Reported speech

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This is a brief review of the Reported Speech in English.

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Reported speech

  1. 1. THE REPORTED SPEECH
  2. 2. <ul><li>REVIEW </li></ul><ul><li>DIRECT speech: </li></ul><ul><li>“ I have to go now” she said. </li></ul><ul><li>b) INDIRECT speech: </li></ul><ul><li>She said she had to go then. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Reporting verbs (I) <ul><li>STATEMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>PETER: “I will go to the party”. </li></ul><ul><li>Say, think, believe + (that) </li></ul><ul><li>Peter said (that) he would go to the party. </li></ul><ul><li>Tell + personal pronoun + (that) </li></ul><ul><li>Peter told me (that) he would go to the party. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain, complain, point out + that </li></ul><ul><li>Peter pointed out that he would go the party. </li></ul><ul><li>Deny + -ing form </li></ul><ul><li>Peter denied going to the party. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Reporting verbs (II) <ul><li>QUESTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Ask, enquire, wonder, want to know… </li></ul><ul><li>a) YES/NO questions  + if / whether </li></ul><ul><li>“ Will you go to the party?”, she asked him . </li></ul><ul><li>She wanted to know if he would go to the party * . </li></ul><ul><li>b) Wh- questions  Wh- words (what, where, who, how, when, which) </li></ul><ul><li>“ What time will you go to the party?”, he asked her. </li></ul><ul><li>He wanted to know what time she would go to the party. * </li></ul><ul><li>★ The question becomes a positive sentence and there is no subject-verb inversion. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Reporting verbs (III) <ul><li>COMMANDS </li></ul><ul><li>Tell, ask, order, demand… </li></ul><ul><li>a) Positive form: to + infinitive </li></ul><ul><li>“ Go to the shop and buy some ice-cream” Aly told me. </li></ul><ul><li>Aly told me to go to the shop and to buy some ice-cream”. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Negative form: not to + infinitive </li></ul><ul><li>“ Don’t shout in class” the teacher ordered. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher ordered the students not to shout in class. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>SUGGESTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Suggest + -ing form </li></ul><ul><li>“ Let’s go to the cinema”, Henry said. </li></ul><ul><li>Harry suggested going to the cinema. </li></ul><ul><li>ADVICE </li></ul><ul><li>Advise, recommend… personal pronoun + to + infinitive </li></ul><ul><li>“ You should take a coat, it’s cold”, his mother told him. </li></ul><ul><li>His mother advised him to take a coat, because it was cold . </li></ul>Reporting verbs (IV)
  7. 7. Changes in reported speech <ul><li>We change the verb tense when the reporting verb (say, tell, ask, explain…) is in the past tense. </li></ul><ul><li>“ I will go by bus” she said . </li></ul><ul><li>She said that she would go by bus. </li></ul><ul><li>We don’t change the verb tense… </li></ul><ul><li>a) … when we talk about general truths. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Water boils at 100° Celsius” he explained. </li></ul><ul><li>He explained that water boils at 100° Celsius. </li></ul><ul><li>b) … when the reporting verb is in the present. </li></ul><ul><li>“ I never go to school by bus” Sarah says. </li></ul><ul><li>Sarah says that she never goes to school by bus. </li></ul><ul><li>c) … when the situation still exists. </li></ul><ul><li>“ I’ll find him” she promised. </li></ul><ul><li>She promised she will find him. (She still hasn’t found him, so the situation still exists). </li></ul>
  8. 8. VERB TENSES 1) PRESENT SIMPLE  PAST SIMPLE “ I study English”, she said.  She said she studied English. 2) PRESENT CONTINOUS  PAST CONTINOUS “ I am studying English”.  She said she was studying English. 3) PAST SIMPLE  PAST PERFECT She said: “I studied English”.  She said she had studied English. 4) PRESENT PERFECT  PAST PERFECT “ I have studied English”.  She said she had studied English. Changes in reported speech (I)
  9. 9. 5) PAST CONTINOUS  PAST PERFECT CONTINOUS VERB TENSES Changes in reported speech (II) “ I was watching TV”, she said.  She said she had been watching TV. 6) PRESENT PERFECT CONTINOUS  PAST PERFECT CONTINOUS “ I have been watching TV”.  She said she had been watching TV. 7) FUTURE  CONDITIONAL “ I will watch TV”.  She said she would watch TV. ★ PAST PERFECT AND PAST PERFECT CONTINOUS DON’T CHANGE “ We had watched a film”, she said.  She said they had watched a film. “ We had been watching a film”.  She said they had been watching a film.
  10. 10. 6) MODAL VERBS CAN  COULD MAY  MIGHT MUST/HAVE TO  HAD TO  Changes in reported speech (III) VERB TENSES “ I can play the piano”.  He said he could play the piano. “ We may buy a new car”.  They said they might buy a new car. “ He must go to the doctor”.  She said he had to go to the doctor. ★ SHOULD, OUGHT TO, USED TO, WOULD, MIGHT in the Direct Speech DON’T CHANGE.
  11. 11. Changes in reported speech (IV) TIME AND PLACE ADVERBS AND EXPRESSIONS NOW  THEN/AT THAT MOMENT TODAY/TONIGHT  THAT DAY/ THAT NIGHT YESTERDAY  THE PREVIOUS DAY/ THE DAY BEFORE TOMORROW  THE NEXT DAY, THE FOLLOWING DAY, THE DAY AFTER NEXT WEEK  THE FOLLOWING WEEK, THE WEEK AFTER LAST YEAR  THE YEAR BEFORE, THE PREVIOUS YEAR A MONTH AGO  THE PREVIOUS MONTH, THE MONTH BEFORE HERE  THERE THIS  THAT THESE  THOSE
  12. 12. Changes in reported speech (V) PERSONAL PRONOUNS I  HE/SHE WE  THEY MY/ MINE  HIS, HER/HIS, HERS OUR/OURS  THEIR/THEIRS
  13. 13. USEFUL VERBS FOR REPORTED SPEECH <ul><ul><li>Verbs used for reporting statements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TELL, SAY, ADD, ADMIT, COMMENT, POINT OUT, COMPLAIN, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EXPLAIN, INSIST, MENTION, PROMISE, DENY, DECLARE, WARN, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>REFUSE, AGREE, REMIND </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbs used for reporting suggestions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SUGGEST, INVITE, OFFER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbs used for reporting questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASK, WANT TO KNOW, WONDER, ENQUIRE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbs used for reporting commands and requests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TELL, ASK, ORDER (to do something) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbs used for reporting advice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ADVISE, RECOMMEND </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. THE END <ul><ul><li>www.presentationmagazine.com </li></ul></ul>

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