Conceptual framework

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Conceptual Framework of ACC Education program

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  • This will be a PowerPoint presentation of the Conceptual Framework of the Department of Early Childhood Education.
  • I would like to begin by explaining what a conceptual framework is.
  • A conceptual framework is composed of the mission, beliefs, philosophy, and knowledge bases of the unit in question, which in this case is the Early Childhood Education Program.
  • This presentation of our conceptual framework will have two main sections: the process of building the framework and the components of the framework.
  • So let us begin with the process.
  • In composing our conceptual framework, we began with three significant tools - our college’s mission and objectives, our department’s mission and objectives, and the State Institutional Report from the Professional Standards Commission.
  • Atlanta Christian College’s mission statement is as follows: (read it)
  • To give you a complete perspective of this process, I would like to give a brief background of the history leading up to this process.
  • The college opened in 1928 on the current site. However, the Depression in 1929 became a major threat financially, and the college suspended operations from 1930 to 1937, when it reopened with 6 students and 2 faculty members.
  • The main focus of the college was to train gospel preachers and Sunday school teachers, but visionary leaders in the 1970s decided to offer a degree program in Christian education. Several of the graduates went on to complete graduate course work at other institutions in order to receive Georgia teacher certification.
  • IN 1981, the Board of Trustees approved the addition of a Teacher Education Program to the curriculum of ACC. Because the college was not yet accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, or SACS, graduates of the program had the option of taking an additional 15 hours of graduate level courses from SACS-accredited West Georgia College in order to validate their degrees.
  • IN 1990, ACC received SACS accreditation, and Teacher Education graduates were eligible for Georgia teacher certification upon graduation. Unfortunately, certification laws were changed just 2 years later. Now students had to complete their work at an institution accredited by the Professional Standards Commission - or PSC - in order to be certified to teach.
  • That same year, ACC employed a consultant to guide the PSC teacher accreditation process. Once again a collaborative agreement with West Georgia College was established to insure teacher certification for ACC graduates. We completed the initial PSC accreditation process in 1994. However, accreditation was not granted. IN 1997, the decision was made to simultaneously apply for accreditation with the PSC and with the National Council of Accreditation for Teacher Education, or NCATE. A new agreement was formulated with Morris Brown College, which received accreditation from both agencies in 1998.
  • As a result of the collaborative agreement with Morris Brown College, both institutions benefited through such activities as professional exchanges, cultural exchanges, a shared Christian foundation, joint activities between students and faculty, coordinated lab supervision, and seminars held jointly.
  • The mammoth work that goes into the preparation for accreditation involves not only the Early Childhood Education department, but a large team of people.
  • Read
  • The Teacher Education Advisory Council is a body of about 10 individuals, including representatives from faculty and staff, practicing professionals from other colleges and schools, and former and present ACC students, brought together for the purpose of providing evaluation and feedback that will help to keep our program current and up to date.
  • It is only through the efforts of all of these participants that accreditation is possible.
  • Now I would like to describe for you the components of our conceptual framework.
  • Our mission statement is very concise: read Our departmental mission statement relates well to the college’s mission statement, which emphasizes equipping men and women for service in the church and society. Effective Teachers as Mentors will be well-prepared to serve others.
  • IN more detail, an effective teacher as mentor….read
  • Our delivery model is represented by this symbol, which depicts the areas of coursework which all early childhood majors complete.
  • In Biblical Studies, students must demonstrate (read)
  • In General Content Studies, students must demonstrate knowledge of (read)
  • And in Professional Studies, students must demonstrate knowledge of (read)...
  • The circle shows how the elements of the ECE program are intertwined and continuous, with mentoring depicted as a central theme throughout the student’s career at ACC. The phrases bordering the model emphasize the type of professional the program is designed to produce - an effective teacher as mentor who is Christ-centered and service-focused.
  • The Professional Studies are supported by two central concepts that I would like to explain further to you, the concept of mentoring and that of effective teaching practices.
  • First I would like to describe the importance of mentoring, not only in the Early Childhood Education Program, but also here at Atlanta Christian College on the whole.
  • A 1986 report from the Carnegie Corporation envisioned teachers who would be mentors to their students as opposed to dispensers of facts. As mentors, teachers would serve a s collaborators for students in their search for knowledge and development of interpersonal skills.
