Direct and reported speech.Introduction There are two ways of relating what a personhas said: direct and indirect. In direct speech we repeat the originalspeaker’s exact words:Example:He said: “I have lost my umbrella.” In indirect speech we give the exact meaningof a remark or a speech, without necessarilyusing the speaker’s exact words:Example: He said (that) he had lost hisumbrella.
Can you see the difference? “I´m going to call the police!” said the man. The man said that he was going to call thepolice. The man said he was going to call the police. Which are the differences between the firstand the second sentence? And between thesecond and the third?
Tense changes: examples. “I’m watching you” He said that he waswatching me. “I have lost my keys” He said that the hadlost his keys. “We will go to the cinema” They said thatthey would go to the cinema. “I must do my homework” She said that hadto do her homework.
Reported statements: otherchanges Pronouns usually change:a) “I have lost my wallet” : He said that he hadlost his wallet Place expressions usually change:a) “I like this picture” : He said that he liked thatpicture. There are modal verbs that don’t change:a) We might come: They said that they mightcome.
Say vs. tellTELL SOMEONE SOMETHING SAY SOMETHING
Reported questions.VERB + SUBJECT (direct question)SUBJECT + VERB (indirect question)He asked (me) how I was. How are you?He asked (me) how was I.
Reported questions. Wh- elements. Who, why, when, how, what… don’t change. Why are you crying?He asked him why she was crying. How tall is she?He asked me how tall she was.
Reported questions. If questions. Wh- elements don’t appear. We have to use if/whether when we report thequestion. Are you guilty? He asked her.He asked her if she was guilty. Do you like being here? She asked him.She asked him if he liked being there.
Reported commands.IMPERATIVE FORM (direct question)SUBJECT + VERB + OBJECT +INFINITIVEHe ordered them to sit down. Sit down!He ordered to sit down them.
Reported commands.IMPERATIVE FORM (negative)SUBJECT + VERB + OBJECT + NOT +INFINITIVEHe told her not to shout at him.Don’t shout at me!He told her to not shout at him.
Reported suggestions. 1º Option.SUGGESTION (direct question)SUBJECT + VERB + THAT +PROPOSITIONHe suggested that we went for a walk.“Let’s go for a walk”He suggested that we going for a walk.
Reporting verbs. We can use different reporting verbs,depending on the sittuation. Different structures are required to use theseverbs.
Reporting verbs.VERB + THAT…ADMIT SAY INSIST EXPLAINREPLY SUGGEST RECCOMEND“Take some extra money”.He suggested that I took some extra money.
Reporting verbs.VERB + OBJECT + INFINITIVE…ASK TELL ORDER INVITEREMIND ADVISE“Please go away”He asked her to go away.
Reporting verbs.VERB + INFINITIVE…AGREE DECIDE OFFER PROMISEREFUSE THREATEN“I’ll do it”She agreed to do it.
Reporting verbs.VERB + VERB (-ing)…APOLOGIZE (FOR) RECOMMENDSUGGEST“I’m sorry that I did it”She apologized for doing it.
Let’s practice! "Im hungry," Tom said.Tom said that he was hungry. "They were living in Chicago when their son was born,"she said.She said that they had been living in Chicago when theirson was born. Sarah asked, "Are you busy tonight”?Sarah asked me if I was busy tonight. "I am working in a hospital," she said.She said that she was working in a hospital. "We made a great dinner last night," he said.He said that they had made a great dinner last night.
Let’s practice! "I have been to India three times," Melissa said.Melissa said that she had been to India three times. "We have been waiting for the tickets for three hours,"they said.They said that they had been waiting for the tickets forthree hours. He asked, "Had you ever been to New York before?“He asked me if I had ever been to New York before. "I am from Australia," Pam said.Pam said she is from Australia. "You must drive slowly here," the police officer said.The police officer said I had to drive slowly there.