Linking libraries to the real world a tragicomedy in two acts Ad Aerts sArte.nl Foundation http ://sarte.nl/ @adaerts Luka...
Act one: Libraries Lukas Koster as  The Librarian Ad Aerts as  The Theatre Lover
Curtain
Example – Waiting for Godot <ul><li>Samuel Beckett </li></ul><ul><li>En attendant Godot (1949) </li></ul><ul><li>Waiting f...
Personal context The Theatre Lover Person Interests Background
Library context The Librarian Copies Publications Shelves Cards Dewey LCC MARC OPAC
Estragon:  ‘ One knows what to expect ’
Estragon:  ‘ People are bloody ignorant apes ’
Library context – The catalogue <ul><li>Search </li></ul>Subject area Theatre Godot Personal context Library context
Catalogue results
Vladimir:  ‘Perhaps it’s not the right word’
Catalogue results
Estragon:  ‘There’s nothing to show’
Theatre context <ul><li>PARADOX </li></ul><ul><li>Key concept: The Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing remains, except ‘...
Theatre context http://theaterinstituut.adlibsoft.com/
Theatre context
Out of context Theatre Personal context Library context Theatre context
In context Theatre Personal context Library context Theatre context
Estragon:   ‘ Nothing happens, nobody comes, nobody goes, it's awful ’
In context Personal context Library context Theatre context
In context Personal context Library context Theatre context
In context Personal context Library context Theatre context <ul><li>Set context before search: </li></ul><ul><li>Harvestin...
Act two: The Real World Lukas Koster as  The Linker Ad Aerts as  The Nerd
<ul><li>Next day </li></ul><ul><li>Same time </li></ul><ul><li>Same place </li></ul>
Pilot project Linking library catalogue data to theatre performance data Dutch Digital Cultural Heritage Foundation  DEN  ...
Vladimir:   “We could start all over again perhaps” Estragon: “That should be easy” Vladimir: “It’s the start that’s diffi...
Why? <ul><li>We are convinced </li></ul><ul><li>that Linked Data is </li></ul><ul><li>valuable and feasible </li></ul>
Lucky:  ‘For reasons unknown’
Pilot Objectives <ul><li>Proof of concept </li></ul><ul><li>Gather experience </li></ul><ul><li>Added value for customers ...
Two sides Publish Use
Publishing linked data URIs for all things Preferably persistent  Return data in ‘machine readable format’ Triples/RDF/etc...
Using linked data 1. Construct URIs based on native metadata 2. Process returned RDF/Triples/etc. 3. Present results
A theatre play data model ‘ Play ’
Theatre Things (Entities) <ul><li>Authors, actors, producers, etc. (persons) </li></ul><ul><li>Plays (shows) </li></ul><ul...
Library Things (Entities) <ul><li>Authors (persons) </li></ul><ul><li>Books/holdings/items (plays) </li></ul>
Matching <ul><li>Library catalogue results – Theatre production database results </li></ul>
What we made
How we did it <ul><li>URIs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< base-url >/ person /< personname > </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>< base-ur...
How we did it - URIs < base-url >/person/Beckett, Samuel < base-url >/title/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot JavaScript/J...
How we did it - JSON jsonTIN({ &quot;name&quot;:&quot;Beckett, Samuel&quot;, &quot;birth.country&quot;:&quot;Ierland&quot;...
How we did it - JSON < base-url >/title/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot jsonTIN({ &quot;production&quot;:[ &quot;/produc...
How we did it - JSON <base-url>/ production/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot/1988-11-22/6750 jsonTIN({ &quot;name&quot;:&...
How we did it – JavaScript/JQuery < base-url >/person/Beckett, Samuel < base-url >/title/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot...
What we did not do (yet) <ul><ul><li>Implement a vocabulary/ontology/RDF! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://ckan.net/packa...
Theatre Ontology <ul><ul><li>http ://lukeblaney.co.uk/semweb/theatre </li></ul></ul>
Problems <ul><li>No common identifiers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aleph key  ≠  key </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No internal links to...
Estragon: ‘ We’ve lost our rights? ’   … Pozzo: ‘ The road is free to all ’
Identifiers/URIs/String matching /title/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot /title/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot : a tra...
Pozzo:  “ I am Pozzo!....Pozzo! … Does that name mean nothing to you?... I say does that name mean nothing to you?” Estrag...