  • Mentoring has received national attention, evidenced by a statement made by Attorney General Janet Reno in April of this year…..(read).
  • In Homer’s epic poem, The Odyssey, Odysseus entrusted the education of his son to his loyal friend named Mentor, which is where the term mentor first appeared.
  • Mentoring has been used by great teachers throughout the ages. Socrates, Plato and Aristotle were mentors to their students..
  • Christ used the mentor model in working with the disciples. One of Christ’s apostles, Peter, reminds us in 1 Peter 5…(read).
  • You may wonder why we included mentoring as a foundational piece in our program, or even what a mentor is or how a person mentors.
  • Probably first and foremost, the effective teacher as mentor recognizes that imitation is one of the primary modes by which children learn, thus ECE students will be trained to be models after whom students may pattern themselves.
  • Defining the process of mentoring is difficult. It is hard to define but easy to recognize. It is an all-inclusive relationship that extends beyond the protégé’s career and into his or her personal life. There is no magic formula for mentoring. It is unrealistic to expect a perfect definition. Perhaps it can be described as an example of gift-giving, with the greatest gift the mentor offers being a new and whole way of seeing things. The protégé benefits from the guidance of the mentor and attributes successes in life to the influence of the mentor.
  • Here at ACC, because of our Christian beliefs and values, all faculty members display qualities of mentoring to our college students, and in turn, it is hoped that those students who will be teachers will also be mentors to the students they teach.
  • In a letter welcoming students to Atlanta Christian College, President Groover states the philosophy of mentoring well…. ….(read)
  • IN our daily and weekly interactions with students, we have many opportunities to display the qualities of mentors, not only as teachers, but also in the many roles listed here, including the bonding relationships formed between the faculty and students.
  • There are 2 types of mentoring - planned mentoring and natural mentoring. Planned mentoring occurs through structured programs in which mentors and participants are selected and matched through formal processes, and the main purpose is to provide career mentoring. The mentoring associated with the ECE program at Atlanta Christian College falls into the natural mentoring type, in which mentoring occurs through modeling, collegiality, teaching, coaching, and counseling, encompassing career mentoring and personal mentoring, as well as educational mentoring.
  • Mentoring is a concept that links will with the principles of Christianity. According to the Mentoring Leadership and Resource Network, a disposition of caring is the core of the mentor teacher relationship. One cannot easily learn how to care as a teacher without having been cared for by one’s own teachers.
  • In training our students how to be Effective Teachers as Mentors, it is our intent to help them to develop the character, personality, intelligence, skills and attitudes of many, if not all, of the mentor roles listed here.
  • Mentoring is a modeling of standards and behaviors that are intentional, supportive, insightful, and nurturing.
  • We have developed an acronym to help us remember these four descriptors.
  • Mentoring I-S-I-N.
  • Mentoring is in!
  • The other central concept of the ECE Program besides mentoring is Effective Teaching Practices.
  • The ECE Program relies in part on the work conducted in Georgia toward the development of the Teacher Performance Assessment Instrument, The Georgia Teacher Evaluation Program, and well-documented research and writings from Madeline Hunter, Jean Piaget, and Lev Vygotsky, among others.
  • Teaching is both a science and an art, and the effective teacher can be described as a finely trained technician…..read.
  • It is useful to think of teaching as similar to, not one, but several other professions. As a manager, the effective teacher knows how to organize classroom environments and groups of students. In the area of human relations, the effective teacher must build strong lines of communication with children and colleagues. Effective teachers understand the theatrical aspects of teaching when planning creative and engaging activities that keep children happily involved in the learning process.
  • The effective teaching research has resulted in a great deal of information about the effects of the learning environment on student achievement, such as Hunter’s description of levels of difficulty and levels of concern. She told us that if a task is either too difficult or too easy, we will have little motivation to continue. Likewise, a level of concern either too high or too low will interfere with efficient learning. As part of the Georgia Teacher Evaluation Program, principals observe teachers and their classroom setups for appropriate levels of difficulty and concern.
