C H A P T E R SEVEN                                DAIRY PRODUCTS                      “      Food history is as important...
After studying this unit                                                                                     2            ...
Milk                                                                                                         3            ...
Processing Techniques                                                                                        4            ...
Milk Fat Removal                                                                                             5            ...
Concentrated Milks                                                                                           6            ...
SAFETY ALERT - Milk Storage                                                                                  7            ...
Cream                                                                                                        8            ...
Cultured Dairy Products                                                                                      9            ...
Butter                                                                                                  10                ...
Margarine                                                                                               11                ...
Natural Cheeses                                                                                         12                ...
Natural Cheeses (cont.)                                                                                 13                ...
Fresh or Unripened Cheeses                                                                              14                ...
Soft Cheeses                                                                                            15                ...
Semisoft Cheeses                                                                                        16                ...
Semisoft Cheeses (cont.)                                                                                17                ...
Firm Cheeses                                                                                            18                ...
Firm Cheeses (cont.)                                                                                    19                ...
Hard Cheeses                                                                                            20                ...
Goat’s-Milk Cheese                                                                                      21                ...
Processed Cheeses                                                                                       22                ...
Serving Cheese                                                                                          23                ...
Cooking with Cheese                                                                                     24                ...
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Chapter 7

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Dairy Products

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Chapter 7

  1. 1. C H A P T E R SEVEN DAIRY PRODUCTS “ Food history is as important as a baroque church. Governments should recognize cultural heritage and protect traditional foods. A cheese is as ” worthy of preservation as a sixteenth-century building.. – Carlo Petrini, Italian journalist (1950 – ) Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint]Labensky • Hause • Martel
  2. 2. After studying this unit 2 DAIRY PRODUCTS You will be able to: – Identify, store and use a variety of milk-based products – Identify, store and serve a variety of fine cheeses Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  3. 3. Milk 3 DAIRY PRODUCTS Provides texture, flavor, color and nutritional value for cooked or baked items Whole milk contains – 88% water – 3.5% milk fat – 8.5% milk solids Whole milk is graded A, B or C Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  4. 4. Processing Techniques 4 DAIRY PRODUCTS Pasteurization – Process of heating milk to a sufficiently high temperature for a sufficient length of time to destroy pathogenic bacteria Ultra-pasteurization – Process by which milk is heated to a very high temperature for a very short time Ultra-high-temperature processing (UHT) – Process by which milk is heated to a very high temperature for a short period of time and is then packaged in sterile packages under sterile conditions Homogenization – Process in which the fat globules in whole milk are reduced in size and permanently dispersed throughout the liquid Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  5. 5. Milk Fat Removal 5 DAIRY PRODUCTS Reduced-fat – 2% Low-fat – 1% Nonfat – 0% Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  6. 6. Concentrated Milks 6 DAIRY PRODUCTS Evaporated – 60% of the water is removed Sweetened condensed – 60% of the water is removed and 40%-45% sugar has been added Dry milk powder – Virtually all of the water has been removed Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  7. 7. SAFETY ALERT - Milk Storage 7 DAIRY PRODUCTS Canned milk, aseptically-packaged milk and dry milk powder are shelf-stable. They need no refrigeration After opening or reconstituting, they become PHT/TTS foods. Refrigerate at or below 41F Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  8. 8. Cream 8 DAIRY PRODUCTS Half and half – A mixture of whole milk and cream, contains 10%-18% milkfat Light cream, coffee cream, table cream – More than 18% but less than 30% milkfat Light whipping cream – Contains between 30% and 36% milkfat Heavy whipping cream – Contains not less than 36% milkfat Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  9. 9. Cultured Dairy Products 9 DAIRY PRODUCTS Buttermilk – Tart milk with a thick texture; fresh milk whole or low-fat with a culture (Streptococcus lactis) added Sour cream – White, tangy gel used as a condiment; the same culture is added to pasteurized, homogenized light cream Crème fraîche – Thinner and richer than sour cream; the same culture is added to heavy cream Yogurt – Thick, tart, custard like product cultured with Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus; can be made with whole, low-fat or skim milks Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  10. 