Solutions <ul><li>Add links:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internally: FRBR! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Externally: Authority fil...
Links: FRBR, and more Waiting  for Godot Wachten op Godot (NL) En attendant Godot (FR) Production 2009 Production 2010 Per...
Ideally….
Current situation Implicit relations
Legacy systems => Linked Data <ul><li>Make implicit relations explicit </li></ul><ul><li>Use external authority files </li...
Estragon:  ‘ That’s the idea, let’s contradict each other ’
Curtain
Thank you! You’re too kind!
Estragon: “Let’s go” Vladimir: “We can’t” Estragon: “Why not?” Vladimir: “We’re waiting for Godot”
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Linking libraries to the real world

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Linking library catalogue metadata to theatre production/performance metadata and objects
ELAG 2011 Prague, May 25 2011

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  • Ad worked for TIN until recently. Writes theatre reviews. Visits theatre performances twice a week. Studied Dutch literature and linguistics. Lukas: library of the University of Amsterdam. Library systems…. We know each other: work, twitter, Haarlem
  • Librarian hands book to theatre lover: “here is your play”`. It has … pages, no illustrations. Measures book: it is …cm high. And there is an ISBN. Here I have another one. …… TL: this looks like an instruction manual… Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fFZatmOFpns Etc.
  • Restproducten! Only remainders/residuals/waste products
  • This was the tragedy part, now for the comedy. Announce Act 2: the pilot project. New roles/parts: Ad likes to mash about with data Lukas likes to link, but does not know how
  • Cool URIs don’t change RDF/XML, N3, Turtle
  • Need to know URI syntax? Discover?
  • An old fashioned ERD data model. More or less similar to an ontology
  • This is an example of a triple, two directions! Two triples in one
  • Persistent identifiers (part of URI!) String values Working together (we know each others stuff!)
  • Using generated HTML, not underlying MARC fields/subfields
  • Array of links to internal Theatre database entities (productions)
  • Array of links to internal Theatre database entities (people)
  • Production JSON also contains identifier/link to digital objects in separate TIN Objects database
  • Looks a lot like our own initial attempt ;-)
  • We didn&apos;t sue JavaScript to remove &apos;subtitle&apos; after the &apos; : &apos; yet. Working on HTML, not underlying MARC fields/subfields
  • For instance VIAF for ‘authors’; Wikipedia/DBPedia, etc.
  • All ‘implicit relations’
  • Linking libraries to the real world

    1. 1. Linking libraries to the real world a tragicomedy in two acts Ad Aerts sArte.nl Foundation http ://sarte.nl/ @adaerts Lukas Koster Library Systems Coordinator Library of the University of Amsterdam http://www.uba.uva.nl @lukask ELAG2011 - Prague – May 25, 2011
    2. 2. Act one: Libraries Lukas Koster as The Librarian Ad Aerts as The Theatre Lover
    3. 3. Curtain
    4. 4. Example – Waiting for Godot <ul><li>Samuel Beckett </li></ul><ul><li>En attendant Godot (1949) </li></ul><ul><li>Waiting for Godot – a tragicomedy in two acts (1952) </li></ul><ul><li>A country road </li></ul><ul><li>A tree </li></ul><ul><li>Evening </li></ul><ul><li>Men in bowler hats </li></ul>
    5. 5. Personal context The Theatre Lover Person Interests Background
    6. 6. Library context The Librarian Copies Publications Shelves Cards Dewey LCC MARC OPAC
    7. 7. Estragon: ‘ One knows what to expect ’
    8. 8. Estragon: ‘ People are bloody ignorant apes ’
    9. 9. Library context – The catalogue <ul><li>Search </li></ul>Subject area Theatre Godot Personal context Library context
    10. 10. Catalogue results
    11. 11. Vladimir: ‘Perhaps it’s not the right word’
    12. 12. Catalogue results
    13. 13. Estragon: ‘There’s nothing to show’
    14. 14. Theatre context <ul><li>PARADOX </li></ul><ul><li>Key concept: The Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing remains, except ‘residuals’/’waste products’: </li></ul><ul><li>Memories </li></ul><ul><li>Souvenir brochures </li></ul><ul><li>Recordings </li></ul><ul><li>Objects </li></ul><ul><li>Texts </li></ul><ul><li>Reviews </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata </li></ul>
    15. 15. Theatre context http://theaterinstituut.adlibsoft.com/
    16. 16. Theatre context
