Reported Speech

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Reported Speech

  1. 1. REPORTED SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH AND REPORTED QUESTIONS
  2. 2. 1. CHANGE OF TENSES <ul><li>When we report someone’s words afterwards, the verb forms often move into the past. </li></ul>
  3. 3. DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH <ul><li>Present simple </li></ul><ul><li>‘ I want to get away.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Past simple </li></ul><ul><li>‘ ... he wanted to get away.’ </li></ul>
  4. 4. DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH <ul><li>Past simple </li></ul><ul><li>‘ I had an awful time last year.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Past perfect </li></ul><ul><li>‘ ... he had had an awful time the year before.’ </li></ul>
  5. 5. DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH <ul><li>Present continuous </li></ul><ul><li>‘ I’m leaving tomorrow.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Past continuous </li></ul><ul><li>‘ ... he was leaving tomorrow.’ </li></ul>
  6. 6. DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH <ul><li>Past continuous </li></ul><ul><li>‘ I was reading a book.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Past perfect continuous or past continuous </li></ul><ul><li>‘ ... he had been reading a book.’ </li></ul>
  7. 7. DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH <ul><li>Present perfect </li></ul><ul><li>‘ I’ve found a new job in Canada.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Past perfect </li></ul><ul><li>‘ ... he had found a new job in Canada.’ </li></ul>
  8. 8. DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH <ul><li>Present perfect continuous </li></ul><ul><li>‘ I have been typing letters.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Past perfect continuous </li></ul><ul><li>‘ ...he had been typing letters.’ </li></ul>
  9. 9. DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH <ul><li>Will / won’t </li></ul><ul><li>‘ I’ll write to you when I get there.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Would / wouldn’t </li></ul><ul><li>‘ ... he would write to me when he got there.’ </li></ul>
  10. 10. DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH <ul><li>Imperative </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Tidy your room.’ </li></ul><ul><li>To + infinitive </li></ul><ul><li>‘ ... to tidy my room.’ </li></ul>
  11. 11. DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH <ul><li>Can /can’t </li></ul><ul><li>‘ I can’t come tonight.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Could /couldn’t </li></ul><ul><li>‘ ... he couldn’t come that night.’ </li></ul>
  12. 12. DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH <ul><li>May /may not </li></ul><ul><li>‘ I may be late.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Might / might not </li></ul><ul><li>‘ ... he might be late.’ </li></ul>
  13. 13. DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH <ul><li>MUST / MUSTN’T </li></ul><ul><li>‘ I must go.’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ You mustn’t touch it.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Had to /Mustn’t </li></ul><ul><li>‘ ... he had to go.’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ ... I mustn’t touch it.’ </li></ul>
  14. 14. Past modal verbs don’t normally change in reported speech : would, could, might, ought to, should.
  15. 15. DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH <ul><li>Am/are/is + going to </li></ul><ul><li>‘ I’m going to start a new life.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Was/were + going to </li></ul><ul><li>‘ ... he was going to start a new life.’ </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>If what a person said is still relevant, it is not necessary to change tenses or time references. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. I’ve booked the table for Friday night. </li></ul><ul><li>She said she’s booked the table for Friday night. </li></ul>
  17. 17. PRONOUNS <ul><li>The change in pronouns will depend on the person being referred to in the indirect speech . </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. ‘I gave you my notebook .’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ She said she had given him her notebook.’ </li></ul>
  18. 18. TIME REFERENCES <ul><li>If you report what someone said on a different day, some words can change. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Now – then today – that day </li></ul><ul><li>yesterday- the previous day </li></ul><ul><li>tomorrow - the next day </li></ul><ul><li> next week/month – the next/following week </li></ul><ul><li>last week/month – the previous week </li></ul><ul><li>a week ago – the week before </li></ul>
  19. 19. DEMONSTRATIVES <ul><li>If you report what someone said in a different place, some words can change. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Here there </li></ul><ul><li> this that </li></ul><ul><li>these those </li></ul>
  20. 20. 2. REPORTED SPEECH STRUCTURES <ul><li>STATEMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting verbs: said, told... </li></ul><ul><li>‘ I have something to show you’ I said to her. </li></ul><ul><li>I told her I had something to show her. </li></ul>
  21. 21. B) QUESTIONS Reporting verbs: asked, wanted to know... Reported questions are not real questions, so the word order is the same as in a normal statement. e. g. Can you come early tomorrow? She asked if I can come early tomorrow. e.g. Did you see anything suspicious? He wanted to know if I had seen anything suspicious.
  22. 22. There are two types of questions: <ul><li>Wh-questions </li></ul><ul><li>‘ What do you want?’ </li></ul><ul><li>He asked me what I wanted. </li></ul><ul><li>No-wh-questions </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Do you like Pepsi?’ </li></ul><ul><li>He asked her if she liked Pepsi. </li></ul>
  23. 23. C) COMMANDS Reporting verbs: told, ordered... ‘ Stand up.’ He told me to stand up. ‘ Don’t do that.’ Pam ordered her son not to do that.
  24. 24. 3. PRACTICE <ul><li>A reporter is going to ask questions to American people about the world around them. Try to write down the nine questions he asks. </li></ul>
  25. 25. 2. Work in groups and check your answers. 3. Watch the video again.
  26. 26. <ul><li>4. Correction. </li></ul><ul><li>Name a country that begins with U. </li></ul><ul><li>Who is in the ‘Coalition of Willing’? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the religion of Israel? </li></ul><ul><li>What religion are Buddhist Monks? </li></ul><ul><li>Who won the Vietnam war? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is Fidel Castro? </li></ul><ul><li>How many sides does a triangle have? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the currency used in the UK? </li></ul><ul><li>Name a country that begins with U. </li></ul>
  27. 27. 5. Reported speech. Rewrite the questions you have into the reported speech structure.
  28. 28. <ul><li>6. Correction. </li></ul><ul><li>He told them to name a country that began with U. </li></ul><ul><li>He asked them who was in the ‘Coalition of Willing’. </li></ul><ul><li>He asked them what the religion of Israel was. </li></ul><ul><li>He asked them what religion were Buddhist Monks. </li></ul><ul><li>He asked them who had won the Vietnam war. </li></ul><ul><li>He asked them who Fidel Castro was. </li></ul><ul><li>He asked them how many sides a triangle had. </li></ul><ul><li>He asked them what was the currency used in the UK. </li></ul><ul><li>He told them to name a country that began with U. </li></ul>

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