  • From the writings of Lev Vygotsky, the effective teacher also knows how to provide support or scaffolding during the instructional process and when to remove the scaffolds in order to allow learners to become confident in their own learning to operate independently of the teacher’s support. Each student has a zone of proximal development, which is the gap between what the child can do alone and what he or she can do with the assistance of a more experienced peer or tutor.
  • Effective teachers also need time to reflect on their practice. ECE students are asked to maintain journals and portfolios which they use, through the guidance of faculty and classroom teachers, to understand their own strengths and weaknesses and sharpen their skills in problem solving.
  • There are many examples of Jesus’ use of effective teaching practices, such as when he used comparison in comparing the kingdom of God to a mustard seed, or when he used the real-life example of the poor widow who gave abundantly in her poverty, an incident demonstrating great stewardship
  • An important component of effective teaching practices is the contemporary educational theory of constructivism, which is a belief that knowledge is created or constructed by active efforts to make meaning and by individuals’ interactions with other people and with things in order to do so. The philosophy of constructivism emerged in the 20th century, and is subject to a variety of interpretations. Our program ascribes to constructivism as it applies to how people learn and, therefore, how we can best teach.
  • Constructivism as a theory of knowledge and learning utilizes three basic principles: read
  • The constructivist approach makes explicit that different individuals, depending on their experiences, knowledge, and their cognitive structure, will understand a given presentation differently. Research shows that people remember an experience based on what their pre-existing knowledge and cognitive structures allow them to absorb. These ideas were made popular in the 60sand 70s by Jean Piaget. AS an example, suppose the parts of this symbol represent the information presented by a teacher.
  • According to constructivist theory, some students may only have a foundation to absorb and retain a portion of the information,
  • While others may have the prior knowledge for the retention of an entirely different portion of the information.
  • Still others may assimilate the entirety of the information, but in a distinctly different format than that intended by the teacher, simply because of the cognitive structures they possess.
  • Still others may process the information in yet another format. In constructivism, the learner is the creator of his own knowledge. It is incumbent on the effective teacher to realize that the teaching task goes beyond merely presenting the information. He or she must also assist the student in finding the prior knowledge upon which he may construct meaning from the new information that is presented.
  • Because of these many valued interactions, constructivism involves a variety of words which just happen to begin with the letter “c.” For example, a constructivist teacher would encourage students to work together in order to build a bank of ideas, as well as to assist one another in the learning process. A constructivist classroom would offer many opportunities for creativity, allowing students to explore their full capacity for developing and constructing. The constructivist student is in a continuous process of growth and change.
  • The graphic representation of our conceptual framework is once again depicted by a circle to show the natural and logical connection between the concepts in the framework. We can followaround the model, beginning with *effective teaching. In training effective teachers, we use *constructivism as a model of learning. Constructivists recognize the individual nature of learning, which leads easily to the values of *mentoring and working closely with students. And the caring backdrop of mentoring links naturally with the ideals of *Christianity. Finally, the serving aspect of Christianity leads back to the *effective teacher as a role model and leader for young children. *change slide
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  • With the final additions of “Effective Teachers as Mentors” and “Christ as a role model,” as well as the mentoring image in the center of the circle, the model is complete.
  • Demonstrating the principles of constructivism, students in the ECE program build on previous knowledge as they progress from Biblical and General knowledge, to the core concepts in Professional Knowledge, having opportunities to apply those teaching skills in a variety of laboratory experiences, and finally culminating in the student teaching experience.
  • The mission, philosophy, and objectives of the program convey the expectation that the emerging teachers will experience an organized sequence of instruction that is designed to accommodate their development of Biblical knowledge, general content, and professional knowledge. The conceptual framework provides us with a way of thinking abut how we can best move our students from consumers of knowledge to Effective Teachers as Mentors.
  • Thank you
  • Conceptual framework

    1. 2. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK of the Department of Early Childhood Education ATLANTA CHRISTIAN COLLEGE
    2. 3. What is a conceptual framework?