    17. 17. Out of context Theatre Personal context Library context Theatre context
    18. 18. In context Theatre Personal context Library context Theatre context
    19. 19. Estragon: ‘ Nothing happens, nobody comes, nobody goes, it's awful ’
    20. 20. In context Personal context Library context Theatre context
    21. 21. In context Personal context Library context Theatre context
    22. 22. In context Personal context Library context Theatre context <ul><li>Set context before search: </li></ul><ul><li>Harvesting and Indexing </li></ul><ul><li>Merging </li></ul><ul><li>Search scopes </li></ul><ul><li>Personalisation </li></ul><ul><li>Set context after search: </li></ul><ul><li>Extending </li></ul><ul><li>Linking </li></ul>= Metadata index + discovery tool = Linked data
    23. 23. Act two: The Real World Lukas Koster as The Linker Ad Aerts as The Nerd
    24. 24. <ul><li>Next day </li></ul><ul><li>Same time </li></ul><ul><li>Same place </li></ul>
    25. 25. Pilot project Linking library catalogue data to theatre performance data Dutch Digital Cultural Heritage Foundation DEN as instigator http://den.nl/
    26. 26. Vladimir: “We could start all over again perhaps” Estragon: “That should be easy” Vladimir: “It’s the start that’s difficult” Estragon: “You can start from anything” Vladimir: “Yes, but you have to decide” Estragon: “True”
    27. 27. Why? <ul><li>We are convinced </li></ul><ul><li>that Linked Data is </li></ul><ul><li>valuable and feasible </li></ul>
    28. 28. Lucky: ‘For reasons unknown’
    29. 29. Pilot Objectives <ul><li>Proof of concept </li></ul><ul><li>Gather experience </li></ul><ul><li>Added value for customers </li></ul><ul><li>Set an example </li></ul><ul><li>Convince cultural heritage institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Convince TIN, UBA management </li></ul>
    30. 30. Two sides Publish Use
    31. 31. Publishing linked data URIs for all things Preferably persistent Return data in ‘machine readable format’ Triples/RDF/etc. Vocabulary/ontology
    32. 32. Using linked data 1. Construct URIs based on native metadata 2. Process returned RDF/Triples/etc. 3. Present results
    33. 33. A theatre play data model ‘ Play ’
    34. 34. Theatre Things (Entities) <ul><li>Authors, actors, producers, etc. (persons) </li></ul><ul><li>Plays (shows) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Productions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital objects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photos, posters, sound, video </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical objects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Costumes, scenery, models, posters, photos, sound, video … </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Library Things (Entities) <ul><li>Authors (persons) </li></ul><ul><li>Books/holdings/items (plays) </li></ul>
    36. 36. Matching <ul><li>Library catalogue results – Theatre production database results </li></ul>
    37. 37. What we made
    38. 38. How we did it <ul><li>URIs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< base-url >/ person /< personname > </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>< base-url >/ title /< personname >/< title > </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>< base-url >/ production /< personname >/< title >/< opening date > </li></ul></ul>Requested by OPAC Returned by TIN Together with data
    39. 39. How we did it - URIs < base-url >/person/Beckett, Samuel < base-url >/title/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot JavaScript/JQuery HTML
    40. 40. How we did it - JSON jsonTIN({ &quot;name&quot;:&quot;Beckett, Samuel&quot;, &quot;birth.country&quot;:&quot;Ierland&quot;, &quot;birth.date&quot;:&quot; 1906*&quot;, &quot;birth.place&quot;:&quot;Foxrock&quot;, &quot;death.date&quot;:&quot;1989-12-22&quot;, &quot;death.place&quot;:&quot;Parijs&quot;, &quot;titles&quot;:&quot;/gettitles/Beckett, Samuel&quot; }) < base-url >/person/Beckett, Samuel
    41. 41. How we did it - JSON < base-url >/title/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot jsonTIN({ &quot;production&quot;:[ &quot;/production/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot/1988-07-28/5777&quot;, &quot;/production/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot/1988-11-22/6750&quot;, &quot;/production/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot/1992-04-16/10728&quot;, &quot;/production/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot/1981-02-18/43032&quot; ] })
