to dissolve and remove all the caramelized materials while the water heats – Pour the deglazing liquid over the bones in the stock pot Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  13. 13. Deglazing the Pan 13 STOCK AND SAUCES Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  14. 14. Brown Stock (cont.) 14 STOCK AND SAUCES Caramelizing mirepoix – Add a little of the reserved fat from the roasted bones to the roasting pan after it has been deglazed – Sauté the mirepoix, browning the vegetables well and evenly without burning them – Add caramelized mirepoix to stockpot Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  15. 15. Caramelizing Mirepoix 15 STOCK AND SAUCES Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  16. 16. Fish Stock and Fumet 16 STOCK AND SAUCES Made with the bones and heads of fish and crustacean shells Oily fish are not generally used Bones are not blanched, due to loss of flavor Fumets differ from stock because they are strongly flavored and contain an acidic ingredient such as white wine or lemon juice Require less time than other stocks; 35 to 40 minutes is usually sufficient to extract full flavor Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  17. 17. Vegetable Stock 17 STOCK AND SAUCES Should be clear and light colored Contains no gelatin and has little body May be used as a substitute for meat stocks in vegetarian dishes Strongly flavored vegetables from the cruciferous family or those that are bitter should be avoided Potatoes and other starchy vegetables will cloud the stock and should be avoided Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  18. 18. Commercial Bases 18 STOCK AND SAUCES Powder or paste flavoring added to water; used to replace stock Even the best base is a poor substitute for a well- made stock Bases vary greatly in quality and price Sodium (salt) is the main ingredient in many bases Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  19. 19. Court Bouillon 19 STOCK AND SAUCES Commonly used to poach fish and shellfish A flavored liquid, usually water and wine or vinegar, in which vegetables and seasonings have been simmered to impart their flavors and aromas Not actually stock, but prepared in the same manner Nage-aromatic court bouillon served as its own sauce Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  20. 20. Glaze 20 STOCK AND SAUCES A dramatically reduced stock 1 gallon of stock produces 1 to 2 cups of glaze – Glace de viande is made from brown stock – Glace de volaille is made from white stock Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  21. 21. Sauces 21 STOCK AND SAUCES With a few exceptions, a sauce is a liquid plus thickening agent plus seasonings Follow these procedures for fine sauce making: 1. Make good stocks 2. Use thickening agents properly to achieve the desired texture, flavor and appearance 3. Use seasonings properly to achieve the desired flavors Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  22. 22. Thickening Agents 22 STOCK AND SAUCES Roux is the principal means used to thicken sauces Roux is a combination of equal parts, by weight, of flour and fat – White roux Cooked only briefly, used in white sauces – Blond roux Cooked slightly longer to take on a little color, used in ivory-colored sauces – Brown roux Cooked until it develops a darker color and a nutty aroma, used in brown sauces Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  23. 23. White, Blonde and Brown Roux 23 STOCK AND SAUCES Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  24. 24. Incorporating Roux intoLiquid 24 STOCK AND SAUCES There are two ways to incorporate roux into a liquid without causing lumps – Cold stock can be added to hot roux while stirring vigorously with a whisk – Room-temperature roux can be added to hot stock while stirring vigorously with a whisk Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  25. 25. Guidelines for Using Roux 25 STOCK AND SAUCES Use heavy nonreactive pot to prevent scorching and discoloring. Roux should not be cooler than room temperature when combined with liquid. Avoid over thickening. Roux does not thicken a sauce until almost boiling. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  26. 26. Other Thickening Agents 26 STOCK AND SAUCES Cornstarch – Slurry Arrowroot Beurre manié Liaison Emulsification – Permanent – Semipermanent or temporary Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  27. 27. Sauce Families 27 STOCK AND SAUCES Leading, grand or mother sauces are the foundation for the entire classic repertoire of hot sauces The five leading sauces – Béchamel – Velouté – Espagnole (brown) – Tomato – Hollandaise Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  28. 28. Béchamel Family 28 STOCK AND SAUCES Cream Cheese Mornay Nantua Soubise Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  29. 29. The Velouté Family 29 STOCK AND SAUCES Fish sauces  Allemande sauces – Bercy – Aurora – Cardinal – Horseradish – Normandy – Mushroom – Poulette Suprême sauces – Albufera – Hungarian – Ivory Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  30. 30. Espagnole (Brown Sauce) 30 STOCK AND SAUCES Demi-glace and – Marchand de vin Jus Lié – Mushroom – Bordelaise – Périgueux – Chasseur – Piquant – Châteaubriand – Poivrade – Chevreuil – Robert – Madeira or port Charcutière Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  31. 31. The Tomato Sauce Family 31 STOCK AND SAUCES Creole Spanish Milanaise Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  32. 32. The Hollandaise Family 32 STOCK AND SAUCES Béarnaise Choron Foyot Grimrod Maltaise Mousseline (Chantilly sauce) Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  33. 33. SAFETY ALERT – HandlingEmulsified Butter Sauces 33 STOCK AND SAUCES Emulsified butter sauces must be held at temperatures conducive to bacterial growth – Always use clean, sanitized utensils – Prepare sauce close to service time – Never hold Hollandaise-based-sauces more than 1 ½ hours. – Never mix an old batch with a new batch of sauce Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  34. 34. Butter in Sauce 34 STOCK AND SAUCES Compound butter Monter au beurre Beurre blanc Beurre rouge Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  35. 35. Other Sauces 35 STOCK AND SAUCES Pan gravy Pan sauces Coulis Contemporary sauces – Salsa and relish – Vegetable juice and essence – Broth – Flavored oils Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel

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