    3. 4. What is a conceptual framework? <ul><li>Mission </li></ul><ul><li>Beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Bases </li></ul>
    4. 5. <ul><li>Process of building the conceptual framework </li></ul><ul><li>Components of the conceptual framework </li></ul>
    5. 6. Part I: Process of Building CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
    6. 7. TOOLS Atlanta Christian College Mission and Objectives ACC Teacher Education Mission and Objectives State Institutional Report from PSC for Atlanta Christian College
    7. 8. MISSION STATEMENT: Atlanta Christian College exists to provide education in biblical and theological studies, the arts and sciences and professional studies to equip men and women for service in the church and society. GOALS: Atlanta Christian College believes that the goal of education is the development of whole persons. The curriculum and learning environment are designed to encourage students to grow spiritually, intellectually, socially, physically and professionally.
    8. 9. History of the Department of Education at Atlanta Christian College
    9. 10. 1920s and 1930s <ul><li>Opened in 1928 </li></ul><ul><li>Depression in 1929 </li></ul><ul><li>Closed in 1930 </li></ul><ul><li>Reopened in 1937 with 6 students and 2 faculty </li></ul>A.C.C.
    10. 11. 1970s <ul><li>Already training preachers and Sunday school teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Added degree in Christian Education </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher certification at other institutions </li></ul>
    11. 12. 1980s <ul><li>Board of Trustees approved addition of Teacher Education Program </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative arrangement established with West Georgia College </li></ul>
    12. 13. 1990 ACCREDITATION!! 1992 Certification laws changed
    13. 14. Professional Standards Commission Accreditation Process <ul><li>1992 - Dr. Wilton Key employed </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration with West Georgia College </li></ul><ul><li>1994 - Accreditation not granted </li></ul><ul><li>1997 - Decision to apply simultaneously for NCATE and PSC accreditation </li></ul><ul><li>Agreement with Morris Brown College </li></ul>
    14. 15. Professional exchange Cultural exchange Christian-based Joint activities Lab supervision Seminars
    15. 16. TEAM EFFORT
    16. 17. Dr. William L. Russell Ms. Sally Stempinski Dr. Lacey Southerland ECE Dept. Chair ECE Professor ECE Asst. Professor
    17. 18. Dr. William L. Russell Ms. Sally Stempinski Dr. Lacey Southerland ECE Dept. Chair ECE Professor ECE Asst. Professor Dr. Ruth Pace Dr. Linda Adams Morris Brown College
    18. 19. Dr. William L. Russell Ms. Sally Stempinski Dr. Lacey Southerland ECE Dept. Chair ECE Professor ECE Asst. Professor Dr. Ruth Pace Dr. Fran Watkins Representative Dr. Linda Adams Dr. Bob Driscoll National Council for Morris Brown College Professional Standards Accreditation of Commission Teacher Education
    19. 20. Dr. William L. Russell Ms. Sally Stempinski Dr. Lacey Southerland ECE Dept. Chair ECE Professor ECE Asst. Professor Dr. Ruth Pace Dr. Fran Watkins Representative Dr. Linda Adams Dr. Bob Driscoll National Council for Morris Brown College Professional Standards Accreditation of Commission Teacher Education Ms. Barbara Bain ECE Admin. Asst.
    20. 21. Dr. William L. Russell Ms. Sally Stempinski Dr. Lacey Southerland ECE Dept. Chair ECE Professor ECE Asst. Professor Dr. Ruth Pace Dr. Fran Watkins Representative Dr. Linda Adams Dr. Bob Driscoll National Council for Morris Brown College Professional Standards Accreditation of Commission Teacher Education Ms. Barbara Bain Dr. R. Edwin Groover Dr. Dennis Glenn ECE Admin. Asst. A.C.C. President VP Academic Affairs
    21. 22. Dr. William L. Russell Ms. Sally Stempinski Dr. Lacey Southerland ECE Dept. Chair ECE Professor ECE Asst. Professor Dr. Ruth Pace Dr. Fran Watkins Representative Dr. Linda Adams Dr. Bob Driscoll National Council for Morris Brown College Professional Standards Accreditation of Commission Teacher Education Ms. Barbara Bain Dr. R. Edwin Groover Dr. Dennis Glenn ECE Admin. Asst. A.C.C. President VP Academic Affairs A.C.C. A.C.C. Trustees Faculty & Staff
    22. 23. Dr. William L. Russell Ms. Sally Stempinski Dr. Lacey Southerland ECE Dept. Chair ECE Professor ECE Asst. Professor Dr. Ruth Pace Dr. Fran Watkins Representative Dr. Linda Adams Dr. Bob Driscoll National Council for Morris Brown College Professional Standards Accreditation of Commission Teacher Education Ms. Barbara Bain Dr. R. Edwin Groover Dr. Dennis Glenn ECE Admin. Asst. A.C.C. President VP Academic Affairs A.C.C. A.C.C. Teacher Education Trustees Faculty & Staff Advisory Council (T.E.A.C.)