    42. 42. How we did it - JSON <base-url>/ production/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot/1988-11-22/6750 jsonTIN({ &quot;name&quot;:&quot;Beckett, Samuel&quot;, &quot;title&quot;:&quot;Waiting for Godot&quot;, &quot;opening&quot;:&quot;1988-11-22&quot;, &quot;people&quot;:[ { &quot;description&quot;:&quot;Beckett, Samuel (auteur)&quot;, &quot;uri&quot;:&quot;/person/Beckett, Samuel&quot;}, { &quot;description&quot;:&quot;Theedom, Peter (uitvoerende)&quot;, &quot;uri&quot;:&quot;/person/Theedom, Peter&quot; }, { &quot;description&quot;:&quot;Stewart, Reginald (uitvoerende)&quot;, &quot;uri&quot;:&quot;/person/Stewart, Reginald&quot; } ] })
    43. 43. How we did it – JavaScript/JQuery < base-url >/person/Beckett, Samuel < base-url >/title/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot <base-url>/ production/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot/1988-11-22/6750 JavaScript/JQuery
    44. 44. What we did not do (yet) <ul><ul><li>Implement a vocabulary/ontology/RDF! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://ckan.net/package/theatricalia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://lukeblaney.co.uk/semweb/theatre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content negotiation </li></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Theatre Ontology <ul><ul><li>http ://lukeblaney.co.uk/semweb/theatre </li></ul></ul>
    46. 46. Problems <ul><li>No common identifiers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aleph key ≠ key </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No internal links to common entity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No central “ Work ” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>String matching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Author: ‘ Samuel Beckett ’- ‘ Beckett, Samuel ’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Title: ‘ Waiting for Godot ’ – ’En attendant Godot ’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Copyright </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photos, videos, audio, artwork </li></ul></ul>
    47. 47. Estragon: ‘ We’ve lost our rights? ’ … Pozzo: ‘ The road is free to all ’
    48. 48. Identifiers/URIs/String matching /title/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot /title/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot : a tragicomedy in two acts /title/Beckett, Samuel/En attendant Godot : pièce en deux actes /title/Beckett, Samuel/Wachten op Godot /title/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot /title/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting For Godot /title/Beckett, Samuel/Wachten op Godot /title/Beckett, Samuel/Wachtend op Godot /title/Beckett, Samuel/Wachten op Godot (De favorieten) /title/Beckett, Samuel/Wachten op Godot (eerste bedrijf) /title/Beckett, Samuel/En attendant Godot /title/Beckett, Samuel/Warten auf Godot
    49. 49. Pozzo: “ I am Pozzo!....Pozzo! … Does that name mean nothing to you?... I say does that name mean nothing to you?” Estragon: “ Bozzo...Bozzo...” Vladimir: “ Pozzo...Pozzo...” Pozzo: “ PPPOZZZO!” Estragon: “ Ah! Pozzo...let me see...Pozzo...” Vladimir: “ Is it Pozzo or Bozzo?” Estragon: “ Pozzo...no...I’m afraid I...no...I don’t seem to...” Vladimir: “ I once knew a family called Gozzo. The mother had the clap ”
    50. 50. Solutions <ul><li>Add links: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internally: FRBR! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Externally: Authority files </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Smart string matching?) </li></ul><ul><li>External broker mechanism </li></ul>
    51. 51. Links: FRBR, and more Waiting for Godot Wachten op Godot (NL) En attendant Godot (FR) Production 2009 Production 2010 Performance 1 Performance 2 Performance 3 Manifestation Item Work Expression 1st Edition 2007 2nd Edition 2010 Copy 1 Copy 2 Copy 3 Theatre Text/Publisher/Library FRBR Video registration Article Scene 1 Scene 2 Scene 3 Photo Library Catalogue
    52. 52. Ideally….
    53. 53. Current situation Implicit relations
    54. 54. Legacy systems => Linked Data <ul><li>Make implicit relations explicit </li></ul><ul><li>Use external authority files </li></ul>
    55. 55. Estragon: ‘ That’s the idea, let’s contradict each other ’
    56. 56. Curtain
    57. 57. Thank you! You’re too kind!
    58. 58. Estragon: “Let’s go” Vladimir: “We can’t” Estragon: “Why not?” Vladimir: “We’re waiting for Godot”

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