C H A P T E R TWELVE                          PRINCIPLES OF MEAT                               COOKERY                    ...
After studying this unit                                                                                                2 ...
Meats                                                                                                                   3 ...
Muscle Composition                                                                                                      4 ...
Muscle Composition (cont.)                                                                                              5 ...
Marbeling                                                                                                               6 ...
Connective Tissue in Meat                                                                                               7 ...
Muscle Tissue                                                                                                        8    ...
Crosscut of a Bundle ofMuscle Fiber                                                                                       ...
Inspection and Grading of Meats                                                                             10            ...
USDA Quality Grades                                                                                           11          ...
USDA Quality Grade Stamp                                                                                   12             ...
Aging Meats                                                                                                             13...
Purchasing Meat                                                                                               14          ...
Purchasing MeatTerminology                                                                                                ...
Meat Labeling: Grass-Fed                                                                                      16          ...
Storing Meat                                                                                                  17          ...
Preparing Meats for Cooking                                                                                   18          ...
Cooking Methods                                                                                               19          ...
Degree of Doneness                                                                                         20             ...
Special Considerations forLarge Cuts of Meat                                                                              ...
Cooking Methods (cont.)                                                                                       22          ...
Cooking Methods (cont.)                                                                                       23          ...
Stewing Terminology                                                                                           24          ...
Sous Vide Cooking                                                                                             25          ...
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Chapter 12

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On Cooking
Principles of Meat Cookery

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Chapter 12

  1. 1. C H A P T E R TWELVE PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY “ Cooking is at once one of the simplest and most gratifying of the art, but to cook well one must love and respect food. – Craig Carlson, American food critic (1920 - 2000) ” Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint]Labensky • Hause • Martel
  2. 2. After studying this unit 2 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY You will be able to: – Understand the structure and composition of meat – Understand meat inspection and grading practices – Purchase meats appropriate for your needs – Store meats properly – Prepare meats for cooking – Apply various cooking methods to meats Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  3. 3. Meats 3 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Beef, veal, lamb, pork Often consume the largest portion of your food purchasing dollar; we will discuss how to protect your investment Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  4. 4. Muscle Composition 4 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Muscle tissue gives meat its characteristic appearance The amount of connective tissue determines the meat’s tenderness Muscle tissue is approximately 72% water, 20% protein, 7% fat and 1% minerals – Proper cooking prevents shrinkage Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  5. 5. Muscle Composition (cont.) 5 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY A single muscle is composed of bundles of muscle cells or fibers and connective tissue Meat’s texture id determined by – Thickness of cells – Size of cell bundles – Size of connective tissue Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  6. 6. Marbeling 6 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY When an animal fattens, some water and protein in lean muscle tissue turns to fat Marbeling refers to the whitish streaks of inter- and intra-muscular fat – Adds tenderness and flavor to cooked meat – Principal factor in determining meat quality Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  7. 7. Connective Tissue in Meat 7 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Forms walls of long muscle cells, primarily in frequently used muscles – Tendons, ligaments Consists of either collagen or elastin When cooked with moist heat, contracts then breaks down into water and gelatin – Meat of older animals more resistant to breaking down using moist heat Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  8. 8. Muscle Tissue 8 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  9. 9. Crosscut of a Bundle ofMuscle Fiber 9 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  10. 10. Inspection and Grading of Meats 10 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERYAll meats are inspected by the USDA Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  11. 11. USDA Quality Grades 11 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Beef – USDA Prime, Choice, Select, Commercial, Utility, Cutter, Canner Veal – USDA Prime, Choice, Good, Standard, Utility Lamb – USDA Prime, Choice, Good, Utility Pork – USDA No. 1, No. 2, No. 3, Utility Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  12. 12. USDA Quality Grade Stamp 12 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  13. 13. Aging Meats 13 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERYWet Aging Dry Aging Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  14. 14. Purchasing Meat 14 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Styles of cuts – Primal Primary divisions of muscle, bone and connective tissue produced by initial butchering of the carcass – Subprimal Basic cuts produced from each primal – Fabricated Individual portions cut from the subprimal Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  15. 15. Purchasing MeatTerminology 15 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Specifications – IMPS – International Meat Purchasing Specifications – NAMP – National Association of Meat Purveyors Portion control (P.C.) – Ready to cook and serve Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  16. 16. Meat Labeling: Grass-Fed 16 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Most meat animals consume grains for some part of their lives. Agricultural Marketing Service of the USDA has voluntary standards for the labeling of purely grass-fed meat. – Grass and forage shall be the only feed source for the lifetime of the animal except for milk consumed prior to weaning. Range-fed, pastured and pasture-raised Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  17. 17. Storing Meat 17 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Meat is highly perishable and a potentially hazardous food Store at temperatures between 30°F and 35°F When freezing, do so rapidly to –50°F Use moisture- and vapor-proof packaging to prevent freezer burn Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  18. 18. Preparing Meats for Cooking 18 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Tying and Trussing – Tying meat to form a uniform shape Barding – Adding a layer of fat to the outside of meat Larding – Inserting small strips of fat into meat Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  19. 19. Cooking Methods 19 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Dry-heat cooking methods – Must use high-quality, tender cuts of meat Broiling and grilling Roasting Sautéing Pan-frying Deep-frying Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  20. 20. Degree of Doneness 20 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  21. 21. Special Considerations forLarge Cuts of Meat 21 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Carryover cooking – Cooking does not stop the moment that the roast is removed from the oven; it continues to cook inward through conduction Resting – Allows the juices to redistribute themselves evenly throughout the roast Carving – Roasts are always carved against the grain; carving with the grain will produce long, stringy, tough slices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  22. 22. Cooking Methods (cont.) 22 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Moist-heat cooking methods – Used quite often to tenderize tougher cuts of meat Simmering Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  23. 23. Cooking Methods (cont.) 23 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Combination cooking methods – Both dry and moist heat are used to achieve the desired result Braising Stewing Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  24. 24. Stewing Terminology 24 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Ragout Fricassee Navarin Blanquette Chili con carne Goulash Tagine Adobo Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  25. 25. Sous Vide Cooking 25 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Low-temperature, moist-heat cooking under vacuum Resembles poaching and braising – Vacuum seal food in plastic pouches – Cook in a precisely regulated hot water bath, below simmering – Foods may be browned after cooking Food safety of utmost concern; local food regulations may require training, licensing and record keeping Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel

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