    23. 24. Dr. William L. Russell Ms. Sally Stempinski Dr. Lacey Southerland ECE Dept. Chair ECE Professor ECE Asst. Professor Dr. Ruth Pace Dr. Fran Watkins Representative Dr. Linda Adams Dr. Bob Driscoll National Council for Morris Brown College Professional Standards Accreditation of Commission Teacher Education Ms. Barbara Bain Dr. R. Edwin Groover Dr. Dennis Glenn ECE Admin. Asst. A.C.C. President VP Academic Affairs A.C.C. A.C.C. Teacher Education Trustees Faculty & Staff Advisory Council (T.E.A.C.) GO TEAM!!
    24. 25. Part II: Components CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
    25. 26. TEACHER EDUCATION MISSION STATEMENT <ul><li>The purpose of the Early Childhood Teacher Education program at Atlanta Christian College is to equip “Effective Teachers as Mentors.” </li></ul>
    26. 27. TEACHER EDUCATION MISSION STATEMENT <ul><li>An Effective Teacher as Mentor is one who nurtures each child and fulfills the responsibilities of providing developmentally appropriate learning experiences to meet the needs, capabilities and interests of children in pre-kindergarten through grade five. </li></ul>
    27. 28. TEACHER EDUCATION MISSION STATEMENT <ul><li>The Effective Teacher as Mentor also recognizes and respects individual differences, </li></ul>
    28. 29. TEACHER EDUCATION MISSION STATEMENT <ul><li>emphasizes the acquisition of essential skills, concepts and knowledge, </li></ul>
    29. 30. TEACHER EDUCATION MISSION STATEMENT <ul><li>and emphasizes the development of critical thinking, ethical and lawful social behavior and responsible citizenship. </li></ul>
    30. 31. * Mentoring logo used by permission from the Big Brothers & Big Sisters Organization
    31. 32. <ul><li>Biblical knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Christian behaviors & principles </li></ul><ul><li>positive interpersonal relationships </li></ul>
    32. 33. <ul><li>language skills </li></ul><ul><li>computation skills </li></ul><ul><li>social sciences </li></ul><ul><li>problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>decision making </li></ul>
    33. 34. <ul><li>basic ECE curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>professional pedagogy </li></ul><ul><li>appropriate instructional </li></ul><ul><li>planning </li></ul><ul><li>classroom management skills </li></ul><ul><li>mentoring </li></ul><ul><li>professionalism </li></ul>
    34. 35. * Mentoring logo used by permission from the Big Brothers & Big Sisters Organization
    35. 36. TWO CENTRAL CONCEPTS <ul><li>MENTORING </li></ul><ul><li>EFFECTIVE TEACHING PRACTICES </li></ul>
    36. 37. Mentoring
    37. 38. ..teachers who would be mentors to their students as opposed to dispensers of facts…. ..serve as collaborators for students in their search for knowledge.. Carnegie Corporation, 1986
    38. 39. <ul><li>“ Every child who has a mentor has a better chance at absorbing mainstream values; learning about how to live a responsible life and staying on the right path. Quite simply, mentoring is one of the most promising solutions available and it can help prevent the crimes of tomorrow. It’s not only service, it’s not only good citizenship, it also gives you some friends for life.” </li></ul>Attorney General Janet Reno
    39. 40. Well-known examples: <ul><li>Odysseus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>entrusted his son to Mentor </li></ul></ul>
    40. 41. Well-known examples: <ul><li>Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mentors to their students </li></ul></ul>
    41. 42. <ul><li>Christ </li></ul><ul><li>mentor to the disciples </li></ul>“ Be shepherds of God’s flock that is under your care, serving as overseers - not because you must, but because you are willing , as God wants you to be; not greedy for money, but eager to serve; not lording it over those entrusted to you, but being examples of the flock.” 1 Peter 5: 2, 3
    42. 43. <ul><li>WHY INCLUDE MENTORING? </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT IS A MENTOR? </li></ul><ul><li>HOW DOES ONE MENTOR? </li></ul>
    43. 44. Imitation
    44. 46. HOW?
