If the reporting verb is in the past , the verb in the reporting statement moves back a tense into the past:
PRESENT SIMPLE - PAST SIMPLE
PRESENT CONTINUOUS- PAST CONTINUOUS
PAST SIMPLE- PAST PERFECT SIMPLE
CAN – COULD
THE MODAL VERBS SHOULD , COULD, WOULD , MIGHT AND OUGHT DO NOT CHANGE
PRONOUNS AND POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES ALSO CHANGE.
Examples: “ I´ve forgotten my keys”. He said that he had forgotten his keys.
TIME EXPRESSIONS IN REPORTED SPEECH
Time expressions in reported speech also change.
NOW - THEN
NEXT WEEK – THE FOLLOWING WEEK
TODAY- THAT DAY
TOMORROW - THE FOLLOWING DAY OR THE NEXT DAY
YESTERDAY - THE PREVIOUS DAY OR THE DAY BEFORE
LAST WEEK- THE WEEK BEFORE OR THE PREVIOUS WEEK .
Different types of sentences
A.-Statements : Affirmative and negative.
B.-Questions : wh-questions and yes-no questions.
C.-Commands : Affirmative and negative.
Reported Speech : A.- Statements. Reporting verbs: said (no object) , told (object), added, admitted, claimed, explained,promised, protested. He said he would see her soon. “ I´ll see you soon.” He said that he had worked for 10 hours. “ I worked for ten hours” He said that they were having a wonderful time. “ We are having a wonderful time”. She said that she loved the hotel. “ I love the hotel “. Reported speech Direct speech
Reporting verbs in questions: asked / wanted to know / wondered .
In direct questions the word order is verb+subject whereas in reported questions the word order is : subject+verb and there is no question mark
example: “ What is the time?”. Reported question: She asked what the time was
WE MUST DISTINGUISH between wh-questions and yes-no questions.
There are question pronouns in these questions( where, when, what , which, why and how ).
Examples: Direct speech Reported speech “ Where are you from?” She asked where he was from
There is no question pronoun in these type of question.
They are called so because the answer to these questions is yes or no.
If or whether is used in the reported question.
Examples: Direct speech: Reported speech “ Are you French?” He asked if/whether we were French .
In reported commands the reporting verbs are: told,asked , advised, warned, persuaded, invited,encouraged , remind.
For affirmative commands: Subject + verb +object + infinitive with TO Example: Direct speech: Reported speech : Close the door! He told him to close the door . For negative commands: Subject + verb + object + NOT + infinitive with TO Examples: Direct speech: Reported speech: Don´t shout at me! She told him not to shout at her .
We use the verb suggested in reported suggestions .
Direct suggestions Reported suggestions
“ Shall we go for a walk?” He suggested going for a walk
that they went for a walk
“ Why don´t we go out tonight?” She suggested going out that night
She suggested that they went out
“ Let´s go to the cinema ” He suggested going to the cinema.
He suggested that they went to the cinema .
REWRITE THE SENTENCES IN REPORTED SPEECH .
1.-”Please don´t tell my parents!” He begged her...
(He begged her not to tell his parents).
2.-”Have you ever been to Naples in January?”He asked me...
He asked me if I had ever been to Naples in January.
3.-”This is the dog I bought yesterday from Alan”. He said...
He said that was the dog he had bought the day before from Alan.
4.-”Give me that book” Mary asked me...
Mary asked me to give her that book.
5.-What are you going to do when she finds out? He asked me...
He asked me what I was going to do when she found out.
6.-”He is the last person I want to meet”.He said...
He said that he was the last person he wanted to meet.
7.-Why haven´t you replied to the letter I sent you last week? He asked me...
He asked me why I hadn´t replied to the letter he sent me the week before.
8.-”Leave the office and don´t come back”. The boss told me...
The boss told me to leave the office and not to come back.
9.-”I´m visiting my granny tomorrow” She explained...
She explained she was visiting her granny the following day.