10. Butter 10 DAIRY PRODUCTS Salted butter – Butter with 2.5% salt added – Salt alters the flavor, extends keeping qualities European-style butter – Contains more butterfat than regular butter, up to 82%-86%; contains very little salt Whipped butter – Made by incorporating air into butter Clarified butter – Butter that has had its water and milk solids removed Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  11. 11. Margarine 11 DAIRY PRODUCTS A nondairy product Manufactured from animal or vegetable fats Flavorings, colorings, emulsifiers, preservatives and vitamins are added Like butter, contains 80% fat and 16% water Frequently used as a substitute for butter in baking and cooking Does not equal butter’s flavor Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  12. 12. Natural Cheeses 12 DAIRY PRODUCTS Cheese is one of the oldest and most widely used foods known to man Hundreds of natural cheeses are produced worldwide Cheeses are a product of their environment Cheese is made from a variety of animal milks Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  13. 13. Natural Cheeses (cont.) 13 DAIRY PRODUCTS Cheeses may develop a natural rind The higher the moisture content the softer and more perishable a cheese will be Fat content ranges from less than 20% (low fat) to at least 60% (double cream) and at least 72% (triple cream) FDA rules require that raw milk cheeses must be aged more than 60 days at 35°F Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  14. 14. Fresh or Unripened Cheeses 14 DAIRY PRODUCTS Cream Cheese – Soft cow’s-milk cheese; smooth and mild flavor Feta – Semisoft Greek or Italian cheese made from sheep’s or goat’s milk; white flaky cheese that is stored in brine Mascarpone – Soft cow’s-milk cheese originally from Italy; extremely smooth and creamy Mozzarella – Firm Italian cheese traditionally made with water buffalo’s milk; very mild white cheese that is stringy when melted Queso Oaxaca – One of the most popular cheeses made in Mexico; good melting cheese with a smooth, semisoft texture Ricotta – A soft Italian cheese similar to American cottage cheese Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  15. 15. Soft Cheeses 15 DAIRY PRODUCTS Brie – Rind-ripened French cheese, creamy and rich; contains 60% fat Boursin – Triple-cream cow’s-milk cheese flavored with peppers, herbs and garlic Camembert – Rind-ripened French cheese, creamy and rich; contains 45% fat; milder than brie Taleggio – Orange-colored washed rind cheese made from cow’s milk; contains 48% fat Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  16. 16. Semisoft Cheeses 16 DAIRY PRODUCTS Cabrales – Blue-veined cheese, made from a blend of raw cow’s, ewe’s and goat’s milks Fontina – Has a dark gold, crusty rind; the pale gold, dense interior has few small holes; nutty and rich Gorgonzola – Italian blue-veined cow’s-milk cheese; creamier than other blues Gouda – This Dutch cheese is yellow with few small holes and a mild buttery flavor Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  17. 17. Semisoft Cheeses (cont.) 17 DAIRY PRODUCTS Havarti – Cow’s-milk monastery-style cheese from Denmark; mild flavor and creamy texture Port du Salut – French monastery-style cow’s-milk cheese; smooth, rich and savory Roquefort – Blue-veined sheep’s-milk cheese from France; intensely pungent with a rich, salty flavor and strong aroma Stilton – Blue-veined cheese of Great Britain; pungent, rich and tangy; combines the best of blues and cheddars Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  18. 18. Firm Cheeses 18 DAIRY PRODUCTS Cheddars – Product of North America and Great Britain; flavors range from mild to very sharp Emmenthaler – The original Swiss cheese; mellow, rich and nutty Gruyère – Cow’s-milk cheese made in the Swiss Alps; moist and highly flavorful Jarlsberg – Swiss-type cheese from Norway; mild with a delicate sweet flavor Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  19. 19. Firm Cheeses (cont.) 19 DAIRY PRODUCTS Manchego – Spanish sheeps-milk cheese; it has a buttery and slightly piquant flavor Monterey Jack – A cheddar like cow’s-milk cheese from California; often flavored with peppers and herbs Provolone – A cow’s-milk cheese of southern Italy; commonly used for melting and in pizza and pasta dishes Provolone dolce; aged 2 months Provolone piccante; aged up to six months Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  20. 20. Hard Cheeses 20 DAIRY PRODUCTS Asiago – Sharp and nutty with a cheddar like flavor; aged 1 year Parmigiano-Reggiano – Made exclusively in the Parma region of Italy; primarily used for grating, it has a rich, spicy and sharp flavor Pecorino Romano – A goat’s-milk cheese; brittle and sharper than other grating cheeses, with a “sheepy” tang Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  21. 21. Goat’s-Milk Cheese 21 DAIRY PRODUCTS Chèvre – French for goat, refers to small, soft, creamy cheeses produced in a variety of shapes – Often coated with ash, herbs and seasonings Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  22. 22. Processed Cheeses 22 DAIRY PRODUCTS Pasteurized processed cheese – Made from a combination of aged and green cheeses mixed with emulsifiers and flavorings, pasteurized and poured into molds Processed cheese food – Contains less natural cheese; often has vegetable oils and milk solids added Imitation cheese – Manufactured with dairy by-products and soy products mixed with emulsifiers, coloring and flavoring agents and enzymes Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  23. 23. Serving Cheese 23 DAIRY PRODUCTS Cheese can be served any time of the day Best if served at room temperature Use a variety of shapes and colors for visual appeal Use a variety of flavors and textures Provide a separate serving knife for each cheese Serve with plain bread or crackers Noncitrus fruits are a nice accompaniment Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  24. 24. Cooking with Cheese 24 DAIRY PRODUCTS Because of its high protein content, cheese can melt into a tough stringy mass Heating can cause cheese to curdle or separate – Use low temperatures and short cooking times. Do not boil. – Grate cheese before stirring into warm sauces/soups. Keep warm in a bain marie Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel

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