    45. 47. A.C.C. President Dr. R. Edwin Groover “ Those who teach and serve here in other ways regard their work as ministry, not just a job. Students know professors and fellow students by name. People matter on this campus.”
    46. 48. Disciple Group Leaders Advisors Role models Friends A.C.C. Faculty members are... Counselors Teachers Coaches
    47. 49. Mentoring - planned or natural? <ul><li>Structured program </li></ul><ul><li>Assigned mentor </li></ul><ul><li>Formal process </li></ul><ul><li>Career </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Collegiality </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching </li></ul><ul><li>Counseling </li></ul><ul><li>Career, personal and educational </li></ul>
    48. 50. Mentoring and Christianity <ul><li>A disposition of caring is the core of the mentor teacher relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>The Mentoring Leadership & Resource Network, 1998 </li></ul>
    49. 51. Collaborators Positive Role Models Inspirational Guides Supporters Developers of Talent Advisors Protectors Mentoring Goals for ECE Graduates
    50. 52. MENTORING <ul><li>INTENTIONAL </li></ul><ul><li>SUPPORTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>INSIGHTFUL </li></ul><ul><li>NURTURING </li></ul>Anderson & Shannon, 1988
    51. 53. MENTORING <ul><li>I NTENTIONAL </li></ul><ul><li>S UPPORTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>I NSIGHTFUL </li></ul><ul><li>N URTURING </li></ul>
    52. 54. MENTORING <ul><li>I </li></ul><ul><li>S </li></ul><ul><li>I </li></ul><ul><li>N </li></ul>
    53. 55. MENTORING <ul><li>IS </li></ul><ul><li>IN </li></ul>!
    54. 56. Effective Teaching Practices
    55. 57. EFFECTIVE TEACHING PRACTICES <ul><li>Teacher Performance Assessment Instrument </li></ul><ul><li>Georgia Teacher Evaluation Program </li></ul><ul><li>Research and writings by Hunter, Piaget, Vygotsky and others </li></ul>
    56. 58. The effective teacher is a finely trained technician who not only knows the subject matter, but understands the meaning and significance of it and how it fits into the lives of students. The effective teacher is a master of teaching techniques who understands testing, the principles of psychology and the laws of growth and development.
    57. 59. Teaching Business management Human relations Theater arts Danielson, 1996
    58. 60. Madeline Hunter
    59. 61. <ul><li>LEV VYGOTSKY </li></ul><ul><li>Provide scaffolds </li></ul><ul><li>Identify each student’s </li></ul><ul><li>“ zone of proximal development” </li></ul>
    60. 62. <ul><li>REFLECTION </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain journals and portfolios </li></ul><ul><li>Understand strengths and weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Sharpen problem-solving </li></ul>
    61. 63. Jesus as an Effective Teacher Using comparison Using real-life events
    62. 64. Constructivism - a belief that knowledge is created or “constructed” by active efforts to make meaning and by individuals’ interactions with other people and with things in order to do so.
    63. 65. Effective Teaching Principles of Constructivism <ul><li>All students can learn and succeed. </li></ul><ul><li>Success breeds success. </li></ul><ul><li>Schools and teachers control the conditions of success. </li></ul>
    64. 66. Constructivism: Different individuals - depending on their experience, knowledge and cognitive structure - will understand a given presentation differently.
    65. 71. ollaboration C ommunity reativity onversation hange CONSTRUCTIVISM INVOLVES….
    66. 72. * Mentoring logo used by permission from the Big Brothers & Big Sisters Organization
    67. 73. Effective Teaching
    68. 74. Constructivism
    69. 75. Mentoring
    70. 76. Christianity
    71. 77. Effective Teaching
    72. 78. * Mentoring logo used by permission from the Big Brothers & Big Sisters Organization
    73. 79. Biblical and General Knowledge Professional Knowledge Laboratory Experiences Student Teaching

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